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For this new edition of Ireland's Story, an additional 
chapter has been written which traces events in Ireland 
up to the end of 1922 - a period more critical and of 
greater import, perhaps, than any other of equal duration 
in the history of the island. The Irish Free State is 
proclaimed and acknowledged. Erin's longed-for dream 
has now the possibility of accomplishment. Will this 
restless, gifted people turn its new-found freedom to 
selfish self-destruction, or will it be the pioneer of peace 
in a new Europe which must be born unless the end of 
Western civilization has truly come? Some day there 
will be an answer and then another chapter may be 

For data supplied acknowledgment is gratefully made 
to Mr. V. St. Clair Mackenzie, of London, England, and 
to Professor Harry J. Carman, of Columbia University, 
New York City. 

Carita Spencer Daxeell 

January, 1923. 




"Ireland's Story" has been written not as a record 
of the dead past, but as a beacon for the living future. 
It is inspired by a belief in the Irish race, now spread 
far beyond its island home, through many lands, beneath 
many skies. The Irish race has a great part to play in 
the history of the future ; and present and future can 
be understood only by a knowledge of the past. 

The story of Ireland may be viewed in many ways. 
First, as a part of universal history : its ancient tradi- 
tions are rich and full of clues to the races of the early 
world ; its archaic treasures are abundant ; its old stone 
monuments wonderfully preserved. In illumining the 
shadowy dawn of early Europe, and especially of those 
northern lands whose children now lead the world, no 
country can aid us so much as Ireland. 

Then we must reckon Ireland's early heroic poems 
and tales, ampler than those of any European land, save 
only Greece and Italy, and giving us the truest and 
richest picture of the archaic life of Europe, still un- 
touched by Greece and Rome. The great personages 
of the Irish epics stand out as clear as the heroic figures 
who fought around Troy, or the inspired leaders of 
Attica and Sparta and the City of the Seven Hills. 

Next comes Ireland's part in the Drama of Faith. 
Ireland may well be called the new Ark of the Cove- 
nant ; for in the little western isle was stored up the 
treasure of the Gospel, brought thither first by Patrick. 



Preserved miraculously from the barbarian raids which 
swept away the Roman Empire and covered Europe 
with heathen conquerors, this treasure was presently 
brought forth and carried abroad, first to Great Britain, 
then to Belgium and France, Switzerland, Germany and 
Austria, Italy and Spain, and even to the twilight con- 
fines of Norway and Iceland. Beautiful illuminated 
manuscripts from Ireland rekindled the learning of 
Europe, after the barbarian conquest of the Goths and 
Vandals, Angles and Franks. 

From the following epochs of Ireland's story, there 
are many lessons to be learned, but the best of them is 
this : that in the life of nations there works a providen- 
tial destiny, not only in prosperity but in adversity, and 
perhaps most of all in adversity ; that in Ireland's life 
this Providence, working through conquest, oppression, 
and misery, has miraculously preserved the pure spirit 
of the race in its pristine unworldliness and faith, its 
belief in holiness and in the spiritual world ; and that 
this spirit so preserved, and now dispersed through 
many lands, is to-day one of the great treasures of 

Every reader of Irish race will find here a tale to 
make him proud of his parentage and his inheritance ; 
a tale of valor and endurance; a tale of genius and in- 
spiration ; a tale of self-sacrifice and faith. Such a one, 
thus looking back proudly to a worthy and noble past, 
may look forward with hope for the future, and with 
a sense of consecration for the spiritual destiny of the 
Irish race. 


New York, February i, 1905. 


























The Legendary Races, b. c. 2000? ■ . 

The Milesians, b. c. 1700 ?-b. c. iooo? . 
Legendary Story of Kmain of Maca. 
;o?-a. d. rn? 






Political Growth, a. d. 50-A. d. 266 .... 27 
King Cormac and Ossin. a. d. 254-293 ... 34 
Introduction of Christianity, a. d. 432 . . 41 
Fulfilment of Patrick's Mission, a. d. 432-525 47 
The Saints and Scholars, a. d. 500-795 ... 55 
The Raids of the Norsemen. 795-1014 ... 66 
The Missions to Foreign Lands. 500-1100. . 78 
From Norsemen to Normans. 1015-1169 . . S7 
The Coming of the Normans. 1169-1199 . . 96 
Consolidation of Nor: an Power. 1199-1318. 108 
Norman Raids to English Rule. 1318-1485 . 124 
Rise and Fall of the Geraldines. 1485-1537 139 
The Reformation, and Confiscation of Church 

Property. 1 534-1582 150 

Close of the Tudor Period. 1583-1603 . . . 164 
The Plantation of Ulster. 1603- 1 641 . . .178 

The Irish Rebellion. 1641-1649 189 

Cromwell and the Restoration. 1 649-1688 . 201 

The Jacobite Wars. 1688-1691 213 

Treaty of Limerick. 1690-1693 225 

The Penal Laws. 1 693-1 782 239 

Struggle between the English and Irish Par- 
liaments. 169S-1783 253 


XXV. The Irish Rebellion. 1798 269 

XXVI. Legislative Union with England. 1800-1801 283 
XXVII. Catholic Emancipation. 1801-1829 .... 293 
XXVIII. From Emancipation to the Famine. 1829- 

1847 303 

XXIX. The Fenians and Disestablishment. 1848- 

1869 313 

XXX. The Land Restored to the People. 1869- 

i9°3 324 

XXXI. The Irish on the Continent 339 

XXXII. The Irish in America 348 

XXXI I I. The Irish in the British Empire 360 

XXXIV. The Irish Literary Revival 370 

XXXV. Home Rule and the Irish Free State . . 380 

Appendix: Some Irish Surnames 408 

Index, and Guide to the Maps 419 



Glendalough. From a photograph Frontispiece 

Pyramid at Newgrange. From Fergusson's Rude Stone 

Monuments 4 

Plan of the Chamber in the Newgrange Pyramid. 

From Fergusson's Rude Stone Monuments 5 

Cromlech at Carrowmore 6 

Skeleton of the Great Irish Elk 12 

Loosely Twisted Torque of Gold 15 

Ancient Irish Bronze Cauldron. From Wilde's Cata- 
logue of Antiquities 16 

Ancient Irish Sword and Spear- head. From Wilde's 

Catalogue 23 

Plan of Tara, based on that in Wakeman's Handbook . 31 
The Hill of Tara. From a drawing by Wakeman in Hall's 

Ireland 35 

Spear-head. From Wilde's Catalogue 39 

Shrine of St. Patrick's Bell. From Stokes's Early Chris- 
tian Art in Ireland 48 

Bell of St. Patrick. From Stokes's Early Christian 

Architecture in Ireland 51 

High Cross of Monasterboice. From Stokes's Early 

Christian Art in Irela?id 55 

Ruins on Devenish Island. From a photograph . . . 57 
St. Kevin's House, Glendalough. From Petrie's Eccle- 
siastical Architecture in Ireland 59 

Ancient Danish Boat. From Engelhardt's Denmark in the 

Early Iron Age 67 

The Chalice of Ardagh. From Stokes's Early Christian 

Art in Ireland 68 

Castle at Waterford. From Hall's Ireland 71 

Danish Weapons. From Meyrick's Antient Armour . . 73 
Ancient Irish Harp, said to have belonged to Brian 

Boru. From Hall's Ireland 75 

Scribe at Work on the Book of Kildare. From Gil- 
bert's Facsimiles of the National Manuscripts of Ireland . 81 


Page from the Book of Kells. From Gilbert's Facsimiles 
of the National Manuscripts 85 

The Rock of Cashel. From a photograph 90 

Cormac's Crosier. From Petrie's Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tecture 91 

Cross of Cong. From Stokes's Early Christian Art in 
Ireland 93 

Norman Knight and Foot-Soldier. From Grose's Mili- 
tary Antiquities 99 

Dundrum Castle. From the Royal Historical and Archae- 
ological Society Journal for 1883-84 104 

Tower of London. From Bayley's Tower of London . .109 

King John's Castle, Limerick. From Dolby's Ireland . 119 

Holycross Abbey. From a photograph 121 

Relief of Henry IPs Army. From Gilbert's Facsimiles 
of the National Manuscripts 131 

Art MacMurrogh and the Duke of Gloucester. From 
Gilbert's Facsimiles of 'the National Manuscripts . . . .133 

Costume of the Native Irish of the Fifteenth 
Century. From the Kilkenny Historical Society Transac- 
tions, 1860-61 136 

Armorial Bearings of the Earls of Kildare. From 
Will's Irish Natio7i 143 

Armorial Bearings of the Earls of Ormond. From 
Will's Irish Natio7i 144 

Irish Knights and Attendants. From a drawing by 
Albrecht Diirer 147 

Shane O'Neill's Autograph. From the Ulster Journal of 
Archaeology, 1834. 155 

Irish Soldier of 1582. From Gilbert's Facsimiles of the 
National Manuscripts 156 

Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. From Will's Irish 
Nation 166 

Capture of Blackwater Fort in 1597. From Gilbert's 
Facsimiles of the National Manuscripts 167 

Siege of Dunboy. From the Pacata Hibernia 175 

James I. From Paul Van Somer's painting in the National 
Portrait Gallery 178 

Settlers' Houses in the Ulster Plantation. From 
Gilbert's Facsimiles of the National Manuscripts . . . .182 

The Earl of Stafford going to Execution. From 
a painting owned by the Duke of Sutherland 187 


Owen Roe O'Neill. From a portrait on wood reproduced 
in the Ulster Journal, /8j6 190 

Charlemont Fort. From Royal Historical and Archaeo- 
logical Society Journal, 1883-84 igi 

Carkickfergus Castle. From the Ulster Journal, 1893-96 195 

James Butler, Duke of Ormond. From Wright's His- 
tory of Ireland 198 

Limerick in Charles II's Time. From Kilkenny Trans- 
actio7is, 1864-66 205 

Cathedral at Londonderry. From Colby's Londo?iderry 216 

The Town House at Londonderry. From Colby's Lon- 
donderry 218 

William at the Battle of the Boyne. From Wright's 
History of Ireland 221 

Patrick Sarsfield. From an old engraving in Gilbert's 
Jacobite Narrative 226 

Richard Talbot, Earl and Duke of Tyrconnell. From 
the Ulster Jotirnal, 1837 229 

Castle of Athlone. From Hall's Ireland 231 

Limerick to-day. From a photograph 234 

James Butler, Second Duke of Ormond. From Wright's 
History of Ireland 242 

Jonathan Swift 256 

Henry Grattan. From a portrait reproduced in Roxby's 
Henry Grattan 258 

Henry Flood. From a miniature portrait in Original Letters 
to Henry Flood 259 

Edmund Burke. After Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait in 
Lodge's Gallery of Portraits 261 

Presbyterian Meeting-house at Dungannon. From 
an engraving in the Anthologia Hiber?iia 265 

Badge of the Down Volunteers 267 

Theobald Wolfe Tone. From the Autobiography of 
T. W. Tone 273 

William Pitt, the Younger. Drawn by Copley. From 
Lord Stanhope's Life of William Pitt 283 

Daniel O'Connell. From a portrait painted for the former 
Catholic Association in Wright's History of Ireland . . . 288 

Irish Parliament House, Dublin, in 1800. From Mc- 
Gregor's Picture of Dublin 289 

Richard Lalor Sheil. From Sketches of the Irish Bar . 298 


Maynooth College in 1821. From Warburton's Dublin . 303 
O'Connell Monument at Glasnevin. From a photo- 
graph 309 

Sir Robert Peel. From a painting by Sir Thomas 

Lawrence 313 

St. Patrick's Cathedral in 181 7. From Warburton's 

Dublin 3 21 

Charles Stewart Parnell. From a photograph . . . 325 
William Ewart Gladstone. From a photograph (1884) 

by John Moffat 3 2 7 

Arthur J. Balfour. From a photograph 331 

Marshal MacMahon on Horseback. From a photo- 
graph 34 2 

Anthony Wayne. From the National Portrait Gallery . . 350 

John Boyle O'Reilly. From a photograph 357 

Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington. From the 

painting by John Lucas in the National Gallery, Dublin . 361 
Frederick, Lord Roberts. From a photograph .... 363 
Oliver Goldsmith. From a painting in the National Por- 
trait Gallery 371 

Thomas Moore. From a painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence 374 

Note : — The illustrations from Gilbert's Facsimiles of 
the National Manuscripts and Margaret Stokes's Early 
Christian Art in Ireland are used by permission of the 
Controller of His Majesty's Stationery Offices, those from 
Fergusson's Rude Stone Monttments bv permission of 
Mr. John Murray. The publishers also wish to acknow- 
ledge the kindness of Messrs. McCaw, Stevenson & Orr, 
Ltd., George Bell & Sons, T. C. and E. C. Black, and 
others who have granted permission for the use of material. 



The Path of Ireland's Early Invaders i 

Pagan Ireland 29 

Places mentioned in Irish History, from the Intro- 
duction of Christianity to iioo 53 

Ireland, with some of the Ancient Earldoms and 
Dukedoms (full page) 113 

Places mentioned in Irish History during the Wars 
after 1582 169 

Political Divisions of Ireland, 1600-1900 (full page, 
colored) facing 180 

Europe with Places mentioned in connection with 
Irish History (full page) 247 




Traditional Date : b. c. 2000 


1. The coming of the De Dananns. In ancient times, 
along the shores of the Baltic Sea, there lived a race of 
tall and mighty warriors, called the De Dan an n ta d 
tribe. They had golden hair which hung down from the 
on their shoulders, blue eyes, and straight fea- 
tures like the Greeks. 
A band of these 
De Danann warriors, 
under Nuadat, their 
ruler, embarked in 
their long ships, to 
seek new lands. 

They sailed across 
the rough North Sea, 
around the capes and 
islands of Scotland, 
and then turned 
southward, till they 
came to the entrance 
of Lough Foyle. Be- 


fore them, to the 
south, were forests 

and mountains, and a river flowed to meet them, coming 

from among the hills. 

2 IRELAND'S STORY [b. c. 2000? 

Attracted by the pleasant appearance of this river, 
they sailed on, as far as their boats could carry them, 
and then, landing on the bank, they burned their ves- 
sels, determined to meet their destiny in this new home. 
Thus, when discovered by the inhabitants of the land, 
they were taken for magical beings who had dropped 
from the skies or risen out of the earth. 

2. Their reception by the Firbolgs. At this time, 
there were already two races in Ireland, the Firbolgs and 
Fomorians. They were both dark-haired races. The 
Fomorians were tall, and were great seamen and fish- 
ermen, living on the islands and on the western coast. 
The Firbolgs were a short race, like the Laplanders, 
and dwelt more inland. Their high chief was Eocaid, 
remembered as the last king of the Firbolgs. 

Eocaid was the first to get tidings of the arrival of 
the strangers. He gathered the Firbolg chiefs in coun- 

Themeet- c ^> anc ^ a ^ ter a l° n g debate it was decided that 
ingofSreng Sreng, the strongest among them, should go 

and Brsas. 

forth to learn what he could of the De Dananns. 
The De Dananns heard of his coming, and Breas, one 
of their mightiest warriors, was sent forth to meet him. 
Breas carried a long, slender spear, sharp-pointed, and 
made of golden bronze, while Sreng's spear was thick 
and heavy, of dull metal, with a broad end. Both war- 
riors had swords and shields. Breas, messenger of the 
De Dananns, spoke first, and said that, as the rivers were 
full of fish, and the forests full, of deer, the two peoples 
might live peaceably together without a contest. 

The Firbolgs were unwilling to agree to this plan, and 
declared for war. The De Dananns retreated westward 
to the land which lies between the lakes of Corrib and 
Mask, where Mayo and Galway now join. Here they en- 
camped on a commanding hill. Nuadat, the De Danann 


king, once more tried to come to a peaceful agreement 
with the Firbolgs, but the latter refused all terms. So 
the two hosts, the golden-haired and black- _ M 

9 & Battle of 

haired warriors, met at Mag Tured, " the plain southern 
of the rock pillars," and the fight lasted all ag UTe 
day long. The followers of Nuadat proved the stronger. 
The fighting continued beside the two lakes until there 
remained only three hundred Firbolg warriors, under 
Sreng as leader. Nuadat then offered terms to Sreng. 
The latter was to choose and rule one of the five divi- 
sions of Ireland, and the conquerors were to have the 
rest. Sreng chose the western province, which was later 
called Connaught. 

3. Contest with the Fomorians. As King Nuadat 
was seriously wounded, Breas was chosen to rule in his 
stead. The new ruler was half De Danann and half 
Fomorian. He finally became so tyrannous and over- 
bearing that the people could endure him no longer, and 
he was driven from the kingdom. He fled to his Fomo- 
rian kinsman, Balor of the Evil Eye, and persuaded him 
to attack the De Dananns. Nuadat, healed of his wound, 
was again in power. He prepared his army to 

meet the foe, and a hot battle was fought at Northern 
Northern Mag Tured between the two forces, 
which fcnded in the complete defeat of the Fomorians, 
and left the De Dananns undisputed masters of Ireland. 
In this battle the De Danann king, Nuadat, and many 
chieftains on both sides were slain. 

4. The legend of the Dagda's harp. In the second 
battle of Mag Tured the Fomorians carried off the harp of 
the Dagda, spiritual chief of the De Dananns. Some De 
Dananns pursued the Fomorians, seeking to recover it. 
The chiefs of the Fomorians, leaving the battlefield far 
behind, and thinking they had eluded their pursuers, 


[B. C. 2000? 

halted to refresh themselves and rest. They had gathered 
together for a banquet, hanging the captured harp on the 
wall, when the pursuing De Dananns burst in upon them. 
J^efore the Fomorians had even risen to their feet, the 
Dagda called to his liarp to come to him. The harp re- 
cognized its master's voice, says the legend, and came to 
him, leaping from the wall, killing nine men on the way. 
The harp set itself in the hands of its master, who played 
on it three wonderful strains. The first was the music of 
tears. When they heard it the women of the Fomori- 
ans wept. The second was the music of mirth. As the 
Dagda played it, the young men burst into laughter. 
Then he played the third strain, the music of dreams, and 
the children and the women and the warriors of the Fo- 
morians sank into sleep. So the pursuers safely returned 
to the De Danann camp. 

This most ancient tradition credits the De Dananns 

Part of the outer row of stones is to be seen in the foreground 

with bringing to Ireland the knowledge of music, one of 
the genuine magical arts, with the harp so celebrated 
through all Irish history. Thousands of the early harp 



melodies of Ireland have come down to us, some of them 
of very great antiquity, some connected by tradition with 
definite historic episodes, and many of them of extreme 
beauty and musical value. 

5. The civilization of the De Dananns. Numerous 
monuments have been accredited by tradition to the De 
Dananns, but the greatest and most worthy of notice are 

r » ■ » « ! *■ 1 '*" 


the three wonderful pyramids at Brugh on the Boyne, 
now called the mounds of Newgrange, Knowth, and 
Dowth. Here, in a fertile plain, once wooded, in a bend 
of the* river Boyne, ten miles from the sea, stand three 
great stone pyramids a mile apart, the ancient msh 
shrines and sacred places of the De Dananns. pyramids. 
The middle pyramid is the largest of the three. It is a 
mass of two hundred thousand tons of stone, surrounded 
by a wall of large boulders, with an outer circle of huge 
stones guarding it like so many giant sentinels. In the 
heart of this monument is a chamber formed like a cross, 
with a high roof, and mysterious tracings on the walls. 
This is the innermost shrine. 

In these tombs and sanctuaries we still find traces of 
the civilization of the De Dananns, and relics R9llcsof 
of their handicraft and skill, such as granite DeDanann 


basins, which have been called baptismal fonts, 
ornaments, beads, combs, and amber trinkets. The 


[B. C. 2000? 

shrines and what they contain enable us to identify the 
golden-haired invaders of ancient Ireland with the people 
of the Baltic lands. 

6. The stone circles and cromlechs. Even more 
wonderful than the huge stone pyramids accredited by 
tradition to the De Dananns is another class of monu- 
ments found all over Ireland. This class of monuments 
includes the great stone circles wrongly called Druidical 
Circles — since they are far older than the Druids — and 
the cromlechs or dolmens, which often stand in the centre 
of the stone circles. A cromlech always consists of a 
huge stone supported by several others, almost equally 


huge, which stand like the legs of a table, upholding 
the large upper block. These cromlechs are in a way 
the most awe-inspiring and mysterious monuments in the 
world. We find them all over the island, on the plains 
and in the mountains, huge silent relics, so old that even 


legends concerning them have vanished utterly. Thus at 
Carrowmore near Sligo there are more than sixty large 
stone circles, several of which have cromlechs Mystery 
within them ; and this is only one place among of the 

J . " cromlechs. 

many. The stones are all very massive, and 
are often twice the height of an ordinary man. In Glen 
Druid in the Dublin mountains is a cromlech whose gran- 
ite crown weighs seventy tons. The upper stone of the 
cromlech at Howth measures nearly twenty feet square, 
is eight feet thick, and weighs a hundred tons. It origi- 
nally rested on twelve rugged pillars, seven feet high. 
How this enormous block was put in place is still a mys- 
tery. Sometimes the stone blocks of the great circles 
stand edge to edge, forming a giant temple open to the 
sky, with a similar smaller ring inside, and an avenue of 
tall pillars forming an approach. Such an arrangement 
as this may be seen on the shore of Lough Gur in Lim- 
erick. Then there are spaced circles, groups of circles, 
and irregular groups of huge boulders. 

7. Who built the cromlechs? The growth of peat 
over certain of these stone circles shows that they were 
put in place several thousand years ago, long before the 
arrival of the De Dananns. They are, therefore, the work 
of some older race, such as the Firbolgs or Fomorians, 
whom the De Dananns found in Ireland on their arrival. 

The ancient Greeks and Romans describe a far-north- 
ern race, whom they called the Hyperboreans, who dwelt 
in caves, in the north of Europe, several thousand years 
ago. They were men of small stature, sallow complex- 
ion, and black hair, and everything goes to show that 
they are the same race which Irish tradition probably 
calls the Firbolgs. While this race is old enough jjy^e 1 " 
to have built the cromlechs, several considera- Firbolgs. 
tions keep us from believing that they did so. The 

8 IRELAND'S STORY [b. c. 2000? 

chief of these is that of locality. The cromlechs are 
found over a large area, and in many regions where there 
were no Firbolgs or Hyperboreans to build them. 

There is, however, another race, which is probably 
that called Fomorian by Irish tradition, whose distribu- 
te Fomo- ^ on comc ides exactly with that of the crom- 
riansor lechs and stone circles. The tribes of this tall, 


dark race seem to have had their centre of 
dispersion near Gibraltar, and to have spread in two 
directions. To the south, they overran the African coast 
as far as Algiers and Tunis, spreading thence to the 
islands of Sardinia, Malta, and Minorca, and landing on 
the southeast coast of Spain. To the north, they spread 
over Portugal and northern Spain, the west coast of 
France, especially Brittany, Ireland, the west coast of 
Britain, and the Atlantic border of Norway. As they 
seem to have come from Mount Atlas, and always kept 
close to the Atlantic, the tribes of this race have been 
called Atlanteans. It is interesting to note that crom- 
lechs and great stone circles, such as have been described 
in Ireland, are found scattered over the entire country, 
from Africa to Norway, at one time ruled and inhabited 
by the tall, dark Fomorians or Atlanteans. The crom- 
lechs are not found elsewhere, and remnants of this 
race are not found in countries where there are no crom- 
lechs. So all the conditions seem to be fulfilled, and we 
can with very great probability identify the Fomorians 
with the cromlech-builders. This strong and athletic 
race, full of the spirit of adventure, must have ruled for 
long centuries in a land of peace and plenty, engaged 
amongst other things in building temples and tombs con- 
taining blocks of stone so large that a thousand men 
could hardly lift them. Its rulers must have held great 
power to command such work. 

b. c. 2000?] THE LEGENDARY RACES 9 


'The golden-haired De Dananns came down from the Baltic 
Sea, landed at Lough Foyle, and, after burning their ships, 
proceeded inland. They came into contact with two dark- 
haired races who already inhabited Ireland. Two battles 
followed, at Southern Mag Tured against the Firbolgs, and 
at Northern Mag Tured against the Fomorians. In both bat- 
tles the De Dananns were victorious. 

To the De Dananns is attributed the building of the great 
pyramids along the Boyne. Relics of their art, which have 
been found in these pyramids, point to a high degree of civili- 

Other ancient monuments in Ireland are the cromlechs and 
great stone circles, probably built by the Fomorians. 



Traditional Pates: b. c. 1700-B. c. 1000 

8. Arrival of the Sons of Milid. The De Dananns 
established themselves in Ireland, and soon gained full 
sway over the island. For several centuries, they ruled 
in comparative quiet, and built their mighty pyramids. 
Then they were forced to yield, surrendering to later 
conquerors. The new invaders were the " Sons of Milid," 
who came, tradition tells us, from either Gaul or Spain, 
at a date probably more than three thousand years 
Gaelic ago. At that period, the race which we know 

invasion. as t ^ e Q au ] s held sway over the whole of Cen- 
tral Europe, from Austrian Galicia to Galicia on the 
west coast of Spain, both of which provinces still pre- 
serve the name of the Galli or Gauls. In Ireland, this 
race was called Gaedel, or Gael, and in all the vast area 
which it inhabited, whether on the continent or in Ire- 
land, this race had always the same character and form : 
tall, stalwart, inclined to stoutness, with brown or red 
hair and gray or hazel eyes, and with a complexion easily 
tanned by sun and wind. 

The ships of the Sons of Milid, says the legend, 
landed, after great difficulty, due to the De Danann ma- 
gical arts, on the strand of Kenmare Bay in Kerry. They 
routed the De Dananns, and pursued them northward, 
overtaking them at Tailten on the Black water, in what 
is now Meath. Here another battle was fought, at a 

B.C. i7oo?-B.c. iooo?] THE MILESIANS II 

place ten miles west of Tara, which assured the foothold 
of the Sons of Milid in the land of their adop- mv 

r They over- 

tion, and gave the death-blow to the suprem- come the De 
acy of the De Danann pyramid-builders. Thus 
the fourth of the ancient races came to Ireland. 

9. The Ireland of the Milesians. One can easily form 
an idea of the land in which these successive invaders 
made their home by picturing an island, oblong in shape, 
three hundred miles long and a hundred and seventy-five 
miles wide. The north and the south are mountainous, 
while the centre is a plain, whose waters are carried off 
by the Shannon and the Boyne. In the northern and 
southern mountain regions alike, the hills run from 
northeast to southwest. The highest are about three 
thousand feet, and nearly all are of rounded „ 

J t t Mountains, 

forms, with grass and heather to their summits, lakes, and 
In the days of the early races, these mountains, 
like the higher regions of the central plain, were covered 
with woods largely formed of oak-trees ; the rest of the 
plain was open grass-land, or marsh and bog. As much 
of the land was thus covered with woods, leaving little 
space for tillage, it was considered an act worthy of high 
praise to clear away the forest, and open up new land, 
and the names of many early chiefs are remembered in 
the Annals for work of this kind. Later, much of the 
forest was cut down for fuel, or to be used in smelting 
iron ore, so that at present the country is comparatively 
bare of trees. In the beginning, however, it was a land 
of forests, mountains, and lakes, very wild and very 

In the thickets of the forests and on the mountains, 
from times much more remote than those of 
the earlier traditional races, there were vast 
herds of wild cattle, deer of several kinds, and wild boars. 



[b. c. 

Largest among the deer were the giant Irish elks which 
continued to live and thrive for many thousand years, 
but disappeared in the days of the earliest races. These 

vast herds of deer and 
cattle were preyed on in 
times extremely remote 
by tigers and grizzly 
bears, but in later years 
these became extinct, and 
their worst enemies were 
wolves and wild dogs. 
On the rocky crags of 
the mountains golden 
eagles made their nests ; 
and white fish-hawks, or 
ospreys, hovered over the 
lakes in the great central 
plain and among the hills. 
The glades of the forest 
resounded with the songs of innumerable blackbirds and 
thrushes, and above the open meadows skylarks 
trilled up under the clouds. Myriads of smaller 
birds filled the forests with life among the glades carpeted 
in spring with yellow primroses, wood anemones, and 
dark blue hyacinths. The rivers, with the lakes which fed 
them, were full of fish, big silver salmon, speckled 
trout, and a score of others. Gray herons with 
long plumes, standing silent in the margin of the rivers, 
watched for the young fish ; and otters pursued the 
salmon through the deep pools and under the waterfalls. 
In the age of the great oak forests, Ireland was 
warmer than now. Through the long summer 
days of sunshine, the woods teemed with stir- 
ring life. Then with autumn and the shortening days 


The height to the tip of the antler is about 
twelve feet 




B. c. iooo?] THE MILESIANS 13 

the leaves began to wither on the oaks, hanging there 
brown and dry till midwinter, then falling in a russet 
carpet on the grass, where the wild boars gathered, seek- 
ing for the fallen acorns. The forests were bare then, 
but for the groves of holly and evergreen yew, and the 
pines and fir-trees upon the mountains. Little snow 
fell, and not twice in ten years did ice cover the drink- 
ing-pools of the deer among the hills. 

All around the coasts, with broad reaches of sand on 
the east and cliffs broken into long, rocky inlets on the 
west, the. gulls clamored incessantly, close to the edge of 
the tide, a line of gray wings beside the white fringe of 
the waters. Over the sea yellow-winged solan 
geese hovered and plunged among the shoals 
offish ; black cormorants swam hither and thither among 
the waves, ever and anon diving under the blue water, 
or standing, with wings outspread and shivering, on the 
ledges of the seaweed covered rocks. When the storms 
came up from the ocean, bringing darkness and rain upon 
the sea, the white gulls were driven inland to the homes 
of the ravens and the rooks. 

10. Life of the early races. Ireland thus richly en- 
dowed offered a hospitable refuge to all the races whose 
coming we have recorded. The deer and wild cattle of 
the forests, the salmon caught in the weirs, the trout 
in the mountain streams, the birds of the woods, the 
lakes, and the seashore gave ample food. The very ear- 
liest races lived in caves in the mountains ; later comers 
built round houses of pine or oak cut from the forests on 
the hills. When the inhabitants became more numerous, 
arjd feuds and quarrels arose among the different races 
and tribes, these houses were often surrounded 
with earthen ramparts, circular in form like the 
houses themselves. These ring-shaped earthworks, sur- 

14 IRELAND'S STORY [b. c. iooo? 

vivors of a remote past, are found everywhere in Ireland 
to-day, and are called forts, forraths, or raths. 

Even before the coming of the De Dananns, the Fo- 
morians and Firbolgs had made weapons and implements 
Earl of metal, using chiefly bronze, the material for 

weapons, which they obtained from the abundant copper 

clothes, . . . . 

andoma- ores in the mountains. I hey made clothes of 
ments - leather prepared from the skins of the deer 

they killed for food. They adorned themselves with 
necklaces of shells, of pebbles pierced like beads, and 
wore armlets or bracelets roughly made of copper, silver, 
or even gold. With the coming of the De Dananns 
came a new development of knowledge and skill, and a 
greater wealth of moral and mental life. They made 
The bronze- much more beautiful weapons, gracefully shaped 
De^Da- *** ^ke the weapon s of the ancient Greeks, and of 
nanns. a finer material, a golden bronze that even to- 
day shines like gold. It is probable that their skill in 
metal work influenced the art of the Sons of Milid who 
came after them. 

11. Early social life of the Milesians. But for all 
their skill and knowledge, the De Dananns seem to have 
been hunters only, ignorant of agriculture. It is only 
after the coming of the Sons of Milid, who brought their 
The agri- knowledge from Continental Europe, that we 
theSSe- h ear °f tne sowm g of grain and the weaving 
sians. f flax. Acorns, dried and ground up, were 

used instead of grain for bread, not only in early times, 
but far later. With the Milesians came a riper social 
life, such as seems only to be developed when the fierce 
social and P ur suit of wild game has given place to sowing 
artistic de- and reaping and the tending: of flocks. The 

velopment. r a o 

relics and treasures which have been found of 
recent years prove the truth of the stories which have 

B. C IOOO?] 



come down to us, of the wonderful art and high develop- 
ment which characterized the life and people of that dis- 
tinctively Irish period, beginning with the coming of the 
Milesians some three thousand years ago. The art of 
working gold was carried to a still higher degree of per- 
fection. The gold mines of Wicklow, along The Wlck _ 
the greater and lesser Avons, were one of the low gold 
sources from which the Milesians and De 
Dananns drew their supply. These mines were so rich 
that much gold is still found there, many thousand ounces 
having been obtained during the last century. We have 
an abundance of beautiful gold-work from those times, 
of unparalleled fineness of design and execution, proving 
that the Milesian goldsmith was not only an excellent 
artist, but a skilful and indefatigable workman. Modern 
productions in this art are often commonplace beside the 
delicate, refined, minute 
work of the early Irish 
period. Torques, or 
twisted ribbons of gold, 
of varying size and shape, 
were worn as diadems, 
collars, or even belts; 
crescent bands of finely 
embossed sheet gold were 
worn above the forehead ; 
brooches and pins, of the 
most delicate and imagi- 
native workmanship, were 
used to fasten the folds of 
the many-colored cloaks 
worn by the kings and chieftains and warriors. For the 
Milesians were skilled in the use of dyes. It is recorded 
that the first three colors used were blue, purple, and 

The original torque is 5^ inches in diameter 



[b. c. iooo? 




Rings and bracelets were 

green, and to these a rich red, a yellow, a pink, and cer- 
tain other colors were later added. The king 
had the right to wear garments of seven colors, 
the greater chiefs wore six, and so in a de- 
scending scale, where rank was shown by the number 
of hues in the dress. The tribal tartans of Scotland 
are a relic of this custom, 
worn. Everything, whether 
for ornament or use, was 
richly carved, and the forms 
of many of the domestic uten- 
sils, the earthen pots, the caul- 
drons of welded sheet bronze, 
the huge curved war-trum- 
pets, are graceful and artistic. 
12. The Brehon Laws. 
The Sons of Milid, who are 
the Gaels of Irish 


underlying history, brought 
with them from the 



Cauldrons are said to have been intro- 
duced into Ireland by the De Dananns 

continent a system of laws, called the Laws of the Bre- 
hons, from the Gaelic word brehon, "a judge." Their 
central principle is the unity of the family, as even to- 
day the father of a family has a certain legal and social 
unity of authority over his wife, children, and servants, 
the family, -phis authority is exactly balanced by the duty 
of providing for them and liability for their debts. At 
present the father's responsibility for his sons and his 
legal authority over them end when they come of age. 
In primitive Irish society this was not so. Union is 
strength, and to secure this strength the family remained 
united even after the sons came of age. 

Let us imagine the head of such a united family liv- 
ing to a great age, with great-grandchildren growing up 

b. c. iooo?] THE MILESIANS 17 

around him. Taking his sons and grandsons with their 
wives, children, and servants, he might easily be the head 
of a family numbering a hundred, or a hundred and fifty 
persons. Such a family would be strong enough to hold 
its own against attack, and, in fact, would be a small state 
under the authority of a patriarchal head or chief. All 
his sons and grandsons and their wives had the same sur- 
name, derived from the name of their father. 

13. The family grows into a tribe. On the death of 
the father of such an undivided family, it was necessary 
to choose a new head to exercise authority over the rest 
and be responsible for them. Where suitable, the eldest 
son was chosen, but if he was incompetent, or unable to 
make his authority felt, the general opinion of the family 
often passed him over in favor of a more worthy head. If 

we imagine the same family holding together 

b J & . The tribe, 

for several generations, and at each generation 

choosing its most worthy member as head, we have ex- 
actly the ancient Irish tribe. 

In the Irish families, it became the custom to assign 
to the chief, or head of the tribe, a definite share of the 
property of the tribe, in order that he might maintain a 
certain dignity and state as befitted his authority and re- 
presentative position. This "chief's portion" Division oi 
passed entire to the chiefs successor. On the property. 
other hand, the property of other members of the tribe 
was held in common, the right to enjoy it being divided 
equally among all their sons. Therefore, while the chief 
was as rich as his predecessor, or richer, the other mem- 
bers of the tribe tended to become continually poorer, 
through the perpetual subdivision of their property 
amongst all their sons. In this way a chasm gradually 
opened between the chief's family and the rest of the 
tribe, the chief growing in authority and wealth until the 

18 IRELAND'S STORY [b. c. iooo? 

distinction between the chief's family and the ordinary 
origin of freemen of the tribe amounted to a difference of 
classes. class. As there were great numbers of these 
tribal families in Ireland, their heads gradually formed a 
class by themselves, a hereditary nobility, distinct from 
the rest of the people. The " Rig," or king, of Irish his- 
Tne"Rig" tory is the head or chief of a powerful family 
or king. or g r0U p f families, and if we keep in mind the 
structure of such a family and the rivalries between differ- 
ent families, we shall understand the causes of the inces- 
sant struggles to be narrated in the chapters which follow. 

14. Wealth estimated in cattle. We have spoken of 
tihe property of the tribal family. This property consisted 
primarily of cattle. The herd of the chief naturally 
tended to increase, while the cattle of the other members 
of the tribe were perpetually subdivided amongst a num- 
ber of children, so that no member was likely to possess 
many head of cattle. Thus the nobles were always a 
wealthy class, and we find the Irish law tracts recognizing 
this when they say that " the head of every tribe should 
be the man of the tribe who is the most experienced, the 
most noble, the most wealthy, the most learned, the most 
truly popular, the most powerful to oppose, the most 
steadfast to sue for profits and be sued for losses." As 
in early days, when population was scanty, there was no 
scarcity of land, cattle were much more valuable than 
land ; and when the cattle of a tribe failed, through disease 
or bad seasons, the temptation to help themselves to the 
cattle of their neighbors was very strong. We find many 
of the early wars in all countries originating in cattle 
raids, and the finest epic in ancient Ireland is the story 
of a raid for a red bull. (See section 20.) 

15. Criminal law. The criminal law of the Brehons 
dealt with injuries to property and person, and one of its 

b. c. iooo?] THE MILESIANS 19 

most characteristic provisions was that injuries to the 
person, including wounding and homicide, were pun- 
ished by exacting fines to be paid in cattle by the tribe 
to which the offender belonged. The rate of fines for 
people of various ranks was accurately fixed so that there 
was a certain "eric," or fine in cattle, for caus- 

. , Eric. 

ing the death of a chief; a certain "eric" for 
causing the death of a chief's son, a freeman, and so on. 


The De Dananns were overthrown by a new race, the Mile- 
sians, who are supposed to have come from Gaul or Spain 
about 1000 b. c, and who were the fourth and last race to 
invade Ireland. They found a picturesque land of mountain 
and plain, thickly wooded, with some pastures, and great 
tracts of marsh. Numerous lakes and rivers provided a large 
supply of fish, while a great variety of animals and birds lived 
in the forests. The earliest inhabitants lived in caves, but 
later, houses were built of oak and surrounded by earthworks 
called "raths." Each of the early races carried the art of 
metal-work to a higher degree than the last. The Milesians 
introduced agriculture. 

The early Irish state was founded and governed under the 
Brehon Laws. The underlying principle was the unity of the 
family, of which the father was the patriarchal head. Out 
of the family, regarded thus as a small state, grew the tribe. 
The heads of the tribes, owing to their superior wealth, grad- 
ually came to form a class apart, a hereditary nobility. The 
" Rig " or king was simply the chief of a powerful family or 
group of families. All wealth was estimated in cattle. Under 
the rules of the Brehon criminal law, fines were paid in so many 
head of cattle, according to the rank of the injured party. 
Thus the Brehon Laws had to do with the regulation of the 
duties of the chief and other members of the tribe ; with the 
division of property ; and with the fixing of fines. 



Traditional Dates, b. c. 450-A. d. 50 

16. The building of Bmain. Twenty-three hundred 
years ago, Queen Maca built the great fort and palace of 
Emain, destined to be for six hundred years the dwelling- 
place of the Ulster kings. Emain is close to where 
Armagh was later built, at Ard Maca, the "hill of Maca," 
a name which preserves even to-day the memory of the 
queen-foundress of Emain. At this great centre of the 
northern tribes was enacted, some four centuries after 
the death of Maca, and therefore about the beginning of 
our era, a drama of passion which has lived ever since in 
the epic traditions of Ireland. It is the story of Concobar 
the king, of Cuculaind the champion and warrior, of the 
beautiful and hapless Deirdre, of the ill-fated sons of 

17. Concobar becomes chief of Emain. The begin- 
nings of the tragedy happened thus : Fergus and Factna 
were joint rulers at Emain. Factna, husband of the beau- 
tiful Nessa, died while their son Concobar was yet a child. 
Nessa, left desolate, was yet so beautiful that Fergus 
sued for her hand. He finally persuaded her to marry 
him, but on this condition : her son Concobar was to 
succeed to the throne, even though sons might be born 
Fergus to Fergus. Fergus agreed, and even allowed 
displaced. Concobar to share his power, with the result 
that Fergus presently found himself thrust aside, while 

A. d. 1-50?] LEGEND OF EMAIN OF MACA 21 

his stepson became the real ruler of Emain and the men 
of Ulster. To Concobar were brought all the tributes of 
cattle and horses, scarlet cloaks and dyed fabrics, and 
in everything the word of Concobar was law. Fergus 
was lord only of the banqueting-hall, and of the merry- 
makings of the young chiefs. 

18. The story of Deirdre. A maiden more beautiful 
than all others, Deirdre by name, with golden hair and 
blue eyes, had come into the power of Concobar, and was 
kept by him a close prisoner. Deirdre once saw a raven 
on the snow, sipping the blood of an animal that had been 
slain. She watched the raven, and told her waiting-wo- 
man that her heart desired a lover whose hair should be 
dark as the raven's wing, and his skin red and white, 
like the blood on the snow. Soon after this, seeing 
Naisi, one of the three sons of Usnac, Deirdre Escapes to 
fell in love with him, and persuaded him to take Scotland, 
her away from Emain, and from Concobar's power. 
Naisi at last consented, and with his two brothers and 
certain faithful followers he carried Deirdre away from 
the fort of Emain, and passing quickly through the lands 
of Concobar came to the seashore, and took boat across 
the narrow sea that divides Ulster from the long head- 
lands of Scotland. 

Once when they were playing chess within their shelter 
of branches, they heard a call sounding to them, up from 
the water-edge. Deirdre felt that it was a note of doom. 
But Naisi, recognizing the voice, went out to meet the 
newcomers, who were Fergus, the king's stepfather, and 
his two sons, with their companions. Fergus capturedby 
had been sent by Concobar, with a purpose of treachery, 
treachery, known only to the king himself ; for Concobar 
had pledged his word to Fergus that he would harm 
neither Deirdre nor Naisi, but that he needed the help 

22 IRELAND'S STORY [a. D. 1-50? 

of the sons of Usnac in war, and therefore sought their 
return. Naisi and his brothers were willing to go back 
to Emain, but on their return the sons of Usnac were 
slain, and Deirdre fell once more into Concobar' s power. 

19. The revolt of Fergus. When Fergus heard how 
the king, who had already usurped his throne, had now 
broken faith with him, he was furious, and endeavored 
to arouse the people to revolt. The warriors of Ulster 
were immediately divided into two hostile camps, one 
under Fergus, the other under Concobar. With Con- 
cobar stood his cousin Cuculaind, the greatest warrior of 

Emain. Fergus soon understood that, with the 

Fergus & m ' 

seeks small force at his command, he could not hope 

for victory, so he sought help from Medb, 
queen-consort of Ailill, king of Connaught, whither he 
went with his two thousand Ulster adherents. Medb was 
a warlike and domineering woman, who took part in all 
affairs of state, and even went so far as to lead her own 
armies to battle. She had long been the enemy of Con- 
cobar, therefore she gladly welcomed the exiled Fergus, 
and honored him by making him her chief general. Dur- 
ing several years, many expeditions were led by Fergus 
against Concobar, with varying success, until the famous 
"War of the Bull." 

20. The War of the Bull. It happened that one day 
Medb and Ailill fell to disputing as to whose wealth 
was greatest. They matched their possessions, begin- 
ning with lands, and going on through jewels, robes, and 

cattle. The riches of both were equal, until 

Its cause. ... 

Ailill spoke of the white bull in his herd, which 
had no peer in the herds of the queen. Medb sent to 
seek the red bull of Daire, in the territory of Ulster. A 
dispute arose over the sending of the bull, and Medb 
ordered it to be taken by armed force. In the van of her 




army were Fergus and his followers. Concobar's army 
was not quite ready to meet the invaders, so Cuculaind 
was sent with a small force to detain the host of Con- 
naught at the frontier of Ulster, formed by the river 

Cuculaind, whose true name was Setanta, the son of 
Sualtam, and cousin of Concobar, was the greatest of the 
many heroes of that heroic age. For 
centuries after his death the bards sang 
his praises as the most skilful and valiant warrior, 
the most perfect and virtuous hero, the most cour- 
ageous and magnanimous figure of his time. 

With a handful of men, Cuculaind held 
the ford on the river Dee against Medb's 
advancing army. In the rules of war and 
chivalry of those days no army 

J J J Cuculaind 

could advance so long as a cham- holds the 

pion of the opposite side offered 

single combat. He must be met by one 

antagonist at a time until he was over- 

ancient irish thrown. Then the attacking host might 

spearhead pass. Thus Cuculaind held the ford for 

The rivet holes for many days, waging valiant combat against 

the handle of the -, „, , ^ ... , f ,,. 

sword can be seen. Medb s champions, while the men of Ul- 

The sword is 2 2 in. 

long and the spear ster were assembling. 

head 15 in. long 

21. The fight between Cuculaind and 
Ferdiad. Finally, through repeated taunts, Queen Medb 
forced the mighty Ferdiad, the greatest hero of the 
southern provinces and an old friend of Cuculaind's, to 
go forth as her champion. For three days the two 
friends fought : " So fierce was the fight they fought 
that they cast the river out of its bed, so that not a 
drop of water lay there unless from the sweat of the 
champion heroes hewing each other in the midst of the 

24 IRELAND'S STORY [a. d. 1-50? 

ford. So fierce was the fight they fought that the horses 
of the Gael fled away in fright, breaking their chains and 
their yokes, and the women and youths and camp- 
followers broke from the camp, flying forth southwards 
and westwards." 

They were fighting with the edges of their swords, 
Ferdiadis an d Ferdiad, finding a break in the guard of 
killed. Cuculaind, gave him a stroke of the straight- 

edged sword, burying it in his body until the blood fell into 
his girdle, and the ford was red with the blood of the 
hero's body. Afterwards Cuculaind thrust an unerring 
spear over the rim of the shield, and through the breast 
of Ferdiad's armor, so that the point of the spear pierced 
his heart and showed through his body. 

22. Concobar arrives with his army. Thus did 
Cuculaind keep the ford, which is still known as the 
ford of Ferdiad, at Ardee, in the green plain of Louth. 
Meanwhile Concobar had assembled his army, and now 
arrived just in time to check the enemy. Medb's army 
fled southward and westward, pursued by the men of 
Battle 01 Ulster, until they came to Gairec. There a 
Gairec. battle was fought, which was hardly less fatal 
to the victors than to the vanquished. For though the 
hosts of Medb were routed, yet Concobar's men could 
not continue the pursuit. 

23. Concobar plans an invasion. Concobar was now 
determined to invade the southern provinces, and punish 
their chiefs for the attack on his territories. He held a 
council of war at the fort of Cuculaind, and laid his plans. 
Meanwhile, Medb, Ailill, and Fergus were gathering their 
hosts at Cruacan, the capital of Connaught. It was de- 
cided to treat with Concobar, and terms were offered 
him whereby he should be duly repaid for all his losses 
during the past invasion, and the red bull should be 

a. d. 1-50?] LEGEND OF EMAIN OF MACA 25 

returned. But Concobar refused to negotiate, and swore 
that he would accept no terms until his tent had been 
pitched in every province of Erin. 

At the Headland of the Kings, close to the ancient 
De Danann pyramids of Brugh on the Boyne, the battle 
was fought. The allies were greatly superior 
in number to the army of Concobar, but ow- 
ing to the mighty strength and wonderful deeds of Cucu- 
laind, the sons of Ulster prevailed. 

24. Death of Cuculaind. But Emain of Maca was 
destined also to lose its mightiest warrior. In a later 
battle with the armies of Medb, Cuculaind received a 
mortal wound, a spear piercing him through the body. 
Cuculaind, drawing the spear from his wound, painfully 
and slowly struggled toward a little lake close to the 
battlefield for a drink of water. A stone stood there, a 
pillar set up in honor of some warrior of old, slain in 
battle with his face toward the foe. Cuculaind, seeing 
the pillar, and for a moment revived by the cool water 
of the lake, though looking death in the face, resolved 
to pass on undaunted into the darkness. Therefore he 
bound his belt around the pillar of stone, and passed it 
under his arms, and thus met death, standing firm upon 
his feet. It is said that a gray crow alighted on the 
top of the pillar, above the helmet of the hero, and that 
an otter lapped his blood, as it trickled from his wound, 
and that the armies of Medb, knowing of his mortal 
wound, yet seeing him standing there by the pillar, were 
terrified, believing him an immortal. Stricken with 
dread, they turned back from the battle, and thus, in his 
death, the hero defended the territory he had so well 
guarded in his life. 

26 IRELAND'S STORY [a. d. 1-50? 


The early history of Ireland is largely legendary, but there 
is reason to believe- that about the beginning of our era Con- 
cobar became chief of the men of Ulster, and ruled at Emain. 
For many years he waged wars against Medb, Queen of Con- 
naught, in which he was successful, owing to the valor of 
Cuculaind, the most heroic figure in early Irish history. The 
best known of these contests was " The War of the Bull," in 
which Cuculaind held the ford against Ferdiad. 


A. D. 50-A. D. 266 

25. Insurrection of the serfs. During the long tribal 
conflicts, many prisoners were taken in battle, and others 
were captured as the spoil of raids in the territory of the 
enemy. These prisoners were kept as serfs, ^o^ 
and had to till the land, while the free warriors serfs were, 
and their chiefs spent their time in hunting or military 
games, when not actually fighting. Some of these serfs, 
who were warriors captured in battle, succeeded in escap- 
ing, either to Britain or to Gaul, where many of them 
entered the armies of the Romans. With the serfs, the 
poorer and less fortunate of the tribesmen gradually 
came to make common cause. 

The years after Concobar were marked by a series of 
uprisings of the serfs in different parts of Ireland ; and 
about the middle of the first century a success- Cai ^ ^ 
ful revolt was led by Cairpre, the " Cat-headed," "Cat- 

headed " 

who invited many of the chiefs and nobles to a 
banquet, and slaughtered them. Cairpre even succeeded 
in gaining kingly power, and the servile class A D 
held a dominant position for the greater part 6O-130. 
of the eighty years ending 130 A. d. ; in that year, after 
a series of fiercely fought battles, the old line of kings 
once more came into power, their authority being restored 
by Tuatal the Legitimate, of the direct line of the Sons 
of Milid: 

28 IRELAND'S STORY [a. d. 130 

26. The formation of Meath. Tuatal's reign marks an 
epoch in another way. Ireland had come to be divided 
into four kingdoms, later called Ulster, Leinster, Mun- 
ster, and Connaught, each of which had its provincial 

king. There was also the central fort at Tara, 


in which the most powerful chieftain in Ireland 
reigned as High King or Overlord of the whole country. 
Until the reign of Tuatal, the High Kings, reigning at 
Tara, had enjoyed the revenues of only a small neighbor- 
ing district. Tuatal greatly enlarged this district, cutting 
off a piece from each of the four kingdoms, and form- 
ing the pieces into the Mid-Kingdom, " Mide " or Meath, 
which now became the domain of the High King. 

27. The Boruma tribute. The name of Tuatal is con- 
nected with another famous incident in Ireland's early 
history : the imposing of the Boruma tribute on the 
kings of Leinster. Its origin was this : the king of 
Leinster sought and obtained in marriage the hand of 

Tuatal's daughter, but soon after his return 
Its origin. & 

home she ceased to please him, and he finally 

discarded her, keeping her captive in a lonely part of his 
moated fortress. Some time after this, the king of 
Leinster, coming to Tara, told Tuatal that his queen 
had been carried off by death, and sought in marriage 
the hand of another daughter of the High King. Tuatal 
gave his second daughter to the king of Leinster, who 
brought her home to his fortress. By an accident of 
fate the two sisters met, and both were so horror-struck 
at the treachery that had been practised towards them 
that they died of grief. To punish this perfidy, the 
High King imposed the Boruma tribute on Leinster, 
which was to be paid yearly in cattle, sheep, hogs, man- 
tles, bronze cauldrons, and silver. This tribute was 
levied for five hundred years, and the difficulty of collect- 

A. I). 212] 




ing it was the cause 
of many battles. 
After a period of strife 
following the death of 
Tuatal, his son Fedli- 
mid gained the throne. 
28. Final restora- 
tion of the old line of 
kings. With the ac- 
cession of Fedlimid, 
the legislator, the race 
of Milid finally became 
the dominant power, 
and so remained for 
centuries. Conn, son 
of Fedlimid, was the most famous warrior of his day, 
being surnamed " of the Hundred Battles," in honor of 
a hundred battles which he was believed to have fought. 
Conn's most formidable antagonist was Mog- „ 

& & Conn 

Nuadat. These two warriors practically divided divides 

Ireland between them, Conn holding the north- witnMog- 

ern half of the island, while the south remained Nuadat - 

in the power of Mog-Nuadat. The line of division ran 

from Dublin to Gal way, and was in part marked by a 

line of sand-hills. 

Conn was treacherously slain at Tara, in the year 

212 A. d., while he was preparing to celebrate Death0 f 

the Feis of Tara, the great festival that was Conn ' 

celebrated every third year. Conn is said to have been 

killed in his hundredth year. His grandson, 

J & Riada. 

Riada, began the conquest of the northern part 

of the neighboring island of Britain, which was then 

called Alba. 

It must be remembered that, though surrounded by 

30 IRELAND'S STORY [a. d. 250 

the sea, Ireland was by no means cut off from neigh- 
boring lands. Ships of considerable size con- 
stantly passed from Ireland to the Western 
Isles and coasts of Alba. There was also considerable 
commerce between Ireland and Gaul, whose inhabitants 
had, even two thousand years ago, ocean-going ships 
which filled Caesar and the Romans with admiration. 

29. Foundation of the colonial Dalriada. Alba 
was at that time inhabited by a tribe akin to the Mile- 
sians, who had spent some time in Ireland on their way 
northward. They were called Picts by the Romans, 
from the Latin word pictus, meaning " painted." Riada, 
grandson of Conn of the Hundred Battles, was chief- 
tain of a district in Antrim called from him Dalriada, 
or the " portion of Riada." From the hilltops of his 
home, Riada could easily see the neighboring coast of 
Alba, across the narrow intervening sea. The prospect 
charmed him so much that he finally sailed across the 
shallow strait and founded a second Dalriada in Alba. 

One of the tribes of the Milesian-Irish had long borne 
the name of Scoti or Scots, from Scota, the wife of 
Milid, and from them Ireland was sometimes called Sco- 
The scoti ^ a - When the Irish Scoti crossed the strait to 
or scots. Alba, they carried the name Scotia with them, 
Alba being then called Scotia the Lesser, and, later, 
Scotland. The Scoti from Ireland brought with them 
to Alba their civilization and the Gaelic language. This 
Irish Gaelic is still spoken in the highlands of Scotland 
and in the Western Isles, and nearly all the names of 
families and places in Scotland are in this language. In 
comparatively recent times, in fact until two or three 
centuries ago, the Gaelic of Scotland was still called 
Irish. On the other hand, the tribesmen of Ireland 
were called Scots until the seventeenth century. All the 




clan names of Scotland beginning with Mac, meaning 
"son of," as well as the word clan itself, belong to the 
language which Ireland gave to Scotland. 

30. King Cormac, son of Art. The most cultured 
period of pagan Ireland is ushered in by Cormac, son of 
Art, son of Conn of the Hundred Battles. Cor- Warr i oran( i 
mac became king in 254 a.d., and is famous as a sa s e - 
warrior, and even more as a lawyer and a sage. Cormac 
is the ideal king, manly and handsome, mirthful and 
wise : " Beautiful 
was the appearance 
of Cormac in the 
assembly," says an 
ancient manuscript ; 
" flowing, slightly 
curling golden hair 
upon him ; a red 
buckler with stars 
and animals of gold 
and fastening of 
silver upon him ; a 
crimson cloak in 
wide descending 
folds upon him, fas- 
tened at his breast 
by a golden brooch 
set with precious 
stones ; a neck- 
torque of gold 
round his neck; a 
white shirt with a full collar, and intertwined with red 
gold thread upon him ; a girdle of gold inlaid with pre- 
cious stones around him ; two wonderful shoes of gold 
with embroidery of gold upon him ; two spears with 



golden sockets in his hand." Hardly less celebrated is 
his son-in-law, Find, son of Cumal, and father of Ossin, 
the poet. Find was the leader of Cormac's standing 
army, called the " Fians " or "Fenians." 

31. The court of Tara. We can trace the outlines of 
Cormac's court at Tara even now. The central partis the 
Rath-na-Riogh, " the Fort of the King," a vast oval earth- 
work about three hundred yards in diameter, surrounded 
by a moat. Inside " the Fort of the King " are two great 
mounds, one, the Forradh, or place of meeting, where 
stands the Lia Fail, " the Stone of Destiny," on which 
for ages the kings of Ireland were crowned. Beside 
the Forradh is the Teach-Cormaic, "the House of Cor- 
mac," a circular earthwork about fifty yards across, where 
the great king dwelt. To the north of " the Fort of the 
Xing," and beyond the rath called "the King's Chair," 
ts the Teach-Miodh-Chuarta, " the House of Mead," 
from the drink made of honey, or "mead," which was 
handed round in goblets to the chiefs. The position 
of the House of Mead is marked by the foundations of 
earth which are clearly visible, and on which the walls 
of oak were built. These foundations show that the hall 
was two hundred and fifty yards long and thirty yards 
wide, with six doors on each side, and in it hundreds of 
chiefs could easily have gathered to a banquet. There 
are many other earthworks, not far from " the Fort of the 
King," which still bear the names of kings, princes, and 
princesses of Ireland, whose dwellings of oak formerly 
stood within them. 

32. Abdication of Cormac. At the court of Tara, in 
the House of Cormac and the House of Mead, the king 
listened to the stories of Find and the songs of Ossin ; 
there the harpers played and sang their traditional melo- 
dies; there the Brehon men-of-law gave judgments. Tra- 


dition says that in the year 266 a. d. Cormac was wounded 
in the eye, and as it was the law that no one who had any 
personal defect could rule within the sacred inclosure of 
Tara, he was compelled to abdicate. He built Cormacaa 
for himself a dwelling on the Hill of Skreen, a lawgiver, 
where he delivered many legal judgments which are re- 
corded in the Book of Aicill so called, from Aicill, the 
old name of the Hill of Skreen. There also he carried 
on the dialogues with his son which record his wisdom. 


In the century after Concobar, there were several insur- 
rections of the serfs. They dominated the country from 
a. d. 50 to a. d. 130. The direct line of the Sons of Milid was 
restored by Tuatal. In his reign, the central kingdom of 
Meath was formed, and the Boruma tribute was imposed on 
Leinster. Tuatal was succeeded by his son, Fedlimid, and his 
grandson, Conn of the Hundred Battles. The colony of Dal- 
riada was founded in Alba, now Scotland, by Riada, grandson 
of Conn. The name of Scotland was given to this colony 
by the Irish tribe of Scoti, or Scots. King Cormac, another 
grandson of Conn, held his rich court at Tara. 


Tuatal (the Legitimate) 

Fedlimid (the Legislator) 

Conn (of the Hundred Battles) 

I I 

Conary Art 

I I 

Riada (the Colonist) Cormac (the Philosopher) 

I Cumal 

I ' , II 

Cairbre Ailbe = Find 





33. Social life in the third century. The five king 
doms, Ulster, Leinster, Connaught, Munster, and Meath, 
were now clearly defined, with Meath in the centre, pre- 
dominant over all, and virtually ruling the others from 
the Hill of Tara. The code of honor was fixed ; justice 
was equally measured to all ; social life had ripened ; 
the warriors were gathered into something like a regular 
and disciplined army, and so were a check on the power 
of the king. Classes existed, from the great chief, or king, 
down through the lesser chiefs, or nobles, to the serf who 
was attached to the land. Tribute was paid in the pro- 
ducts of the land, or of the arts. Embroideries and tap- 
estries of great beauty were made by the ladies of the 
chiefs' families and their waiting-women. To women of 
all classes great freedom and respect were accorded dur- 
ing this period. 

34. The warrior-poet Find, son of Cumal. Find, the 
warrior, father of Ossin, was himself a poet. In a few 
verses of his, handed down to our times, he has left us a 
picture of spring, which shows that, even in those remote 
days, the people of Ireland keenly felt the beauties of 
their native land : — 

"May-day! Delightful time! How beautiful the color! The 
blackbirds sing their full lay. Would that Laigay were here! The 



cuckoos call in constant strains. How welcome is ever the noble 
brightness of the season ! On the margin of the leafy pools, the 
summer swallows skim the stream. Swift horses seek the pools. 
The heath spreads out its long hair. The white, gentle cotton- 
grass grows. The sea is lulled to rest. Flowers cover the earth." 

35. A poem of Ossin. A wonderfully vivid picture of 
the outdoor life, the gatherings, the sports of this period, 

The mound called the Forradh is here shown according to the drawing by Wakeman 

is preserved in one of the few poems of Ossin which have 
been handed down to us from that remote time. The 
poem begins thus : — 

u Six thousand gallant men of war 

We sought the rath o'er Badamar; 

To the king's palace-home we bent 

Our way. His bidden guests we went. 
'T was Clocar fair, 
And Find was there, 
The Fians from the hills around 
Had gathered to the race-course ground. 

From valley deep and wooded glen 

Fair Munster sent its mighty men." 

After several races had been run, the king presented 

36 IRELAND'S STORY [3D cent. 

Find, chief of the army, and father of Ossin, the poet, 
with a coal-black steed, addressing him thus : — 

" Hero ! take the swift black steed, 
Of thy valor fitting meed ; 
And my car, in battle-raid 
Gazed on by the foe with fear ; 
And a seemly steed for thy charioteer. 
Chieftain, be this good sword thine, 
Purchased with a hundred kine, 
In thy hand be it our aid." 

Find tried his new horse, taking it first to the broad 
strand of Tralee. Later, accompanied by Ossin and 
Cailte, Find's adopted son, he rode south toward the 
lakes of Killarney, where, about nightfall, they saw a 
mysterious house that none of them could remember ever 
to have seen before. They entered, nevertheless, only to 
find, as Ossin tells us, an ogre and a witch, surrounded 
by horrors, when 

" From iron benches on the right 
Nine headless bodies rose to sight, 
And on the left, from grim repose, 
Nine heads that had no bodies rose." 

Ossin then tells how, overcome by all these terrors, 
he and Find, his father, and Cailte fell at last into a 
deathlike trance, and slept till the sunlight woke them 
lying on the heathery hillside, the house utterly van- 
ished away. 

36. King Cormac's precepts. Another side of the 
life of pagan Ireland in this richest period is shown in 
the dialogue between Cormac, son of Art, son of Conn 
of the Hundred Battles, and Cairbre his son : — 

" O grandson of Conn, O Cormac," Cairbre asked him, 
" What is good for a king ? " 

"This is plain," answered Cormac. "It is good for 


him to have patience, and not to dispute, self-government 
without anger, affability without haughtiness, Dutleso j 
diligent attention to history, strict observance akin s- 
of covenants and agreements, justice tempered by mercy, 
in execution of the laws. It is good for him to make 
the land fertile, to invite ships, to import jewels of price 
from across the sea, to purchase and distribute raiment, 
to keep vigorous swordsmen who may protect his terri- 
tory, to make war beyond his territory, to attend to the 
sick, to maintain discipline among his soldiers. Let him 
enforce fear, let him perfect peace, let him give mead 
and wine, let him pronounce just judgments of light, let 
him speak all truth, for it is through the truth of a king 
that God gives favorable seasons." 

" O grandson of Conn, O Cormac," Cairbre again 
asked him, " what is good for the welfare of a coun- 

" This is plain," answered Cormac. " Frequent assem- 
blies of wise and good men, to investigate its affairs, to 
abolish every evil and retain every wholesome Needg of a 
institution, to attend to the precepts of the country, 
seniors ; let every assembly be convened according to 
the law, let the law be in the hands of the noblest, let 
the chieftains be upright and unwilling to oppress the 

" O grandson of Conn, O Cormac," again asked Cair- 
bre, " what are the duties of a prince in the banqueting- 

" A prince, on the Day of Spirits, should light his 
lamps, and welcome his guests with clapping of hands, 
offering comfortable seats ; the cup-bearers DutIes of a 
should be active in distributing meat and drink. r °y al host - 
Let there be moderation of music, short stories, a wel- 
coming countenance, a greeting for the learned, pleasant 

38 IRELAND'S STORY [3D cent. 

conversation. These are the duties of a prince in the 
banqueting-house. " 

" O grandson of Conn, O Cormac, what is good for 
me ? " 

" If thou attend to my command, thou wilt not scorn 
the old, though thou art young ; nor the poor, though thou 
art well-clad ; nor the lame, though thou art swift ; nor the 
Advice to a bhnd, though thou seest ; nor the weak, though 
young man. tn OU art strong ; nor the ignorant, though thou 
art wise. Be not slothful, be not passionate, be not 
greedy, be not idle, be not jealous ; for he who is so is 
hateful to God and man." 

37. Political development. The story of these first 
centuries illustrates the whole of early Irish history. 
There is a strong central family which holds the High 
Kingship for generation after generation. Its rule, how- 
ever, is not uninterrupted. The High King is attacked 
again and again by other chiefs almost as powerful as 
himself, and is not always successful in defending him- 
self. He is slain in battle, his followers are routed, and 
power passes to another family. The son, or perhaps the 
grandson, of the late High King reorganizes his forces 
in some remote fortress ; the boys of his tribe grow 
up and become warriors, until with renewed strength he 
attacks his father's slayer and overthrows him. The 
family from which sprang Conn of the Hundred Battles 
in this way dominated the first three centuries in our 
era, though its rule was interrupted by two insurrections 
of serfs and by the reigns of several rival chieftains. Its 
influence was eclipsed by the military uprising which cul- 
minated at the battle of Gavra. 

38. The battle of Gavra, A. D. 293. This battle was 
fought in the year 293 a. d. The power of the armed 
militia, which had been consolidated into something like 


a regular army by Find, and to which the name of Fians 
or Fenians was given, had gradually grown hostile to- 
ward the High King, and a final struggle to the death 
became inevitable. This was the battle of Gavra, fought 
close to the Hill of Skreen, near Tara. The _ . 

End of 

conflict was long and fierce, and in it fell Cair- Cormac's 
bre, the High King, and also the chiefs of the y ' 

Fenians, thus closing one of the brightest epochs of Irish 
history by the death of its most famous men. 

39. Rise of the family of Niall. Three chieftains of 
other tribes successively held the power after this battle, 
their rule covering several years. Then an- 
other great family began to come to the fore. 
Its first representative was Fiaca, who held 
the High Kingship for thirty years. He was 
succeeded after four years by his son, Muir- 
eadac, who reigned for a like period, and was 
followed not by his son, but by one of the 
Ulster chiefs. The latter had only a brief in- 
terval of power, being overthrown by Eocaid, 


the son of Muireadac, after a few months. 7 $ inchesiong, 
Eocaid retained the High Kingship for eight shannon at 
years, when a chieftain of another family seized 
the supreme power and held it for fourteen years. Then 
the High Kingship reverted once more to the family of 
Muireadac and Eocaid, in the person of the latter's son, 
the famous warrior known as Niall of the Nine Hos- 
tages, because he received hostages from Ulster, Lein- 
ster, Munster, Connaught, Pictland, Dalriada, Britain, 
Saxonland, and the Morini of Gaul. Niall held 
the High Kingship for twenty-seven years, and 
in one of his raids against the Roman colonies in North 
Britain he is believed to have taken captive the future 
apostle of Ireland. After Niall, the direct line was again 

40 IRELAND'S STORY [5TH cent. 

broken, and his nephew, Dati, held the chief power for 
twenty-three years. He was succeeded by Laegaire, the 
son of Niall, High King during thirty years. Then 
Dati's family once more came into power in the per- 
son of his son, Oilioll. After twenty years, the family 
of Niall once more became dominant, Lugaid, the son 
of Laegaire, holding the High Kingship for a quarter of 
a century. These events cover the first five hundred 
years of our era. 


The social life of pre-Christian Ireland was rich and highly 
developed. Women were highly esteemed. Poetry and 
music were cultivated, Ossin, or Ossian, being the most fa- 
mous of the ancient poets. The political ideals are illustrated 
by the dialogue between Cormac, the High King, and his 
son, Cairbre. The history of Ireland, at this time, and for 
centuries to come, is a struggle between various powerful 
families for the High Kingship of Ireland. 


Reigns of those who became High Kings are shown by dates 

Fiaca, 295-325 

Muireadac, 329-359 

Eocaid, 360-368 


I I 

Niall (of the Nine Hostages), 382-40S Fiaca 

i 1 i i , I 

Laegaire Conall Gulban Eogan Cairbre Dati 

430-460 (Ancestor of the O'Connells) 408-430 

I I I 

Lugaid Feargus Muireadac Cormac Oilioll 

480-505 I I 460-480 

Feidlimid Muirceartac Tuatal 

I 5°5-5 28 5 28 -53 8 

St. Columba 


43 2 

40. Saint Patrick. At the end of the fourth century, 
Ireland was still a pagan land ruled by restless chiefs, 
whose people had reached a point where a strong human- 
izing influence was needed. Without this influence, the 
very perfection of the time would have been a clanger, like 
the ripeness which comes before decay. The renovating 
power came in the lesson of loving-kindness and tender 
mercy that had been taught by the shores of Galilee. 
The messenger was Succat, son of Calpurn, surnamed 
the Patrician, or Patricius, a title given to Roman citizens 
of noble birth. This messenger is known to us as Saint 
Patrick. In all probability his birthplace was in Scotland, 
near the river Clyde, the northern limit of the 
Roman province of Britain. The territory 
north of the Clyde was held in part by the Caledonian 
Picts, and in part by the Scoti, colonists from Ireland, 
who brought with them their civilization and language. 

In one of the feuds among these rival tribes, a raid 
was made into the territory of the Roman province south 
of the Clyde, and the boy Succat was taken prisoner and 
carried away captive to Ireland. The language of the 
Roman province was Latin, and the Christian religion 
had been brought thither from Rome. In the 
church of the Roman colony both the father 
and grandfather of Succat had held official rank, but 


Succat himself, though familiar with the teaching of the 
Gospel, had not taken that teaching greatly to heart. 
It came back to him, however, in the days of his cap- 
tivity, when as a slave he tended cattle among the woods 
of Slieve Mish, a mountain in what is now Antrim, half- 
way between Lough Neagh and the sea. From the 
hillside of Slieve Mish, the exile could see the blue 
headlands of his native Scotland, and it is easy to believe 

that the teachings of his childhood came back 
Captivity. & 

to him with double force, as he gazed wist- 
fully over the sea toward his early home. The story of 
Saint Patrick's mission can best be told by quoting his 
own words as written in the long letter called the " Con- 
fession," and preserved in the " Book of Armagh," the 
manuscript of which was written in 807 a. d. 

41. The "Confession." "I, Patricius, a sinner, and 
most unlearned of believers, looked down upon by many, 
had for my father the deacon Calpurn, son of the elder 
Potitus, of a place called Bannova in Tabernia, near to 
Patrick which was his country home. There I was 
captive to taken captive, when not quite sixteen. I knew 
Ireland. not the Eternal. Being led into captivity with 
thousands of others, I was brought to Ireland — a fate 
well deserved. For we had turned from the Eternal, nor 
kept the laws of the Eternal. . . . 

"But daily herding cattle here, and lifting up my heart 
in aspiration many times a day, the fear of the Eternal 
His uie in g r ew daily in me. A divine awe and aspiration 
captivity, grew in me, so that I often prayed a hundred 
times a day, and as many times in the night. I often 
remained in the woods and on the hills, rising to pray 
while it was yet dark, in snow or frost or rain ; yet I 
took no harm. The breath of the Divine burned within 
me, so that nothing remained in me unenkindled. . . . 


" One night, while I was sleeping, I heard a voice 
saying to me : ' You have fasted well, and soon you shall 
see your home and your native land.' Soon his return 
after, I heard the voice again saying : ' The ship JUJJJ!jJJ 
is ready for you.' Yet the ship was not near, years old. 
but two hundred miles off, in a district I had never 
visited, and where I knew no one. Therefore I fled, 
leaving the master I had served for six years, and found 
the ship by divine guidance, going without fear. . . . 

" We reached land after three days' sail ; then, for 
twenty-eight days we wandered through a wilderness. . . . 
Once more, after years of exile, I was at home again with 
my kindred among the Britons. All welcomed me like 
a son, earnestly begging me that, after the great dangers 
I had passed through, I would never again leave my 

" While I was at home, in a vision of the night I saw 
one who seemed to come from Ireland, bringing innu- 
merable letters. He gave me one of the let- 
ters, in which I read : ' The voices of the 
Irish.' . . . and while I read, it seemed to me that I heard 
the cry of the dwellers by the forest of Foclut, by the 
Western ocean, calling with one voice to me : ' Come 
and dwell with us ! ' My heart was so moved that I 
awoke, and I give thanks to my God who, after many 
years, has given to them according to their petition. . . . 

" It were long, in whole or even in part, to tell of my 
labors, or how the All-powerful One many times set me 
free from bondage, and from twelve perils, Hls 
wherein my life was in danger, and from name- mlsslon - 
less pitfalls. It were ill to try my reader too far, when 
I have within me the Author himself, who knows all 
things even before they happen, as He knows me, his 
poor disciple. The voice that so often guides me is 


divine ; and thence it is that wisdom has come to me, 
who had no wisdom, knowing not Him, nor the number 
of my days : thence come my knowledge, and heart's joy, 
in his great and healing gift, for the sake of which I 
willingly left my home and kindred, though they offered 
me many gifts, with tears and sorrow. 

" The people of Ireland, who formerly had only their 
idols and pagan ritual, not knowing the Master, have 
Hls now become his children ; the sons of the Scoti 

converts. anc j their kings' daughter are now become sons 
of the Master and handmaidens of the Anointed. 

" Therefore I might even leave them, to go among the 
Britons — for willingly would I see my own kindred and 
my native land again, or even go so far as Gaul, to visit 
my brothers, and see the faces of my Master's holy men. 
But I am bound in the Spirit, and would be unfaithful if 
I went. Nor would I willingly risk the fruit of all my 
work. Yet it is not I who decide, but the Master, who 
bid me come hither, to spend my whole life in serving, as 
indeed I think I shall. . . . 

"Thus simply, brothers and fellow-workers for the 
Master, who with me have believed, I have told you how 
it happened that I preached and still preach, to strengthen 
and confirm you in aspiration, hoping that we may all 
rise yet higher. Let that be my reward, as 'the wise 
son is the glory of his father.' You know, and the Mas- 
ter knows, how from my youth I have lived among you, 
in aspiration and truth, and with single heart ; that I 
have declared the faith to those among whom I dwell, 
and still declare it. The Master knows that I have de- 
ceived no man in anything, nor ever shall, for his sake, 
and his people's. Nor shall I ever arouse uncharity in 
them or in any, lest his name should be spoken evil 
of. . . . 


" I have striven in my poor way to help my brothers, 
and the handmaidens of the Anointed, and the holy 
women, who often volunteered to give me presents, and 
to lay their jewels on the altar ; but these I always gave 
back to them, even though they were hurt by it. 

" If I have asked of any as much as the value of a 
shoe, tell me. I will repay it and more. I rather spent 
my own wealth on you and among you, wher- Patrlck - S 
ever I went, for your sakes, through many dan- generosity, 
gers, to regions where no believer had ever come to 
baptize, to ordain teachers, or to confirm the flock. With 
the divine help, I very willingly and lovingly paid all. 
Sometimes I gave presents to the kings, — in giving 
presents to their sons who convoyed us, to guard us 
against being taken captive. Once they sought to kill 
me, but my time was not yet come. But they took away 
all that we possessed, and kept me bound till the Master 
liberated me on the fourteenth day, and all our goods 
were given back, because of the Master and of those who 
convoyed us. You yourselves know what gifts I gave to 
those who administer the law, through the districts I 
visited oftenest. I think I spent not less than the fine 
of fifteen men among them, in order that I might come 
among you. 

" The sun of this world shall fade, with those that wor- 
ship it ; but we bow to the spiritual Sun, the Anointed, 
that shall never perish, nor they that do his will, that 
shall endure for ever, like the Anointed Himself, who 
reigns with the Father and the Divine Spirit, now and 
ever. . . . 

" This I beg, that no believer or servant of the Master, 
who reads or receives this writing, which I, Patricius, a 
sinner, and very unlearned, wrote in Ireland, — I beg 
that none may say that whatever is good in it was die- 


tated by my ignorance, but rather that it came from Him. 
This is my Confession before I die." 

The date of St. Patrick's mission is fixed in a striking 
way by the contemporary Chronicle of Prosper of Aqui- 
taine. Under the year 43 1 Prosper writes : 
from Pope " For the Irish believing in Christ, Palladius 
is consecrated by Pope Celestine, and sent as 
first bishop." Elsewhere he writes : " [Pope Celestine] 
having consecrated a bishop for the Irish, while he strove 
to keep the Roman island [Britain] Catholic, made the 
pagan island [Ireland] also Christian." 

The Irish records are summarized in the Annals of 
the Four Masters, which tells us that the brief mission 
of Palladius bore small fruit ; that, in the year 431, " St. 
Patrick was ordained bishop by the holy Pope, Celestine 
the First, who ordered him to go to Ireland, to preach 
and teach faith and piety to the Gael, and also to baptize 
them." The Four Masters go on to tell us that in the 
following year, 432, " Patrick came to Ireland, and pro- 
ceeded to baptize and bless the Irish, men, women, sons 
and daughters, except a few who did not consent to re- 
ceive faith or baptism from him, as his Life relates." 


By the end of the fourth century, pagan Ireland had reached 
a high stage of development, but the people needed the hu- 
manizing influence which Saint Patrick brought to them in 
his teaching of Christianity. Patrick was born in North 
Britain, of noble parentage. While a boy, he was brought 
as a captive to Ireland, where he remained as a herdsman 
for six years. When he returned to his native land, he 
learned in a vision that he was destined to convert Ireland. 
He began his missionary work about 432 a. d., and built 
churches and established schools in many parts of Ireland, 



42. Difficulties of conversion. In the Apostle's own 
words the story of his coming is simply told. But while 
the conversion of the Irish people was, in one sense, a 
simple task, because of their spiritual freedom and open- 
ness to new influences, — in other words, their large- 
mindedness, — it was by no means altogether easy. It 
must never be forgotten that the rival chiefs, each in his 
own stronghold, were perpetually fighting among them- 
selves, so that a considerable escort was needed to insure 
safe conduct from one province to another. Patrick was 
conducted from district to district by the kings' sons, and 
in return gave presents for their protection. 

Patrick, with his strong personality and ever-present 

tact, had just the qualities to meet these obstacles. His 

manner was that of an ambassador. He ad- HowPat- 

dressed himself to the chiefs as an equal, !;i c * ?3!!L 

1 ' came tnese 

talking to them frankly, and gradually giving difficulties, 
them an insight into his character and convictions, his 
idea of life, of the kinship of soul to soul, and of im- 
mortality. His great sincerity awakened a responsive 
hearing in the hearts of those who talked with him. 
He had a constant sense of his divine mission : " Was 
it without divine promise," he asks; "or in the body 
only, that I came to Ireland ? Who led me ? Who took 
captive my soul, that I should no more see friends and 

4 8 



kindred ? Whence came my inspiration of pity for the 
race that had enslaved me ? " 

Through the chiefs he reached and converted the peo- 
ple. He displayed wonderful knowledge of men and of 
Ireland the world, and showed an ever-ready urbanity 
without^ and broad-minded wisdom in all his dealings 
martyr. with them. To this attitude is doubtless due 
the fact that the history of the conversion of Ireland 
has no instance of martyrdom. 

43. Patrick's first church and journey to Tara. He 
began his apostolic labors, and won his earliest victory, 

at Downpatrick — " The 
dwelling of Patrick," — in 
the district ruled over by 
a chief who dwelt close to 
the old royal fort of east- 
ern Ulster. This chief 
was soon convinced of the 
sincerity of the newcomer, 
offering him his barn for 
a first meeting-place, and 
later giving him the land 
where his first church was 
built in 432. From the 
word "sabal," "a barn," 
comes the name of Saul, 
now borne by this district. 
The next year, 433, Pat- 
rick determined to present 
himself at Tara, the seat of 
the High King, where Laegaire, son of Niall, reigned. It 
He goes to was Easter Eve when Patrick approached Tara; 
Tara. toward nightfall he lighted the paschal fire on 

the Hill of Slane. It happened that King Laegaire and 


The shrine was made about iogi to hold the 
bell, which is 14! inches high 


his nobles were lighting the fire of the spring festival at 
the same hour. There was a law that, while this fire 
was burning, no other should be kindled, on pain of 
death. Therefore, when Patrick's fire blazed up on the 
Hill of Slane, there was great wonder at Tara, and Lae- 
gaire summoned the Druids and questioned them, receiv- 
ing this "answer : " If that fire which we now see be not 
extinguished to-night, it will never be extinguished, but 
will eclipse all our fires, and he that has kindled it will 
overturn thy kingdom." The king, in great rage, sent 
to summon the strangers before him. It is said that 
Patrick then composed this hymn, the oldest Christian 
verse in the Gaelic tongue : — 

" At Tara to-day in this fateful hour 
I place all heaven with its power, 
And the sun with its brightness, 
And the snow with its whiteness, 
And the fire with all the strength it hath, 
And the lightning with its rapid wrath, 
And the winds with their swiftness along their path, 
And the sea with its deepness, 
And the rocks with their steepness, 
And the earth with its starkness, 
All these I place 

By God's almighty help and grace 
Between myself and the power of darkness." 

Easter Sunday dawned. Patrick and his companions, 
all in white, and the Apostle wearing his mitre and carry- 
ing his crozier, entered the fort in a solemn procession, 
chanting a hymn. The saint, aflame with zeal, and un- 
daunted by his cold reception, told the story of the Resur- 
rection and the divine message brought thereby to hu- 
manity. At King Laegaire's command, the Druids tried 
to meet him in argument, but were defeated. The king, 
though not converted himself, gave Patrick and his com- 


panions permission to preach their doctrines throughout 
his dominions. 

44. Revision of the Brehon Laws, 438. A strik- 
ing instance of Patrick's method, and an example of his 
foresight and wisdom, are found in his attitude toward 
the existing civil and religious law of the country, com- 
monly known as the Brehon Laws. In the words of the 
Preface to the Sencus Mor, the " Great Book of An- 
cient Law:" "The judgments of true nature, which 
the Divine Spirit had spoken through the mouths of 
the Brehons and just poets of the men of Erin, from the 
first occupation of Ireland down to the reception of the 
faith, were all exhibited by Dubtac to Patrick. What 
did not conflict with the word of God in the written law 
and the New Testament and the consciences of believ- 
ers was confirmed in the laws of the Brehons by Patrick 
and by the ecclesiastics and chieftains of Ireland ; for 
the law of Nature had been quite right except concern- 
ing the faith and its obligations and the harmony of the 
Church and people. And this is the Sencus Mor." 

45. The founding of Armagh. The work so prospered 
during the following years, that in 444 a. d. Patrick was 
able to build a large church on a hill two miles from the 
fortress of Emain of Maca. The land was a gift from a 
ruler who, like so many other chiefs, had felt and acknow- 
ledged the Apostle's power. Later, this hill came to be 
called Armagh. The churches thus founded by Patrick 
were built of stone, and it is probable that he was the 
first to introduce the general- use of stone for building 
into Ireland, houses having previously been made of wood, 
as was natural in a land rich in forests. From this time 
on, we have a constant succession of stone buildings, 
while there are none of older date, if we except the pyra- 
mid-chambers like those of Brugh on the Boyne. 




46. Patrick continues his work of conversion. Pat- 
rick continued his journey from province to province, 
often facing great dangers, but everywhere making con- 
verts, and founding churches, schools, and monasteries. 
One tradition tells us that he journeyed to the west coast. 
In some places his coming was foretold by the Druids, 
who still practised soothsaying. 

The great tragedy in Patrick's mission was due to the 
evil act of a prince of the neighboring island. Coroticus, 
a chieftain of Britain, and therefore a citizen 

A tragedy 

of Rome and nominally a Christian, had sent lnhisapos- 
marauding bands to Ireland, to capture slaves. 
Some of the new converts were taken captive by these 
invaders, an outrage 
which drew forth an in- 
dignant protest from 
the great Messenger : 
" My neophytes in 
their white robes, the 
anointing of baptism 
still wet and glisten- 
ing on their fore- 
heads, were taken cap- 
tive with the sword 
by these murderers. 
Next day I sent let- 
ters, begging them to^ 
liberate the baptized 
captives, but they an- 
swered my prayer with This rude little bell has an unbroken history of over 
. ill x 4°o years 

mockery and laugh- 
ter. I know not which I should mourn for more — those 
who were slain, those who were taken prisoner, or those 
who, in this, were Satan's instruments, since these must 
suffer everlasting punishment in perdition." 



He appealed indignantly to the fellow-Christians of 
Coroticus in Britain : " I pray you, all that are righteous 
and humble, to hold no converse with those who do these 
things, eat not, drink not with them, accept no gifts from 
them, until they have repented and made atonement, set- 
ting free these newly baptized handmaidens of Christ, 
for whom he died. . . . They seem to think that we are 
not children of one Father ! " 

The mission of the Messenger lasted for sixty years. 
He was at no time willing to desert his adopted children 
Patrick's an d return to his native land, but faithfully 
death. carried on his task until it was completed. Ac- 

cording to his own wish, he was buried near his first 
church, at Saul. 

47. Saint Bridget. Armagh stands for the work of Pat- 
rick the Apostle. The name of Kildare is linked with the 
fame of a personality hardly less remarkable. A learned 
writer says : " If Saint Patrick was the father, Saint 
Bridget is the mother of all the saints of Erin, both monks 
and nuns." Bridget was born in 453 ; she was the daugh- 
ter of a famous Leinster chief. Her whole life is sur- 
rounded by stories of marvels. She was miraculously 
preserved, when a child, from a fire which burned down 
her father's house. The child had been left in her cot, 
and was found there uninjured, after the fire had burned 
itself out. In her, the quality of mercy greatly shone. 
It is said that once, with seven companions, Bridget heard 
a sermon on the eight Beatitudes. Each was asked to 
choose one of the virtues there declared blessed, and 
Bridget chose mercy : " Blessed are the merci- 
hermerci- ful, for they shall obtain mercy." One of her 

fulness. . . . , 

great works was a ministry of help to the 
lepers, then as now the most shunned and miserable of 
outcasts. Far more important, however, than any single 



side of her work, was the way in which the whole life of 
this woman of genius and inspiration raised the ideal of 
womanhood in Ireland. Her influence in that respect 


lasts to this day, for in no other country is the ideal of 

womanly purity held so high. 

Saint Bridget founded a religious establishment at 

Kildare, that is, Cil-dara, " the church of the oak," so 

named from a great oak-tree which stood 

The found- 
close to the site of the church. As men and ing of kii- 

women studied together at the school of Kil- daro " 

dare, Saint Bridget selected Bishop Connall, one of her 

relatives, to share with her the cares of its government. 

Saint Bridget died in 525. 

54 IRELAND'S STORY [432-525 


Patrick met with many difficulties in his work of conversion, 
but the very greatness of the man himself helped him to over- 
come all obstacles, so that Ireland was won without a martyr. 
Patrick revised but retained the Brehon Laws. 

Patrick returned to Ireland as a missionary in a. d. 432. 
He built his first church at Saul. From Saul, he went to Tara, 
where he met the Druids in argument, winning his most nota- 
ble victory, and making many converts. He founded the 
church of Armagh, the seat of the primate of Ireland. He 
continued his journey from province to province, everywhere 
converting many, and founding churches and schools. Tradi- 
tion says that his mission lasted sixty years, and that he died 
in 493. 

The womanly side of Irish sainthood is typified in Saint 
Bridget, the foundress of the celebrated school and convent at 
Kildare. She was born in a. d. 453 and died in a. d. 525. 



48. Early churches and schools. Saint Patrick and 

his immediate followers founded 
many churches, monasteries, 
and schools. We can judge of 
the spread of his teaching, if we 
remember that these churches 
were generally sixty feet long, 
thus giving room for many wor- 
shippers. One of the do,^. 
most ancient churches P atrlck - 
in Ireland is in Meath, on the 
Blackwater, at Donaghpatrick, a 
name meaning "the church of 
Patrick." It was founded by the 
apostle on land given him by 
King Laegaire and was erected 
by the order of the king's bro- 
ther. In the century following, 
religious buildings were con- 
structed in many parts of Ire- 
land, a number of which have 
been more or less perfectly pre- 

This cross, called the smaller cross -■ . 

of Monasterboice, was erected in Served tO the present M onas t e r- 

memory of Abbot Muireadac, who , / ~ r . , . i,-i«- 

died in the tenth century. It is one day. One 01 the Oldest Bolce ' 

of the finest crosses in Ireland, and ., . , r , , ._ _ 

is still standing. was the school founded at Mo- 



nasterboice in Louth, by Saint Buite, who died, tradition 

says, on the day on which Columba was born, about 521. 

An early and very perfect group of religious buildings 

is to be seen on an island on lower Lough Erne, about 

two miles north of Enniskillen. The island is 


called Devenish, " the island of the oxen." 
The first religious settlement was made there under the 
guidance of Molaise about the year 530 a. d. Another 
1nim _ Molaise founded a similar settlement on Inis- 

munay. murray, "the island of Muireadac," some five 
miles from the Sligo shore. The house of Molaise, a 
small building only nine feet by eight, with very thick 
walls and a high stone roof, still stands exactly as it was 
in the saint's life. 

At Clonmacnoise, "the meadow of the sons of Nos," 
is another very ancient foundation, begun in 548 by Saint 
cionmac- Kieran, on ground given by Diarmaid, who was 
noise. then High King. It is on the bank of the 

great river Shannon, nine miles below Athlone ; and the 
school which grew up there gained a reputation through- 
out the whole of western Europe. It became the chief 
seminary for the sons of the princes and nobles of Con- 

At the north end of Strangford Lough were two famous 
schools. The first was founded at Moville, by 

Moville. _ \ , 1 1 i o • 

Saint Finman, in the year 555, and had Saint 

Columba as its most famous pupil. Five miles to the 

north, close to the seashore, was the famous 

college of Bangor, founded by Saint Comgall 

in 555. 

About the same time Saint Kevin founded a church 
Gienda- anc * school at Glendalough, the " vale of the 
lough. two lakes," in Wicklow. During the centuries 

which followed, this was one of the best known and 





The round tower is 84 feet 10 inches high, and varies from many other round towers in 
having a sculptured band below the cap 

most frequented centres of religious learning in Ireland. 
Saint Kevin's house is one of those high-roofed buildings 
which we learn to recognize as "the oldest form of reli- 
gious architecture in Ireland. It is slightly larger than 
the house of Saint Molaise at Inismurray, but very sim- 

49. The third patron saint of Ireland. Saint Co- 
lumba was born at Gartan in Donegal about 521. His 
father was one of the chiefs of Irish Dalriada, while his 
mother belonged to the royal family of Leinster. Co- 
lumba was, in fact, a great-great-grandson of Niall of the 
Nine Hostages. He was educated first at the 
School of Clonard, founded by Saint Finnian 
about the year 520, in the southwest of Meath ; and later 
continued his studies under the same teacher Founded 
at Moville, in County Down, and under Saint monas- 

•tr> ^-1 T 1 r 1 i teriesol 

Kieran at Clonmacnoise. In 550, he founded a Durrow 
monastery at Kells in Meath, and his house, andKells ° 
very similar to the dwellings of Saint Kevin at Glenda- 


lough and Saint Molaise at Inismurray, is still to be seen 
there. In 553, he founded the monastery of Durrow, in 
the north of what is now the King's County. These 
are only two among many churches which he built in 
the twenty years before his exile. 

50. Saint Columba exiled. The cause of his exile 
was as follows : a dispute arose over a copy of the Book 
Dispute °f P sa l ms > which Columba made, from a manu- 
wltn script belonging to Saint Finnian, his teacher 

at Clonard and Moville. Finnian claimed the 
copy. Columba refused to give it up. The dispute was 
referred to King Diarmaid. The king, following the prin- 
ciple laid down in the Brehon Laws : " to every cow be- 
longs its calf," decided that "to every book belongs its 
copy," the earliest decision on copyright recorded in our 
history. He therefore awarded the copy to Finnian. 
Columba refused to accept the decision, and appealed 
for aid to his tribe. A fierce dispute arose, culminating 
Battle of * n a £ reat battle at Cooldrevin, near Drumclifr", 
cooidrevin. a few miles north of Sligo. This battle was 
fought in 561, and the partisans of Columba 
were completely victorious. Tradition says that three 
thousand of their opponents were slain. The evil which 
Columba thus brought about drew down on him the 
reprimand of the entire Irish church, and he was advised 
to seek voluntary exile, which he did shortly afterward. 

Saint Columba went forth from his native land in 563 
with twelve companions. From this fact he is called 
_ . . "The Preceptor of the Twelve Apostles of Ire- 

Columba l r 

goes to land." He was then forty-two years old, and 
has the lasting honor of being the first of the 
Irish disciples to carry the gospel to other lands. Co- 
lumba and his followers went to the little island of Iona, 
off the west coast of Scotland, which was then part of 




the Scottish Dalriada (see section 29). Here Columba 
founded his world-famed monastery, which be- 

J His work 

came a centre of missionary work among the among the 
wild Picts of the Scottish mainland. Columba 
adopted the same methods which Patrick had used in 
Ireland, with results almost as wonderful. Soon churches 



There is no reason to question that this was once the habitation 
of St. Kevin. The large building is the oldest, the round 
belfry being a later addition 

and schools sprang up through the dominions of the 

Picts by hundreds. 

51. The Synod of Druim-Ceatt. When this work of 

expiation, thus splendidly begun, had been carried forward 

to success, Columba deemed himself entitled to „ , fc 


return to his beloved native land. He visited revisits 
Ireland several times, going from one of his e "* 
early schools to another, and took part in the famous 
synod of Druim-Ceatt, held in the year 575. Here he 
gained two noteworthy victories. The first was the 
securing of home rule for the Irish colonies in Scotland, 
the Scottish Dalriada. The second was the revocation 


of a decree against the ancient order of bards, whose 
poetry Columba himself ardently admired and diligently 
studied. In the same year, he founded the 
religious school of Drumcliff, close to the bat- 
tlefield of Cooldrevin, a work of expiation for the great 
wrong-doing of his early life. 

52. Saint Columba's ability. Speaking of the won- 
derful powers possessed by Saint Columba, his biogra- 
pher Adamnan says : " Among the miracles which this 
same man of the Lord, while dwelling in mortal flesh, per- 
formed by the gift of God, was his foretelling the future 
Prophetic by tne spirit of prophecy, with which he was 
spirit. highly favored from his early years, and mak- 

ing known to those who were present what was happen- 
ing in other places ; for, though absent in body, he was 
present in spirit, and could look on things that were 
widely apart, according to the words of Saint Paul, ' He 
that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit.' Hence this 
same man of the Lofd, Saint Columba, when a few of 
the brethren would sometimes inquire into the matter, 
did not deny that by some divine intuition, and through 
a wonderful expansion of his inner soul, he beheld the 
whole universe drawn together and laid open to his sight 
as in one ray of the sun." 

. Besides founding schools and churches in many parts 

of Ireland, and planting outposts of Christianity and 

learning amongst the pagans of Scotland, first at Iona 

and then at many places on the mainland, Columba was 

an indefatigable literary worker. He wrote 

Literary ° J 

skill and both in Latin and in Gaelic. In the latter 
tongue he composed several Irish poems. He 
used his knowledge of the former chiefly in the prepara- 
tion of copies of the Latin Gospels. He is said to have 
transcribed three hundred copies of the Gospels. So 


great was his renown for beautiful penmanship that tra- 
dition has ascribed to him the writing of the famous 
Book of Kells. It is true that this wonderful manuscript 
comes from one of the monasteries founded by Columba, 
but it was probably written in the century after his 
death, which took place in 596. 

53. How the early schools were founded. Let us 
try to give a picture of the founding of one of these 
schools, and the life led by its inhabitants. At the heart 
of each one of these undertakings we find some man of 
fine character and strong personality, a born leader. The 
master and his disciples gained the sympathy of a tribal 
chief, who made them a grant of land, and probably 
added a gift of cattle. This grant consisted of forest, 
pasture, and arable land. It was generally chosen on 
the bank of a stream which supplied pure water and fish. 
The teacher and his pupils went with their axes to the 
woods to cut down trees to build their dwellings. Oth- 
ers herded the cattle, or yoked the* oxen to plough up 
the new fields, and later quarried the stone to build their 
church. They themselves made all the furniture for 
the church and their houses. The pupils also ^rork of the 
studied indefatigably with their master, learn- schools, 
ing to read and write both Irish and Latin. A very im- 
portant work was the preparation of parchment from the 
skins of goats and sheep, to be used in making finely 
written manuscripts of the Gospels and other works. 
The schools took the place of printing-houses, and, as 
the missionary work spread, not only in Ireland itself, 
but in Britain and among many nations on the continent, 
there was a great and increasing demand for these Irish- 
made books. Many of them are still found in places as 
remote from Ireland as Milan in Italy and Schaffhausen 
in Switzerland. 


These schools in time received many gifts in jewelry 
and gold from native chieftains and those who attended 
Riches oi tne services in their churches. The gold and 
the schools, jewelry were used to make beautiful church 
vessels, chalices, crosses, and croziers, all decorated in 
the native style, with embossed tracery, in the same pat- 
terns that were used for the initials and headpieces of 
the illuminated manuscripts. 

The schools were also places of refuge and rest for 

weary travellers, who received hospitality, kindliness, and 

care until they were ready to continue on their way. It 

~ , „_ was the custom at these seats of learning that 
Hospitality b 

totrav- each student should build a hut for his own use ; 
and as some of the early colleges had as many 
as three thousand pupils, they were more like towns than 

The schools founded by Columba and his successors in 
many parts of Scotland followed the same model ; and 
schools in in the seventh century the same system was 
andEng- extended through the north of England. The 
land. pagan Saxons and Danes of Northumbria were 

the first to receive these Irish schools, which brought 
them a knowledge of reading and writing as well as the 
rudiments of the Christian faith. The monastery of Lin- 
disfarne, on an island off the coast of Northumberland, 
was founded by the Irish monk Aedan, in 634 ; Finan 
and Colman, the second and third heads of this monas- 
tery, were also Irishmen. 

54. Fame of the Irish schools. Thirty years after 
the founding of Lindisfarne, the English historian Bede 
has an entry which sheds some light on the position of 
the Irish schools Speaking of an epidemic of sickness 
which ravaged England in 664, he says : " This pesti- 
lence did no less harm in the island of Ireland. Many 


of the nobility and of the lower ranks of the English 
nation were there at that time, and some of them devoted 
themselves to the monastic life ; others chose to apply 
themselves to study. The Scots (Irish) willingly re- 
ceived them all, and took care to supply them with food, 
as also to furnish them with books to read, and their 
teaching, all free." 

At about the same time, Alfred, king of the North- 
umbrian Saxons, studied in Ireland, while a king of 
France, Dagobert II, passed a period of exile in Ireland 
and took the opportunity to study the language and lit- 
erature of the country. 

55. Political development during this period. Dur- 
ing the epoch of the saints and scholars, the family of 
Niall (see section 39) continued to dominate Ireland. 
Niall had several sons, one of whom, Laegaire, was king 
at Tara when Saint Patrick came ; another, Eogan, gave 
his name to a principality in the north, Tir-Eogain or 
Tyrone, "the land of Eogan;" a third son was Conall 
Gulban, who gave his name to the territory of Tir-Co- 
naill or Tyrconnell, "the land of Conall," now Donegal. 
Eogan' s grandson, Muirceartac, succeeded his cousin, 
Lugaid, in the High Kingship, holding it for twenty- 
four years. He had three brothers who gathered a fleet 
and made an expedition to the Irish colony in Scotland 
in 503. They gradually extended this colony 
into a kingdom. The kings of Scotland were of kingdom 
descended from this family, and the Stuarts 
brought the same race south to the throne of England 
eleven centuries later. 

Tuatal, the grandson of Cairbre, another of Niall's 
sons, was the next High King, holding the sovereignty 
for eleven years, and the three following High Kings, 
Diarmaid, Domnall, and Eocaid, were also descended 


from Niall. In 564, a rival family came into power. 
Ainmire, the son of Sedna, gained the supreme power and 
held it for three years. He was succeeded by his son, 
Aed, who held the sovereignty for twenty-seven years. 
The presence of a different family on the throne of Ire- 
land naturally caused trouble between that country and 
the colony of the descendants of Niall in Scotland. The 
ruler of the colony flatly refused to pay tribute to King 
Aed. Through the intervention of Saint Columba, al- 
ready recorded, this question was happily settled at the 
Synod of Druim-Ceatt (see section 51) in the year 574. 

56. The battle of Moira. Domnall, the son of Aed, 
who won the High Kingship after a series of short and 
unimportant reigns, is chiefly remembered for the battle 
invasion by of Moira > fought in the year 637. Early in his 
congaii. reign, Congall, one of the Ulster princes, had 
been driven into exile. Congall fled to Britain and spent 
ten years gaining friends and collecting an army, which 
he brought against his native country, landing on the 
shore of Belfast Lough. He led his army some fifteen 
miles inland to Moira, where he was met by Domnall, 
the High King. A battle was fought, which lasted for 
six days, in which Congall was defeated and slain. 

A series of unimportant reigns followed, marked only 

by the attempt of the High King, Finnacta, to levy the 

Boruma tribute (see section 28) on Leinster. 

Bornma x ' 

tribntere- He was persuaded to relinquish it by Saint 
* Moling, and thus for a time a fruitful source 

of strife was removed. From the reign of this king 
until the coming of the Danes there is nothing to record 
in the political, life of Ireland but a succession of battles 
in which the heads of various provincial kingdoms strug- 
gled for the mastery. 



Saint Patrick set the example of building churches and 
founding schools in different parts of Ireland. This practice 
was greatly extended in the sixth century. The first Irish 
school outside Ireland was founded by Saint Columba, at 
Iona off the Scottish coast, in 563. From Iona missionaries 
carried the same method and teaching through the Scottish 
Lowlands and the north of England. 

The family of Niall of the Nine Hostages reigned until the 
middle of the sixth century, and was followed by that of 
Ainmire, whose grandson, Domnall, won the battle of Moira. 
In the next generation, the Boruma tribute (see section 28) 
was remitted. 




57. Character of the Norse invasions. The tribal 
warfare rather expressed than detracted from the vigor 
of the nation's life, but it had one very grave defect. It 
so cherished and kindled the instinct of separateness 
that union in face of a common foe was almost impos- 
sible. This was shown during the early raids of the 
Norsemen, hardy pirates from the fiords of Norway and 
the isles of the Baltic. Modern historians generally write 
as if the onslaught of the Norsemen had had a unifying 
effect. Some write as though their coming had been a 
Not a great national calamity, overwhelming the coun- 

conquest. try for several centuries, and submerging its 
original life under a flood of conquest. But if we are to 
believe the Chronicles of the time, such was not the case. 
We find inroads of the Norsemen, it is true, but they 
are only interludes in the old life of storm and struggle, 
making no great difference to the masses of the people. 
The Norsemen, being pagans, did not spare the churches, 
schools, and religious settlements. The gold and sil- 
ver reliquaries, the jewelled manuscript-cases, 

Destine- . . . 

tiveness the offerings of precious stones and rich orna- 
oTthe" 6 ments laid on the altars, proved irresistible to 
invaders. ^ c g reec ]y sea-kings. They burned or threw 
away the manuscripts, caring only for the cases, and 
in this way many gaps in the nation's literature have 


become irremediable. Still, the loss was less than 
might be supposed, as many remote shrines were never 
reached, and in the periods between the raids copies of 
manuscripts could be, and. were, made. The entries in 
the Chronicles justify us in considering these raids of 
the Norsemen no more than episodes in the general 

58. The Norsemen begin their raids. The first 
advent of the Norse raiders is recorded to Laml)ay 
have taken place in 795 a. d. Lam bay, an islands, 
island of considerable extent off the Dublin coast, some 
six or seven miles north of Howth Head, was plun- 
dered and burned. There was a large and rich religious 
settlement there, with 
many books, which 
were stripped of their 
covers and burned. 
Three years later, the 
little island of Saint 
Patrick, six miles north ANC1ENT DANISH BOAT 

Of Lambay, met With This boat was found in a peat bog near Nydam, 
~. ■ ■ South Jutland 

a similar fate. It was 

" burned by the Gentiles," as the Chronicles say, mean- 
ing that the pirate Norsemen were pagans, ignorant of 

From that time forward we hear of their long ships 

again and again hovering hawk-like around the 
b ° & Iona raided. 

coasts of Ireland and Scotland. In 802, and 

again in 806, the settlement of Iona was raided, and 

Inismurray was plundered in the following year. 

In 812, five years later, the pirates made their way 
farther round the coast, and a great slaughter of the 
people of Connemara took place. In 819, Howth was 
plundered, and a great many women taken captive. 




position of 
the schools. 

These captives were doubtless the first to bring the mes- 
1 sage of the gospel to the wild granite lands of 

03PX1V6S 3.S w 

mission- Scandinavia. A year later, in 820, the raiders 
found their way to the southernmost extremity 
of Ireland, to Cape Clear Island, off the coast of Cork. 
This once more brings to our notice the position of so 
many of the early religious settlements, on rocky islands 
off the coasts, placed there to be well outside 
the turmoil of tribal strife, which raged uninter- 
rupted on the mainland. Saint Patrick's island, 
and Lambay on the east, Cape Clear Island on the south, 
and Inismurray on the northwest, so well protected by 
the sea from disturbance at home, were, by that very 
isolation, terribly exposed to the foreign raiders, who 
made the sea their highway. The religious- settlements 
and schools of Howth, Moville, and Bangor, all on penin- 
sulas, were open to a like danger. Therefore we are not 

surprised to find that 
they in their turn 
were " plundered by 
the Gentiles " two 
years later. 

59. Native resist- 
ance to the invad- 
ers. At first, the 
Norsemen had con- 
fined their expedi- 
tions to islands, or to 
coast settlements, and 
they had been wholly successful, leaving death and de- 
struction in their wake. In 823, we find them attempt- 
ing a raid against Dun-da-leth-glas, "the dwelling of the 
two broken fetters," the great royal fort beside Down- 
patrick, close to the mouth of the Quoyle River. This 


This chalice is 7 inches high and qJ inches in diam- 
eter, and in form like those in use in the tenth 
century. The bowl is silver, with gold plates on 
the bands 


is a great circular earthwork, like those at Tara, with 
a high mound inside for the chief's dwelling, and a moat 
skirted by a lesser exterior earthwork, and filled by a 
channel from the tidal river. This "fort of the two 
broken fetters " was thus almost impregnable from the 
land, but an enemy coming by sea could easily enter the 
channel of the moat, and so come close up under the for- 
tress. The raiders were successful, but did not wholly 
escape. We find that they were overtaken by the sol- 
diers of Dun-da-leth-glas and defeated shortly afterward. 
This is the first repulse suffered by the pirates in their 
incursions against the coasts of Ireland. 

60. The pirates penetrate inland. Three years later, 
they plundered Lusk on the mainland opposite Lambay, 
but in the same year, 826, they were twice Lusk plun . 
defeated in battle, once by Cairbre, and again dered - 
by the Ulster armies. From this time on, the raids of 
the northerners become more determined and frequent. 
The first pirates seem to have spread tidings 
among the northern fiords that Ireland was Ireland's 
inexhaustibly rich in jewels and gold, and all rc es ' 
kinds of costly stuffs dyed in red, blue, and purple ; so 
that swarms of pirates followed in the tracks of the first 
adventurous raiders. 

We read that Armagh, the centre of Saint 'Patrick's 
work, and the chief home of learning, was plundered 
three times in 830, the raiders sailing up Car- 

1 • • Raicls 

hngford Lough, and then making a dash of against 
some fifteen miles across the undulating coun- rmag 
try separating them from the city of churches on the 
Hill of Maca. This is the first time they ven- andoion- 
tured out of sight of their boats. Two years daUcin - 
later, they plundered Clondalkin, nine miles inland from 
the Dublin coast. 


61. The Round Towers of Ireland. At Clondalkin 
stands a Round Tower, which still marks the site of the 
old church and school ; and round towers of the same 
form are found all over the country. They were at once 
bell-towers and places of refuge, and their building is to 
be attributed to the growing frequency of the raids of 
the Norsemen. The doors of these round towers are 
almost always eight or ten feet above the ground, and 
were reached by ladders, which could be drawn up by 
those inside. As the walls were of great thickness, and 
as very heavy oak doors were used, these towers were 
safe even from fire, and the refugees could wait patiently 
until they were relieved by some neighboring chieftain, 
or until the invaders withdrew. 

62. The first permanent Norse settlements. In 836, 
a fleet of sixty Norse fighting galleys sailed up the river 
The capture Boyne, and the same number, or perhaps even 
of Dublin. t j ie same ships, later sailed up the Liffey. In 
the following year, the Norsemen captured " the Ford 
of the Hurdles," At-Cliat, the old name for Dublin. Up 
to this time, the Norse raiders had come only in early 
summer, retiring with their plunder to their native fiords 
a few months later, before the North Sea was swept by 
the autumn storms. But once they had gained a foot- 
ing at the mouth of the Liffey, they changed their plans, 
and determined to remain in Ireland through the winter. 

Not until the year 846 was any definite and concerted 
Slaughter attempt made to oust the intruders. In that 
of the year, the native powers made a concentrated 

Norsemen J ' r 

at Dublin, attack, and gained a victory over the Norsemen 
at At-Cliat, slaying twelve hundred of the pirates. Four 
other successful attempts to beat back the raiders are 
recorded for the same year. 

About the same time, the Norsemen gained a second 




point of vantage by seizing and fortifying a strong posi- 
tion in a great network of inlets on the south coast, where 
the town of Cork now stands. Their seamanlike cork ior- 
instincts led them to fix their first intrenched ^Norse- 
camps at Dublin, Cork, and Limerick — which men - 
remained during subsequent centuries the great ports of 
the country on the east, south, and west. The Norse 
language still lin- 
gers in the names of 
Strangford, Carling- 
ford, Wexford, and 
Waterford, the fiords 
of Strang, Cairlinn, 
Weis, and Vadre ; 
and in the names of 
a few of their set- 
tlements, like Smer- 
wick in Kerry. 

63. Beginning of 
national resistance. 
Four years after the 
capture of Cork, the 
contests between the 
raiders and the Irish 
chieftains grew more 
bitter, more centred, 
and more organized. 
In the words of the 
Annals, "A complete muster of the North was made 
by King Aed, so that he plundered the fortresses of 
the foreigners. The victory was gained over the foreign- 
ers, and a slaughter was made* of them. Their Norse defeat 
heads were collected in one place, in the pre- in853 - 
sence of the king, and twelve-score heads were reckoned 


Said to have been erected by Reginald the 
Dane in 1003 


before him, which was the number slain in that battle, 
besides the numbers of those who were wounded and 
carried off by him in the agonies of death, and who died 
of their wounds some time afterwards." 

Far from uniting against the Norse invaders in a single 
national force, however, the Irish chieftains often made 
temporary alliances with the pagan pirates in their fights 
against each other. In this way we find an Irish chief 
allying himself with the foreigners to make an attack 
upon King Aed two years after the contest just de- 

Three kings of Ireland gained lasting renown during 
these contests with the Norsemen. The first was Niall, 
Niaii, Mai- son of Aed, High King from 916 to 919, who 
Great and finally fell m a battle near Dublin, in which 
Brian Boru. the foreigners overcame the native tribesmen. 
The second was Malachi the Great, who became High 
King in 980. The third was Brian Boru, brother of 
Mahon, king of the province of North Muma, or Mun- 
ster. This region lay south of the lower Shannon, and 
was dominated by the strong settlement of the Norse- 
men at Limerick. 

Brian and his brother Mahon were in perpetual con- 
flict with the Norse raiders, alternately defeating them 
and being defeated, but were finally worsted and com- 
pelled to fly across the estuary of the Shannon to the 
lakes and forests of Clare. Brian finally determined to 
Brian de- make another vigorous effort against the in- 
Norsemen va ders, and, calling a general assembly of the 
atsnicoit. tribesmen of North Munster, he asked them to 
make a decision for peace or war. The tribesmen unani- 
mously decided for war, a'nd a battle was fought in 968, 
at Sulcoit, north of the Galtee Mountains, in what is 
now Tipperary, and the Norsemen were defeated and 

99 8] 



put to flight. The Munster tribesmen pursued them for 
twenty miles, till they took refuge in their strong fortress 
at Limerick. This was the first of a series of victories 
against the raiders, who, from this time forward, are 
generally spoken of as Danes, though they came from 
Norway as well as Denmark. 

While Brian directed his attacks against the Norse set- 
tlements of Limerick and the lower Shannon, the High 
King, Malachi the Great, was making a like at- 
tack on the Norse settlements in Dublin, and on attacks 
the coast as far north as the Boyne. In 979, 
he defeated the invaders near Tara, and even captured 
their stronghold of Dublin, setting free two thousand 
prisoners whom they had 
taken from the Irish tribes. 
Dublin was recovered by the 
Norsemen, but again taken 
by Malachi, in 996, when that 
king captured, among other 
spoils, the golden ring of a 
former Norse chieftain, To- 
mar, and the historic sword 
of Carlus, who had been slain 
in battle a century and a 
quarter earlier. The ring of 
Tomar, the first king of the 
Danes of Dublin, had been handed down as an heirloom. 
The sword of Carlus, son of a Danish king, changed 
hands four times, being carried off and retaken by both 
Danish and Irish armies. 

64. Malachi and Brian divide Ireland between them, 
998. Two such strong personalities as Malachi and 
Brian, rulers of provinces which had long been rivals, 
could hardly be expected to live in brotherly union and 



concord. We find them constantly at strife, even while 
both were fighting against the common foe. They finally 
agreed to divide Ireland between them, Malachi taking 
the northern part, and handing over the southern to 
Brian. This arrangement was made in 998, and not un- 
naturally gave great offence to the king of Leinster, 
whose territory lay in the southeast of the island, and 
therefore in the region assigned by Malachi to Brian. 
The king of Leinster made an alliance with the Danes 
of Dublin, and determined to resist Brian's authority. 
Brian and Malachi immediately gathered an army, and 
met and defeated the united armies of the king of Leinster 
and the Danes in one of the valleys of the Wicklow hills. 
Four thousand of the Leinstermen and Danes were slain. 

65. Brian becomes High King. Brian was too am- 
bitious willingly to acknowledge the overlordship of 
Malachi, the High King. He determined to win the 
Forms alii- chief sovereignty for himself, and decided to 

SeDanes form an alliance witn tne Danes of Dublin in 
01 Dublin, order to strengthen his party. He married 
Gormlait, sister of the king of Leinster, and widow of a 
former chieftain of the Danes, whose son Sitric was now 
their acknowledged leader. This alliance won over to 
Brian's side both the king of Leinster and the Danes of 
Dublin, and Brian presently felt strong enough to lead 
an army northward toward Tara, to try conclusions with 
Malachi for the High Kingship of Ireland. Malachi 
recognized that his opponent was too strong for him, and 
made his submission. This took place in the year 1002, 
and for the next twelve years, until he was slain at 
the battle of Clontarf, Brian was recognized as the High 

66. The rule of Brian. As High King, Brian showed 
he was no less a statesman than a warrior. He ruled 




Ireland from the fort of Kincora, in Clare. All over Ire- 
land, schools and monasteries had suffered from the at- 
tacks of the Norsemen. Brian rebuilt them and restored 
them to their former prosperity. 
He further compelled general obe- 
dience to the law. To indicate the 
peace and security which prevailed 
during his High Kingship, it is 
said that a lady richly clad and 
wearing a gold ring could walk 
from one end of Ireland to the 
other without the slightest danger 
of molestation. Brian also made 
roads, built bridges, and opened 
up the country for internal traffic. 
A period of general well-being be- 
gan, which lasted for a century 
and three quarters, during which 
the genius of Ireland enjoyed a 
free and happy development almost 
equal to that of the great epoch ancient irish harp said 
after the coming- of Saint Patrick. 


67. Quarrel between Brian and The harp is 32 inches high and 

. has 24 strings. The arms of 

the king Of Leinster. The king the O'Brien family are chased 
. ..... on the front arm 

of Leinster visited his new ally and 

brother-in-law Brian at the latter's fortress of Kincora 
above the Shannon. Tradition says that he quarrelled 
with Brian's son at a game of chess, and that from this 
quarrel grew a lasting enmity which finally determined 
the king of Leinster to invoke the aid of the Danes 
against Brian and his ally Malachi. Long and deter- 
mined preparations were made for the struggle, the 
Norsemen summoning allies from their settlements in 
the Western Isles and Scotland, and from the coasts of 


the North Sea. Brian, with his ally, the former High 
King, brought the armies of Ireland to the level coun- 
try on the north bank of the Liffey, close to Dublin, 
prepared for the final conflict. 

68. The battle of Clontarf. The great battle of Clon- 
tarf was fought on Good Friday, in the year 1014. The 
site of the scene of this famous conflict was on the coast, 
battle. between Dublin and the Hill of Howth. A 

wide strand of boulders is here laid bare by the receding 
tide. At the very verge of the farthest tide, on either 
bank of the Liffey, are immense sandbanks, where the 
waves roar and rumble with a sound like the bellowing 
of bulls. Even to-day the sandbanks are called the North 
and South Bull. The name Clontarf comes from Cluain- 
tarb, the " Meadow of the Bulls," a name poetically de- 
rived from the roaring of the waves along the shore. 

Sitric, the Danish chief, had assembled his forces and 
his allies the Leinstermen within and around the walls 
of Dublin. Brian and Malachi then set fire to the outly- 
ing settlements, and the fighting became general. There 
was little order or strategy on either side, but rather a 
series of hand-to-hand conflicts. All day the battle raged, 
" a spirited, fierce, violent, vengeful, and furious battle," 
as the Annals say. Toward evening, the Danes and 
their allies began to give way before a determined attack 
of Brian and Malachi. As the tide was out, the ships of 
the Danes were at a considerable distance, with a wide 
stretch of rough and slippery boulders between. Thus 
the Danes failed to reach their ships. The slaughter on 
both sides was great, the Danes and Leinstermen los- 
ing seven thousand warriors, while four thousand of the 
tms battle Irish army were slain. Nearly all the leaders of 
final. j^k arrn j es were killed, Brian the High King 

falling, as well as the king of Leinster, who had provoked 


the conflict. The battle of Clontarf closed the struggle 
between paganism and Christianity. The news of the 
victory of Brian was rapidly carried across the sea to the 
distant Norsemen, who were so impressed with the story 
of their kinsmen's defeat that they made no more raids 
against Ireland. 


The Norsemen first came to Ireland from the coast of Nor- 
way in 795, and until 1014 their destructive raids were con- 
tinuous. They burned towns, plundered the churches and 
schools, and took innumerable captives, first attacking the 
islands and settlements on the coast, and then venturing 
inland. These captives became missionaries in their exile. 
By about 850, the Norsemen held possession of such impor- 
tant strongholds as Dublin, Cork, and Limerick, and the con- 
tests between them and the Irish chieftains grew more bitter, 
first one side and then the other gaining the advantage. 
Famous among the Irish High Kings who fought against the 
invaders were Niall, Malachi the Great, and Brian Boru. At 
the battle of Clontarf, in 1014, Brian Boru finally broke the 
power of the Norsemen. The struggle between paganism 
and Christianity was closed, and no more Norsemen came to 




69. The Danes did not attack Christianity. The 

Norse invasions, which harassed Ireland during more 
than two centuries, did no lasting or vital harm either to 
the national or spiritual development of the people. From 
a political standpoint, they caused disturbances which 
were scarcely more than added incidents to the general 
warfare of the times. From a religious standpoint, the 
harm they did was only material. When churches and 
monasteries were raided, the attack was made in search 
of booty, and not against Christianity ; and, if monks and 
nuns were carried off as prisoners, they only gained a 
new field for their moral energies. We find them exert- 
ing their Christian influence by preaching the gospel 
among the pirates who carried them away. 

70. Ireland the bridge over the Dark Ages. Along 
with the teaching of the Gospels, which were read in 
Latin, the study of the ancient poets and historians of 
Rome, and even of Greece, was not neglected. Ireland 
had received the learning and traditions of Rome while 
Rome was still mighty. The Roman Empire fell, swal- 
lowed up by the tide of northern savages. Gaul was 
overrun by the Franks ; Spain and Italy by the Lom- 
bards, Goths, and Vandals ; Britain by Angles, Saxons, 
and Danes ; while Picts and Norsemen devastated the 
Scottish lowlands, and destroyed whatever of Roman cul- 


ture had penetrated there ; Austria was swept by Asiatic 
nomads, like the Huns and Magyars ; Russia and Ger- 
many, with the Scandinavian lands, were still pagan. 
Thus all Europe was submerged under a deluge of 
heathendom. Ireland was the one exception, the ark of 
safety for the old wisdom and beauty of classical days. 
It was the bridge over the Dark Ages, and, as soon as 
the flood of heathen invasion ebbed, light and hope 
crossed the bridge, and were first carried by Irish teachers 
and preachers to all the new-formed nations of Europe, 
the great pagan tribes that were to be transformed into 
the peoples of the modern world. 

71. Ireland's pagan history preserved almost com- 
plete. At this point, another view of Ireland's significance 
should be held in mind. We know practically nothing 
of the original life of the great pagan peoples who de- 
stroyed the Roman Empire. Franks, Vandals, Angles, 
Lombards, and the rest are shrouded in complete dark- 
ness, until they are illumined by the fires of devastation 
which they kindled through the provinces of Rome. 

Outside Greece and Italy, we have very few written re- 
cords for the study of early European life in any country 
but Ireland. There the bards and heralds had Records of 
woven a durable fabric of verse in every period Hw bards, 
of their ancient history, recording not only events, but 
also the whole substance and tenor of their lives, with 
their loves and hates, their hopes and fears, their ambi- 
tions and their longings. This web of verse still lived 
in the hearts and on the lips of the bards when Patrick 
went to Ireland and learned the Irish tongue. In this 
tongue he himself composed verses after the ancient 
Irish model. Writing was brought by Patrick, or introduction 
even earlier. When it came, the ancient verse ° Jwrltln e- 
records were full of life, and so were written down and 


preserved. Many of them were translated into Latin 
at the same time, as the historical records and chronicles 
kept by the churches and schools were written in Latin. 
Thus the ancient traditional literature of Ireland has been 
transmitted to the modern world virtually intact, embody- 
ing the greater part of what we know of the ancient peo- 
ples of northern Europe. 

72. Missionary work on the continent. The work 
of converting the pagans of northwestern Europe to 
Christianity was carried on chiefly by Irish missionaries, 
aided bv men of continental birth, who had received their 
religious and literary training in Ireland. Columba and 
msh his associates brought Christianity, learning, and 

pioneers. ar t t Scotland, and later to the pagan Angles 
and Saxons of the north of England. We shall now 
briefly trace the work of Irish missionaries on the con- 
tinent of Europe, in the centuries following the time of 
Saint Columba. 

The best known of the continental missionaries was 
Coiumbanns Columbanus, a Leinsterman, born in 543. 
in France. From the school of Bangor, in the north of 
Ireland, Columbanus went to France, where he worked 
for about twenty years, and founded the two monasteries 
of Luxeuil and Fontaines. He was expelled from Bur- 
gundy for denouncing the vices of King Theodoric, and 
later he incurred the displeasure of the reigning queen 
of the Franks, who ordered him to be sent back to Ire- 
land. We next find him on the Rhine, visiting the ruined 
monasteries and schools which had been devastated by 
the Franks and Goths. He and his disciples ascended 

the river toward Switzerland. When they 
Oallus J 

fonndsnis reached Lake Constance, Gallus, one of the pu- 
monas ery. « g ^ Columbanus, decided to remain there, 
and soon afterward, in 612, laid the foundation of the 




monastery of Saint Gall. From Gallus the Swiss canton 

of Saint Gall takes its name. 

Columbanus continued his pilgrimage southward across 

the Alps into Italy. There he received a grant of land 

in the territory between Milan and Genoa, on _ , _ 

J Columbanus 

which he founded the monastery of Bobbio. founds 
Columbanus was a man of great learning, and 
found time to write many books, including a " Monastic 
Rule " and many learned letters. He passed the closing 
days of his life as a hermit, in the mountains of Italy. 

Fursa, the apostle of Belgium ; Fridolin, who taught 
on the Rhine ; Cataldus of Lismore, who became bishop 
of Tarentum in the south of Italy, and Kilian, other Irish 
the teacher of Franconia, show how widely dis- teachers, 
persed and how influential were these Irish missions. 
Even more eminent was Virgil, the founder of the great 
religious settlement at Salz- 
burg in Austria. He was 
famed for his knowledge of 
mathematics and science, and 
was the first among moderns 
to teach that the earth was 
round and went round the 
sun. Virgil died in 785. Hard- 
ly less celebrated was Dem- 
cad of Cologne, who died in 


It is interesting to note 
how these missionaries trav- 
elled. They went in compa- 
nies, taking with them their 
books, the beautiful manu- 
scripts for which Ireland was so justly famed. They 
carried no weapons more formidable than long staves, 


From a manuscript in the British 


and had leathern wallets and drinking-bottles fastened 
How the to their girdles. For writing, they used the 
SlTVav- 11 " wax writing-tablets of the Romans, as well as 
eiied. prepared skins or parchments. Excelling in 

religious and classical learning, they were also skilled 
in music, painting, and carving. They not only visited 
already existing monasteries, but often explored lands 
where Christianity had never been heard of, such as Po- 
land, Bulgaria, Russia, and Iceland. Where they found 
a region which pleased and attracted them, they made a 
settlement and worked among the people. 

73. Johannes Scotus Brigena, 800-875. The fa- 
mous universities of Oxford, Paris, and Pavia counted 
among the great spirits which inspired their being and 
laid the foundations of. their classical learning men who 
were worthy pupils of the Irish schools of Devenish, 
Durrow, Bangor, and Moville. The most celebrated of 
these was Johannes Scotus Erigena, that is, "John the 
Scot, born in Erin ; " the close friend of Charles the Bald, 
king of France. 

74. Marianus Scotus. One of the most characteristic 
Irish religious settlements on the continent was at Rat- 
isbon, or Regensburg, in Bavaria. Its monastery was 
dedicated to Saint James, and from it teachers went 
forth to found many other " Scotic," that is, Irish, monas- 
teries. The story of Marianus Scotus is closely connected 
with this school ; and although this famous scholar came 
somewhat later than the epoch we have been describ- 
ing, living at the end of the eleventh century, his life and 
work give us an insight into the character and methods 
of the earlier missionaries. 

" This holy man wrote from beginning to end with his 
own hand the Old and New Testaments, with explana- 
tory comments on the same books, and that not once or 


twice, but over and over again, with a view to the eternal 
reward, all the while clad in sorry garb, living on slender 
diet, attended and aided by his brethren, both in the 
upper and lower monasteries, who prepared the parch- 
ments for his use ; besides, he also wrote many smaller 
books and manuals, psalters for distressed widows and 
poor clerics in the same city toward the health of his 
soul, without any prospect of earthly gain. Furthermore, 
through the grace of God, many congregations of the 
monastic order, which, in faith and charity and imitation 
of the blessed Marianus, are derived from the aforesaid 
Ireland, and inhabit Bavaria and Franconia, are sustained 
by the writings of the blessed Marianus." 

75. Enthusiasm for Irish teaching. It is easy to 
understand that all this missionary zeal flowed from a 
sincere and abundant culture at home. Greek had early 
been added to Latin, and some of the ancient Irish schol- 
ars were even familiar with Hebrew. The fame of these 
schools had gone abroad, and students flocked to Ireland 

from all the neighboring countries, and espe- „ 

& & r Great num- 

cially from England, coming thence in fleet bersof 
loads, as a Saxon writer at the beginning of the 
eighth century expressed it. From kings and nobles 
down to the poorest students, all were received, cared 
for, and taught, free of charge, in the Irish schools. Saint 
Finnian's school at Clonard in Meath had three thou- 
sand pupils, and Bangor in Down had almost as many. 
Allowing one New Testament to three pupils, a thou- 
sand copies would be required for each of these schools, 
so that scribes had plenty of work. The tide of learning 
also flowed outward from Ireland. Thus a great divine 
of France, who died in 875 a. d., writes: "What need 
to speak of Ireland, setting at nought, as it does, the 
difficulties of the sea, and coming almost in a body to our 


shores, with its crowd of philosophers, the most intelligent 
of whom are subjecting themselves to a voluntary exile." 
76. Supply of books. In the beginning, it was almost 
impossible to get a sufficient supply of books for the new 
monasteries, as the copying of manuscripts was a slow 
matter. Such continental monasteries as those founded 
by Columbanus at Luxeuil, Fontaines, and Bobbio got 
Furnished their supply of books from the Irish schools, and 
by Irish up to the tenth century it was the custom of 
the Irish teachers to carry books from their 
island home to their schools on the continent. There are 
numerous instances of donations of manuscripts made 
by Irish scholars to foreign schools. Thus, in 823, a 
learned Irishman gave a number of books to the mon- 
astery of Bobbio. Two of these may still be seen in the 
Ambrosian Library at Milan. Not long after, in 841, 
Marcus, an Irish bishop, who was returning with his 
nephew from a pilgrimage to Rome, visited the monas- 
tery of Saint Gall in Switzerland. He was so charmed 
with the view that he remained there for the rest of his 
life, and, out of gratitude for the hospitality he received, 
willed his books to the monastery. 

As all books at this time were written by hand, pen- 
manship was one of the most cultivated arts, and was 
carried to a wonderful degree of perfection. The scribes, 
who were generally, but not invariably, monks, were held 
in great respect by the people. The Irish books 
the early were not only finely written, but also orna- 
mented in a fashion which was early perfected 
in Ireland. First the initial letters were made larger, 
more elaborate, and more beautiful. Then they were 
surrounded with dots of color, and finally with delicately 
interlaced scroll-work, which was sometimes continued 
along the margin of the page. Decorated head-pieces 


and tail-pieces were added, in which leaves, the figures 
of animals and serpents, and sometimes even portraits 


This is the most elegant initial page in the book, and represents 
Xpt (the abbreviation of Christi) autem generatio, translated 
to Now the generation of Christ. Matt. i. 18 

of saints were mingled with the interlaced scroll-work. 
Many colors were used. Red, green, pink, blue, and yel- 
low, for instance, are employed in the illumi- _ t , 
' ' r J The books 

nation of the Book of Kells. So well were ofKeiis, 


these colors made that after twelve centuries Durrow,' 

and Mac- 

they have lost none of their original brilliancy. 
The Book of Kells was finished before the end 
of the seventh century, and is, without doubt, the most 

86 IRELAND'S STORY [500-1100 

perfect and most beautiful manuscript in the world. It 
is a Latin manuscript of the Gospels. The Book of Ar- 
magh, finished in 807, contains the Confession of Saint 
Patrick, the Epistle to Coroticus, and a Life of the 
apostle of Ireland. The Book of Durrow, written about 
the same time as the Book of Kells, and the Book of 
MacDurnan, written shortly after the Book of Armagh, 
show the same admirable workmanship. 


About the time when Saint Patrick was working in Ireland, 
the Roman Empire was attacked and conquered by hordes 
of pagans from the north and east of Europe. These pagans 
destroyed the institutions of the Roman Empire, and over- 
threw the Christian churches and schools. A period of law- 
lessness and ignorance began, from which the modern nations 
of western Europe gradually emerged. Missionaries and 
teachers from Ireland were the strongest influence in reviv- 
ing Christianity and spreading classical learning over Britain, 
France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland ; and 
Irish teachers penetrated as far as Iceland, Russia, and the ex- 
treme south of Italy. For centuries they provided all northern 
Europe with books. 



1015-1 169 

77. Malachi again becomes High King. On the death 
of Brian, Malachi once more became High King, and filled 
this office worthily for eight years more, dying in 1022, 
at the age of seventy-three. During the closing years 
of his life, he stamped out the last sparks of Danish re- 
sistance, and once more defeated the late allies of the 
Danes, the men of Leinster. We shall find the same 
provincial kingdom playing a leading part in the events 
which brought the Normans to Ireland, more than a 
century and a half later. 

78. The political divisions of Ireland in the elev- 
enth century. Ireland was at this time divided into five 
provinces or provincial kingdoms, with the kingdom of 
Meath in the centre. In Ulster, the descend- o'Neiiisoi 
ants of Niall of the Nine Hostages still ruled, ulster * 
their tribal name being "Sons of Niall," Hy Neill, or 
O'Neill. A branch of the Hy Neill, the Hy Lochlain, 
or O'Loughlins, at this time held the dominant power 
among the Sons of Niall. In Connaught, the o'Conors 01 
sons of Concobar, the Hy Concobar, or O'Con- c<mnaugllt 
ors, were the ruling family. In Munster or Muma, with 
its two divisions of Tuaid-Muma, or North Munster, later 
called Thomond, and Deas-Muma, or South O'Briens of 
Munster, later called Desmond, the family of Munster - 
Brian, victor of Clontarf, dominated, the Hy Brien, or 


O'Briens. Leinster, the fourth provincial kingdom, was 
governed by the descendants of the king whom 

Leinster. ° J ° 

we found allied to the Danes (see section 65), 
and perhaps because the Leinstermen had shared in the 
defeat of the Danes at Clontarf, we find their kingdom 
at this time under a temporary eclipse. Each of these 
provincial kingdoms was divided into districts, whose 
warlike chiefs were hardly less powerful than the pro- 
vincial kings themselves. 

79. Struggle for the High Kingship. The O'Lough- 
lins of Ulster, the O' Conors of Connaught, and the 
O'Briens of Munster all equally desired the title of Ard- 
Rig, or High King, which carried with it the overlordship 
of Ireland and the possession of the central kingdom of 
Meath. The period after Malachi the Great, who died 
in 1022, is filled with the struggles of these families to 
wrest the overlordship from each other. First one and 
then another gained an advantage, but none of the con- 
testants was entirely successful in asserting his authority 
over the rest. 

The first to gain a temporary ascendency was Donough, 
the son of Brian Boru, who won predominance for Mun- 
ster. He was deposed in 1064, and the overlordship 
passed to the king of Leinster. Eight years later, how- 
ever, in 1072, Munster again gained the upper hand under 
Turlogh O'Brien, grandson of Brian Boru. Meanwhile 
Ulster had remained practically independent of the High 
Kings. Turlogh O'Brien made a vigorous effort to 
assert his power over the northern kingdom, but was 
defeated by the men of Ulster at the old frontier ford 
of At-Ferdiad, or Ardee, where Cuculaind, the champion 
of Ulster, had long centuries before defeated Ferdiad, 
the champion of the armies of the south and west. The 
feud passed on to Turlogh's son, Murkertagh O'Brien, 


who became king of Leinster in 1086. For a generation 
he fought with the chief of the family of Niall, Donall 
O'Loughlin, for the title of High King. 

80. Tigearnac's History of Ireland. It must not be 
imagined, however, that this was merely a time of warfare 
amongst the provincial kings. On the contrary, science, 
art, and literature flourished greatly. One of the great 
Irish writers of this period, Tigearnac, the chronicler, " a 
paragon of learning and history," as the Annals call him, 
died two years after the accession of Murkertagh, leaving 
us his great Latin history of Ireland. This history is a 
monument at once of the classical learning of the Irish 
schools and of the historical spirit which had been handed 
down from the bards and annalists of pagan times. Ti- 
gearnac enriches his history with many quotations from 
Latin and Greek writers like Eusebius, Orosius, Julius 
Africanus, Josephus, and Jerome. 

81. The rock of Cashel. This was also the golden 
age of Irish native architecture. Murkertagh O'Brien, 
king of Munster, like his ancestors before him, had his 
great central fortress on the rock of Cashel in Tipper- 
ary. The word Cashel means " a stone fortress." Murk- 
ertagh made a grant of the rock of Cashel to the church, 
and the beautiful religious buildings which still stand 
there were shortly afterward begun. The rock itself on 
which these buildings stand rises sharply to a height of 
three hundred feet, and thus dominates the whole sur- 
rounding plain. The most interesting building on the 
rock is King Cormac's chapel, built by Cormac Ki 
MacCarthy, chief of South Munster, and conse- cormac's 
crated in n 34. It is the most perfect example 

of native architecture in Ireland. King Cormac's chapel 
has the high pitched stone roof of the early native 
churches like Saint Columba's house at Kells and Saint 




Kevin's at Glendalough. These steep stone roofs were 
so well built and so strong that they have lasted for centu- 
ries, while the roofs of much later buildings, supported 
by wooden beams, have fallen to ruin. Square towers of 
about fifty feet high stand on each side of King Cormac's 


Cormac's chapel with its peaked roof and square towers is seen in the middle of the 
group of buildings. The cap of the round tower is visible on the right 

chapel, one of them having a pyramid top. The arches 
in this chapel are semicircular, in the style later called 
Norman, but really handed down from the Romans. 

The cathedral beside Cormac's chapel was founded 
in 1 1 52. It is a cruciform or cross-shaped church, its 
The ground-plan being in the form of a cross. In 

cathedral. tne ca thedral the arches are pointed, or what 
is usually called Gothic, and the clusters of pillars are 
elaborately sculptured. Reside the cathedral rises a 
The cross round tower more than ninety tet high. The 
oicashei. cr0 ss of Cashel stands close to the cathedral. 
At its base the kings of Munster were formerly crowned 

1 148] 



82. Archbishop Malachias. The most prominent 
figure in the religious life of Ireland in the period follow- 
ing the battle of Clontarf was Mael- 
maedog, to whom the biblical name 
of Malachias was also given. The 
Chronicles tell us, under the year 
1 148: "A synod was con- The synod 
vened at Saint Patrick's isle of 1148 - 
by Maelmaedog, successor of Pat- 
rick, at which were present fifteen 
bishops and two hundred priests, to 
establish rules and morals for all. 
Maelmaedog, by the advice of the 
synod, went a second time to Rome, 
to confer with the successor of Pe- 
ter." A few months later, the An- 
nals record his death : " Malachias, 
that is, Maelmaedog, archbishop of 
the Chair of Patrick, chief head of 
the piety of the West of Europe, 
Legate of the successor of Peter, the 
only head whom the Irish and the Foreigners [Norse- 
men in Ireland] obeyed, chief paragon of wisdom and 
piety, a brilliant lamp which illumined territories and 
churches by preaching and good works, faith- 
ful shepherd of the church in general, — after of Mala- 


having ordained bishops and priests, and per- 
sons of every degree ; after having consecrated many 
churches and cemeteries ; after having performed every 
ecclesiastical work throughout Ireland ; after having be- 
stowed jewels" and food upon the mighty and the needy ; 
after having fo .nded churches and monasteries, for by 
him was repaired in Ireland every church which had 
been consigned to decay and neglect, and they had been 

This crosier was found in 
Cormac's tomb, and is 
undoubtedly of contem- 
porary origin with the 
chapel. It is 12 inches 
long and made of cop- 
per. The staff is de- 


neglected from times remote ; after leaving every rule 
and every good moral in the churches of Ireland in gen- 
eral ; after having been the second time in the legateship ; 
after having been fourteen years in the primacy ; and 
after the fifty-fourth year of his age, resigned his spirit 
to Heaven on the second day of November and was 
buried in the monastery of Saint Bernard, at Clara Val- 
lis [Clairvaux] in France." 

83. The four archbishoprics of Ireland. At this time 
there were four archbishoprics in Ireland : at Armagh, 
Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam, in the provincial kingdoms of 
Ulster, Munster, Leinster, and Connaught respectively. 

The primacy belonged to Armagh, as it had 
macyof been founded by Saint Patrick. A sentence 

in the Annals shows how the church revenues 
were raised at this time : " a horse from every chieftain, 
a sheep from every hearth." 

84. Struggle for the Hi^h Kingship continued. (See 
section 79.) The kingdoms of Ulster and Munster, 
headed by Donall, O'Loughlin, and Murkertagh O'Brien, 
fought steadily for the overlordship of Ireland for more 
than thirty years. Wearied of strife, these two kings 
finally left their thrones and entered monasteries, the 
king of Ulster taking refuge in a religious house at Derry, 
while the king of Munster sought retirement at the ab- 
bey of Lismore, in Waterford, where he died in 11 19. 
The ex-king of Ulster passed away two years later. The 
strife between these two kingdoms weakened them both, 
Turlogh and advantage was taken of this by Turlogh 
becomes O'Conor, king of Connaught, who claimed the 
High King, title of High King, and fought for it against 
Murkertagh O'Loughlin, king of Ulster, until his death 
in 1 1 56. This Turlogh O'Conor is celebrated in the ar- 
tistic history of Ireland as having ordered the making of 

1 1 62] 



the beautiful Cross of Cong, one of the finest examples of 
native metal and jewel work. 

85. Reign of Roderick O'Conor. Turlogh O'Conor 
was succeeded by his son, Roderick O'Conor, who car- 
ried on the fight against Ulster. Several characteristic 
and important events and 
changes took place in his reign, 
which marks the close of this 
great and purely Irish epoch. 
Like all sovereigns of his time, 
he made many raids and incur- 
sions against the neighboring 
rulers, to bring back " a count- 
less number of cows." With 
this end in view he undertook 
a work which, for those times, 
was a wonderful piece of 
construction : a pile BuUds ffc- 

bridge at Athlone, bridge p» 
,, Athlone. 

over the great river 

Shannon, in order to lead his 
army into Meath, a fertile field 
for his raids. This bridge was the first of its kind ever 
built in Ireland, and was in structure something like the 
famous bridge built by Julius Caesar across the Rhine, 
or like modern wooden bridges built on pile foundations. 
In 1 162, an army was assembled by the king of Ulster, 
Murkertagh O'Loughlin, to march against At-Cliat, that 
is, Dublin, and attack the Norsemen and Leinstermen 
there. Roderick O'Conor joined the expedi- Attacks the 
tion, bringing an army of his own Con naught- Danes - 
men and the men of Meath. The foray was suc- 
cessful, and "a peace was concluded between the For- 
eigners [Norsemen] and the Gaels ; and six score ounces 


This cross was made in 1123 to en- 
shrine a portion of the true cross 
for Turlogh O'Conor. It is made 
of oak covered with copper plates 
set with jewels 


of gold were given by the Foreigners to O'Loughlin, and 
Gold as five score ounces of gold were paid by Dermot 
SsteJd O'Melaghlin to Roderick O'Conor, for West 
of cattle. Meath." Here we see the beginning of the 
modern method of war indemnities paid in money, as 
against the ancient system of cattle raiding.^ 

Murkertagh O'Loughlin died in 1166, and the claim of 
Roderick O'Conor to the overlordship was admitted 
Roderick's without dispute. In the following year he con- 
shi^admit- vene d a general assembly from all parts of 
ted. Ireland. We have already described the great 

religious meeting, the church synod, called together by 
Archbishop Malachias in 1148. We now come to an 
The great equally representative civil assembly, the first 
semwyoi which embraced the whole country. This is 
1167. how the Annals describe it : " A great meeting 

was called together by Roderick O'Conor and the chiefs 
of Leat-Cuin, both lay and ecclesiastic, and the chiefs of 
At-Boy [the ' Yellow Ford ' in Meath]. To it came the 
successor of Patrick, the archbishop of Connaught, the 
archbishop of Leinster, the lord of Brefny, the lord of 
Oriel, the king of Ulster, the king of Tara, and Ragnall, 
son of Ragnall, lord of the Foreigners [Norsemen]. The 
whole of their gathering and assemblage was nineteen 
thousand horsemen, of whom six thousand were Con- 
naughtmen, four thousand with the lord of Brefny, two 
thousand with the king of Tara, four thousand with the 
lord of Oriel and the king of Ulster, two thousand 
with the chief of Offaly, and one thousand with the For- 
eigners of At-Cliat [Dublin], They passed many good 
resolutions at this meeting respecting veneration for 
churches and clerics, and control of tribes and territories, 
so that women used to traverse Ireland alone ; and a 
restoration of his prey was made by the chief of Offaly 


at the hands of the kings aforesaid. They afterwards 
separated in peace and amity, without battle or contro- 
versy, or without any one complaining of another at that 
meeting, in consequence of the prosperousness of the 
king, who had assembled these chiefs with their forces." 
In this year, a second assembly was called by Roderick 
O'Conor to settle a dispute as to the boundary line be- 
tween the territories of two neighboring chiefs, 

° _. A Roderick as 

both of the royal line of Ulster. The Annals anarwtra- 
say : "They arrived at Tir-Eogain [Tyrone], 
and allotted the part of it north of Slieve Gullion [now 
the eastern part of Derry] to Neil O'Loughlin for two 
hostages, and allotted the part of the country of the clan 
to the south of the mountain to Aed O'Neill for two 
other hostages." This dispute, half a century earlier, 
would have been settled by bloodshed. 

86. Growth of national feeling. As a result of the 
great assembly convened by Roderick O'Conor, national 
feeling began to assert itself, and with it a recognition 
of the method of conciliation and mutual understanding, 
rather than an appeal to armed force. Roderick also 
established a fund for the instruction of the youth of 
Ireland and Scotland in literature. 


Malachi succeeded Brian Boru and ruled till 1022. Then 
followed a long struggle for control till Roderick O'Conor 
became High King in 1156. He held, in 1 167, the first repre- 
sentative civil assembly of the whole country. Archbishop 
Malachias, who assembled the church synod of 1 148, was the 
chief religious figure of the period. Ireland was at this time 
divided into five provinces. There were four archbishoprics. 
Progress in the fine arts was shown in Cormac's chapel and 
other works of art still preserved. 




English Sovereigns : 

Henry II, 1154-1189 Richard I, 1 [89-1199 

87. The beginning of the Norman invasion. In the 
middle of the twelfth century, Dermot MacMurrogh was 
Treason of king of Leinster. We have found the kings of 
MacMur- Leinster in former years repeatedly in league 
rogn. with the Danes of Dublin, against the kings of 

Meath and Connaught, and we are therefore prepared 
to find Dermot going even farther. In the year 11 66, 
Dermot, who had been guilty of a series of violent ac- 
tions, finally rendered himself so intolerable that Roder- 
ick O'Conor and other chiefs compelled him to surrender 
his kingdom and leave the country. Seeking vengeance, 
he fled to England and appealed to Henry II, duke of the 
Normans and king of the English, to help him, 

06CKS aid 

of Norman promising allegiance in return. Henrys mind 
was preoccupied with the struggle for his domin- 
ions in France, more than half of which country at that 
time acknowledged his rule. He therefore declined him- 
self to undertake the reinstatement of Dermot, but per- 
mitted any of his subjects who were willing to engage 
in the adventure. Dermot immediately secured the help 
of Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke, generally known 
as " Strongbow," who entered his service as a mercenary. 
To Strongbow Dermot promised the hand of his daugh- 


ter Eva in marriage, while two chiefs of the Welsh Ger- 
aldines, Maurice Fitzgerald and Robert Fitzstephen, 
were bought by promises of Irish land, to be won from 
Dermot's enemies. It was thus as mercenaries, and at 
the instigation of a renegade Irishman, that the Normans 
gained their first entrance into Ireland. 

Fitzstephen made his first landing in one of the lesser 
Wexford harbors, having with him a hundred knights 
and six hundred archers. He joined his forces ___ . 

J Attack on 

to those of Dermot MacMurrogh and they wexiord. 
marched together to attack the city of Wex- 1169, 
ford. The town was protected by a wall, which was 
bravely defended by the garrison, who threw large stones 
and heavy beams on the heads of their assailants. The 
Normans were compelled to withdraw on that day, and 
left many of their men dead behind them, but they 
made their way to the harbor, and burned all the Irish 
ships that they found there. On the following day, as 
they were about to renew their assault, the clergy of 
Wexford, wishing to avoid further bloodshed, counselled 
the townsmen to surrender, and Wexford was given over 
to Fitzstephen and his allies. Dermot thus regained a 
foothold in his former territory. He then fulfilled his 
promises to his mercenary allies by making them grants 
of land. 

88. Arrival of Strongbow, 1170. Roderick O'Conor, 
king of Connaught, wished to oppose the return of Der- 
mot, but doubted his ability to meet him in the field. He 
therefore tried more pacific means, and, seeing the dan- 
ger to Ireland from Dermot's example, he consented to 
accept Dermot's return, on condition that the latter 
should promise to dismiss his foreign friends. Dermot 
consented, in order to avoid an attack, but without any 
thought of keeping his promise. 


Dermot's ambition had grown with his first success. 
He now determined to make himself king of the whole 
Lands at of Ireland, and proceeded to secure the help of 
Waterford. Strongbow, who landed at Waterford in the 
summer of 1 170, with about three thousand men. What 
followed is thus recorded in the Annals : " Robert Fitz- 
stephen and Earl Strongbow came from Saxonland into 
Erin with a numerous force, and many knights and 
archers, in the army of Dermot MacMurrogh, to contest 
Leinster for him, and to disturb the Gaels of Erin in 
general ; and MacMurrogh gave his daughter to Earl 
Strongbow for coming into the army. They took Wex- 
ford and Waterford by force . . . and they killed seven 
hundred persons there. An army was led by Roderick 
O'Conor with the lord of Brefny and the lord of Oriel 
against Leinster and the Foreigners aforesaid, and there 
was a challenge of battle between them for the space 
of three days." This contest was indecisive. 

The most noteworthy event of Strongbow's first 
invasion was the plundering and slaughter of the Danes 
of Dublin by the new invaders. The earlier Norsemen, 
as we saw, were pagans ; but before this time they had 
Slaughter all been converted to Christianity. Filled with 
Danes at ^ ear at tne approach of Dermot and his allies, 
Dublin. the Danes sent their archbishop, Laurence 
O'Toole, to negotiate terms of surrender for them. But 
while the terms were being discussed, the Normans at- 
tacked the Danes in their fortress, and slew great num- 
bers of them. 

89. National resistance, 1170-1171. In the follow- 
ing year, Dermot of Leinster died of a lingering disease, 
regarded by his countrymen as a divine punishment for 
bringing the invaders. His allies, the Normans, with 
Strongbow as their leader, were hemmed in at Dublin. 

1 1 72] 



Archbishop O'Toole 
traversed the length 
and breadth of Ire- 
land, calling on the 
provincial kings and 
chiefs to unite 
against the invad- 
ers ; and presently a 
strong army under 
Roderick O'Conor 
was advancing 

against the Nor- 
mans. After a two 
months' siege, dur- 
ing which Dublin 
suffered from fam- 
ine, the Normans de- 
termined on a sortie. 
It was so successful 
that Roderick's army 
was driven back, 

and the Normans plundered his camp, taking provi- 
sions enough to supply the city for another year's siege. 
90. Expedition of King Henry the Second, 1171- 
1172. While these events were going on, Henry II 
had reached a settlement of his affairs in the west 
of France, and found himself free to turn toward Ire- 
land. Gathering a large army of some ten thousand 
men, under renowned Norman warriors, he put them 
on board a numerous fleet, and sailed to Dublin. The 
provincial kings and chiefs of Ireland believed 
that they were too weak to resist this formi- princes 
dable invasion, though, as we have already seen, 
Roderick O'Conor had a short time before gathered 



nearly twenty thousand horsemen with their chiefs to a 
general assembly. The chiefs made their submission to 
Henry, and gave hostages, as they had so often done 
to each other in their tribal wars. Henry rewarded 
his Norman followers by grants of land. To Sir Hugh 
Grants to ^ e Lacy he granted Meath. Leinster was as- 
Norman signed to Strongbow, the city of Dublin ex- 
cepted. Sir John de Courcy received a large 
district in the north, with the title of " Earl of Ulster." 
Henry himself added the title "King of the Irish" to 
that of " King of France and England," which he al- 
ready bore. Dublin was given to a colony from the west 
of England, especially from the town of Bristol, and De 
Lacy was appointed governor. 

Henry left Norman governors in all the chief cities, 
and, thinking that everything was secure, he sailed 
back to England. No sooner had he departed, than a 
weakness series of struggles began between the Irish 
Norman chiefs and the Norman intruders, and among 
position. the native chiefs themselves. Henry hoped to 
restore order by giving greater authority to Strongbow, 
and making him lord lieutenant, as he was the most 
powerful of the Norman invaders. By whatever name 
the king's representative in Ireland was called, his posi- 
tion was subject to a serious weakness. The king of 
England, fearing that his lord lieutenant might try to 
Difficulties make himself king over Ireland, and an inde- 
ueSen- rd pendent monarch, never gave him a sufficiently 
aa* 8 - large force to make his position really secure. 

Neither the Norman nobles nor the Irish princes greatly 
heeded the commands of the lord lieutenant any more 
than they did those of the king of England except when 
he was actually present, at the head of an army. Nor- 
man nobles and Irish princes lived and ruled like inde- 


pendent sovereigns in their respective districts, raiding 
and fighting among themselves, as in the preceding ages. 
91. Who the Normans were. It should be clearly 
held in mind that these invaders were not English. They 
were neither Angles nor Saxons. They were, on the 
contrary, Normans, speaking French, with French fam- 
ily-names. The French Normans were the descendants 
of a band of Norse raiders very like those who devas- 
tated Lambay and Howth, who had gained a ^ 

J ° Descendants 

footing in the north of France under a cele- of Norse 
brated chieftain, Rollo or Rolf, surnamed " the 
Ganger," that is, "the walker," because he was so tall 
that his feet touched the ground under his horse's sides. 
These Norse raiders of France settled in their new coun- 
try, called Normandy in remembrance of their northern 
home, married French wives, and adopted the French 
tongue and the laws and customs of France. Under 
their great duke, William of Normandy, they o on(llies t f 
had invaded England over a century earlier, Brltaln - 
vanquishing the English king, Harold, at Hastings in 
1066. The Angles and Saxons were reduced to servi- 
tude, and England had a Norman king and a Norman 
nobility, speaking the French language, which was for a 
long time the official language of Britain. They looked 
to France as their native land, in which their sovereign 
owned his largest territory ; and they regarded England 
as a recently conquered and vassal country. Three or 
four generations later, the De Clares, the De Lacys, and 
the De Courcys extended to Ireland the work of conquest 
which they had completed in England. 

Most of the invaders on these first expeditions were 
impoverished noblemen. The Norman king freely 
granted them lands belonging to the Irish tribes ; and 
these settlers thus became the founders of the chief 

102 IRELAND'S STORY [1172 

" Anglo-Irish " families of later centuries. With their 
m . Irish lands these adventurers received Irish 

Quality of . 

the Irish titles, adapted from those of the native chiefs. 
Thus the Fitzgeralds were, first, Barons of 
Offaly, later, Earls of Kildare, and finally Dukes of Lein- 
ster. Their kinsmen in the south were made Earls of 

92. Strongbow's term of government. On his re- 
turn to England, Henry II appointed Richard de Clare, 
called Strongbow, lord lieutenant of Ireland. Most of 
the Irish princes had once more asserted their independ- 
ence, and Strongbow determined to take active measures 
against them. His soldiers, whose pay was long in ar- 
rears, were discontented, and refused to march under any 
leader but their favorite, Raymond Fitzgerald, a brilliant 
officer, who allowed them to plunder to their hearts' con- 
tent. Strongbow was forced to remove his own uncle 
from the command of the army, appointing Raymond 
Fitzgerald in his place. Then began the first Norman 
Raymond raid among the peaceful districts of Ireland, 
plunders* Raymond Fitzgerald led his men southward. 
Leinster. On the southern Blackwater near Lismore, 
"the great fort," he seized a number of boats, and loaded 
them with plunder, sending them down the river and 
along the coast to the city of Waterford. He and his 
men drove a great number of cattle before them, the most 
valuable part of their plunder. The boats were attacked 
on their way by a fleet, half Irish, half Danish, from Cork; 
and the party of Raymond's men who were proceeding 
by land at the same time had to meet an onslaught from 
Dermot MacCarthy, prince of Desmond. Both these 
attacks were repulsed, and Raymond and his plunderers 
escaped with their booty. 

After this raid, Raymond Fitzgerald returned to his 


home in Wales. During his absence, Strongbow took 
the field against Donall O'Brien, king of Thomond, a 
descendant of Brian Boru, the victor of Clontarf. Don- 
all was intrenched at Limerick, and, hearing of Strong- 
bow's coming, he sent for aid to Roderick O'Conor, who 
came with his Connaughtmen to help him. They met 
the earl's army some thirty miles to the east strongbow 
of Limerick, near Thurles in Tipperary, and Juries. at 
Strongbow was completely defeated, losing n? 4 - 
seventeen hundred men. " Strongbow," says the An- 
nals, "proceeded in sorrow to his home at Waterford." 
Here he was besieged by the Irish armies, until Ray- 
mond Fitzgerald once more came to his aid. Fitzgerald 
Raymond drove Donall O'Brien back to Limer- ^limerick, 
ick, and, by an impetuous attack, captured the n 76. 
city and put the defenders to the sword. A garrison 
was left there to uphold the Norman power. 

Raymond Fitzgerald had enemies at court, who sought 
to arouse the distrust of Henry II, and to make him 
jealous of the brilliant general's success. The king even 
sent an order for his recall, but Raymond soon found 
an occasion to vindicate himself. The Irish armies made 
a vigorous attack on the Norman garrison at Limerick. 
Strongbow once more found that his army would fol- 
low no leader but Raymond, and sent the king word 
that Raymond must remain. Raymond made a forced 
march to the southwest, defeated Donall O'Brien, and 
relieved the Limerick garrison. 

93. De Burgo's government. The king was still 
distrustful, however ; and on Strongbow's death in the 
next year, n 76, the office of lord lieutenant was given, 
not to Raymond Fitzgerald, but to William de Burgo, 
whose family name is modernized as Burke. To assist 
William de Burgo in the government, Henry appointed a 




council of three Norman nobles : John de Courcy, Rob- 
ert Fitzstephen, and Miles de Cogan. The lord lieutenant 
was disposed to adopt more peaceful methods, and dis- 
couraged the semi-independent warfare of leaders like 
Raymond. He was, therefore, very unpopular among 
the crowd of fortune-hunters about him. Chief among: 
these was De Courcy, to whom King Henry had made 
a nominal grant of Ulster, where, however, he had little 


This castle, built by John de Courcy, is one of the best examples of the Norman method 
of establishing themselves in the country The central tower is 46 feet in external 
diameter and the walls are 8 feet thick 

or no real authority. De Courcy determined to under- 
Theexpe- take the work of conquest on his own account, 

dition of n 

De courcy. and left Dublin with an army of knights and 
archers, in all about a thousand men. In the beginning 
capture 01 °f February, 1 1 77, he attacked Down pat rick, 
Down- the chief stronghold of eastern Ulster. The 

Patrick. & 

1177. town was taken by surprise, captured, and 

plundered. Before the end of the week, the prince of 
Ulster with a numerous army came against De Courcy, 


and attempted to retake Downpatrick, but was defeated 

and slain, as were many other Ulster chieftains. De 

Courcy then built at Dundrum, seven miles south of 

Downpatrick, a strong Norman castle, with a lofty tower, 

as a centre of action against his opponents. In pirst 

this he set the example which we shall find fol- Norman 
. _ . , -_ ..... . castle built. 

lowed by the Norman chiets, who thus gained 

an immense advantage over the Irish armies, with their 
less effective earthwork fortifications. De Courcy pro- 
ceeded in his attempt to assert his authority over Ulster, 
now winning, now losing battles against the native chiefs, 
at one time being left with only eleven companions. 

94. Henry sends his son John to Ireland. By 1 185, 
such disquieting reports of the state of Leinster reached 
King Henry that he determined to send over an expedi- 
tion under his nineteen-year-old son, Prince John. This 
prince, bearing the title of Lord of Ireland, set out from 
England with a large company of adventurers. He 
landed at Waterford, where certain of the Irish chiefs 
had come to welcome him. Far from conciliating the 
chieftains, John and his companions spent eight months 
adding fuel to the flames, by their insulting manner and 
lawless behavior toward the Irish chiefs and people. The 
indignation of the chiefs, who had come with the inten- 
tion of acknowledging Henry's overlordship, was now 
thoroughly aroused ; they determined once more to at- 
tack the Normans, and succeeded in capturing John 
a number of the recently built castles, and in defeated - 
completely routing Prince John's army. The chief leader 
of this war was Donall O'Brien of Thomond. King 
Henry was thoroughly disgusted with his son's failure, 
and ordered him to return, naming De Courcy as lord 
lieutenant of Ireland. 

In Prince John's train there had been a certain Welsh 

106 IRELAND'S STORY [1198 

priest, Gerald Barry, called in Latin Giraldus Cambren- 
sis, that is, Gerald of Cambria, or Wales. This man, on 
Giraldus hi s return to England, wrote a Latin history of 
Cambrensis. ^q Norman invasion of Ireland, together with 
a description of the country, which contains much truth, 
mixed with many inaccuracies and fancies. 

Prince John tried to cast all the blame for the failure 
of the expedition on Hugh de Lacy, one of the best and 
Death 01 wisest of the great Norman barons. This De 
Lacy^the Lacy, whose son was the rival of De Courcy, 
eider. nac [ brought upon himself the dangerous accu- 

sation of aiming to be king of Ireland, because he had 
married a daughter of Roderick O'Conor. He was as- 
sassinated one day by a young Irishman, to revenge his 
unlawful seizure of land belonging to the old monastery 
of Durrow, founded by Saint Columba. 

95. De Courcy as lord lieutenant. During the 
whole time he was lord lieutenant, De Courcy was en- 
gaged in fighting. He began in 1 198 by making an 
expedition against Connaught, much in the style of the 

old Danish raids, but was defeated with great 
First ex- / & 

pedition to loss by Conor, king of Connaught, and Donall 
onnaug . Q'3 r j en> king of Munster, and forced to re- 
treat. He marched north in the hope of escaping his 
pursuers, only to find himself caught between two hostile 
forces, as the prince of Tyrconnell, or Donegal, had also 
come out against him. He finally reached Leinster with 
the remnant of his army. 

De Courcy's second expedition against the same pro- 
vince in 1200, as an ally of one of the native claimants 
to the disputed throne of Connaught, likewise 

06COUQ 8X" 

pedition to ended in defeat. Hugh de Lacy the younger 
onnaug . ^ a( j j ome d him in this campaign, but the pre- 
sence of these two distinguished Norman leaders failed to 


secure success for their ally. Their army was caught in 
an ambuscade by the forces of the rival claimant, and al- 
most annihilated. During their retreat across the waters 
of Lough Ree, the Connaught chief again attacked, and 
De Courcy escaped with only a few men. 

De Lacy was lord justice, and therefore very jealous 
of De Courcy, and he did his utmost to bring the latter 
into disfavor with the king. In 1204, after The end of 
much scheming, he succeeded in having De De Courc y- 
Courcy proclaimed a traitor, and orders were given for 
his arrest. His subsequent history is uncertain. 


In 1 166, Dermot MacMurrogh, king of Leinster, was de- 
posed by Roderick O'Conor and others. He sought aid from 
Henry II, duke of the Normans, and his Norman barons. 
The latter fitted up several expeditions, landed in Ireland, 
and captured the towns of Wexford and Waterford in 1 169-70. 
Among these Norman barons were Fitzgerald, Fitzstephen, 
De Lacy, De Courcy, and the great Strongbow. Henry II 
came himself to Ireland in 1171, at the head of a large army, 
received the submission of the chiefs, and returned, leaving 
De Lacy as governor of the city of Dublin. Strongbow 
was appointed lord lieutenant in 1173. These invaders were 
French-speaking Normans who, just a century before, had 
conquered England, and who were now eager to enrich them- 
selves from the spoils of Ireland. With no other aim than 
plunder, they made numerous successful raids through the 
country in spite of the opposition of Roderick and the Irish 
chiefs. Thus, by the year 1200, the Normans had gained a 
footing in Ireland, but had accomplished nothing that could 
properly be called a conquest. 




English Sovereigns : 

John, 1199-1216 Edward I, 1272-1307 

Henry III, 1216-1272 Edward II, 1307-1327 

96. 2?he genius of the Normans. When William 
the Norman gained possession of England, one of his 
first acts was to secure his position in the capital by 
building the Tower of London. This immense The Tower 
stronghold, which frowns upon London even °* London, 
to-day, after the lapse of nearly nine centuries, is typical 
of the Norman genius. It illustrates the method by 
which the Normans secured their position in England, 
and later in Ireland. William himself built about fifty 
other great Norman castles throughout the length and 
breadth of the Saxon land which he had conquered, and 
in these castles placed his feudal nobles, who acknow- 
ledged him as their lord and master. 

When the Norman warriors came to Ireland, they 
were at first mercenaries of Irish princes like Dermot 
MacMurrogh ; but they were soon granted land, either 
by the Irish chiefs who sought their services, or by the 
king of England, after he had asserted his claim to be 
overlord of Ireland. The Norman warriors immediately 
put in practice the lesson taught by William the Con- 
queror. They built just such keeps and castles as the 


Tower of London, though not on so large a scale, and 

many of their strongholds are still standing. The plan 

of these castles included an outer wall, encir- Norman 

cled by a deep moat or canal filled with water, castles in 

J Ireland, 

which surrounded the whole castle, and could 

be crossed only by a drawbridge. This bridge could be 

From the earliest drawing 

drawn up from within the castle, and when it was drawn 
up, all access from without was cut off. The strong 
outer wall of the fortress was pierced by a single doorway, 


high enough for a knight on horseback to ride through 
without dismounting. This doorway could be closed by 
an iron portcullis, a gate running in grooves in the wall, 
which was raised by chains from a windlass above. 
When let down, this strong iron gate could not be pushed 
open, as it was held in place by the heavy grooved 
stones on either side. Often the lower edge of this port- 
cullis was armed with a row of spikes, so that, should any 
of the enemy be underneath at the time it was lowered 
in haste, they would be transfixed and killed. Along the 
top of the outer wall of the fortress there were openings 
for the bowmen to shoot through, and these openings 
give the walls the toothed appearance, like the edge 
of a saw, which makes them so picturesque in modern 
landscapes. Inside the wall were dwelling-houses and 
storehouses, and the whole was dominated by a keep or 
central stronghold, a high tower with very thick walls, 
also pierced for archers, into which the garrison could 
retire, if the outer fortress was taken. 

De Courcy was one of the greatest builders of Norman 
castles in Ireland, and one great stronghold of his over 
Castle- Dundrum Bay in Down is to-day almost as per- 
tmiiders. f ect as c ] urm g his lifetime. The other great Nor- 
mans, De Lacy, De Clare, and the rest, were not behind 
De Courcy. They erected Norman keeps and castles 
at every point where they gained a footing ; and it was 
the presence of these fortresses of stone which made it 
almost impossible for the Irish chiefs to drive out the 
Normans, as they had earlier driven out the Norsemen. 

The use of armor in battle was another evidence of 
„ the same instinct of self-defence. The coats 


armor and of mail of the Norman knights are even more 

discipline. . . , , . . . - . . 

imperishable than their castles, and they are to 
be found in every museum to-day. A third element of 


strength was the sense of rigid discipline which the Nor- 
mans brought with them to England and Ireland, and 
which was an inheritance from the ancient Roman armies. 
In this they excelled the Irish tribal forces, just as they 
excelled the Saxons at the battle of Hastings, and many 
of their victories in Ireland were due rather to supe- 
rior order than to superior valor. The Irish had never 
submitted to discipline, which ran counter to their tribal 
instincts. They fought in masses rather than in regular 
ranks, and had no system of tactics. They still adhered 
to the habits of warfare developed in an earlier age, re- 
lying on the wildness of the country, on the forests and 
bogs, for their defence, rather than on fortifications of 
stone. Later, when the sons of Ireland mastered the 
principle of ordered war, they became very formidable 
warriors, winning battles in every part of Europe, and 
leading the armies of many nations. The Norman in- 
vaders brought with them the French language N 
which they had learned in Normandy, and w«as 


many French knightly traditions. It is worth 
remembering that the Conqueror's great grandson, Henry 
II, who was the first invading sovereign, had larger ter- 
ritories in France than in England, and that the part 
of Ireland over which he exercised real authority, a very 
small part, was one of the divisions of a realm which 
stretched from the south of Scotland to the north of 

97. King John comes to Ireland. King John came 
to the throne of England in 1 199. He remembered the 
condition of confusion and turmoil which reigned in Ire- 
land. He therefore determined to go there „ 

b Cessation 

again, to attempt to bring order out of chaos, ofnostm- 


He did not carry out his intention until 12 10, 
however ; in that year he assembled a formidable army 

112 IRELAND'S STORY [1210 

and sailed to Waterford, landing at Cape Crook. His 
arrival was the signal for a general cessation of hostili- 
ties. Even the most restless of the Norman chiefs left 
the native chieftains unmolested, and stopped quarrelling 
amongst themselves, during the visit of their king. John 
had thus no fighting to do, and devoted himself to es- 
tablishing the principles of civil law, and asserting his 
authority. He divided the part of Ireland in which 

his power was recognized into twelve counties, 
Formation r ° 

of counties that is to say, districts under the authority of 
e "* ' a count, a name and title brought by the Nor- 
mans from France. The twelve counties formed by 
King John are Dublin, Kildare, Meath, Louth, Carlow, 
Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, 
and Tipperary. Five of the twelve, namely, Dublin, Wex- 
ford, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick, were old Norse or 
Danish districts, thus showing that the Normans were 
able to gain a footing first in the regions already weak- 
ened by Danish inroads. We shall speak later of the 
introduc- formation of other counties, as the central 
Norman authority was extended. John founded law 
law. courts, and appointed magistrates, who were 

ordered to administer Norman law. An element of strife 
was thus introduced, which produced much harm and 
misery for centuries, since the Norman law was founded 
on principles, largely borrowed from Rome; which were 
not in harmony with the traditional law of Ireland, as de- 
veloped by the Brehons. It is true that John intended 
to apply the Norman law only to Normans and English 
settled in Ireland, but this distinction was later lost sight 
of, and the imported legal system was gradually extended 
to English and Irish alike. For many years to come, 
the native Irish remained outside the jurisdiction of the 
newly established courts. John returned to England, 





Scale of Miles 
■ i i l 

10 20 30 40 50 60 

T L 

A io 


C Longitude 8 DWest from 7 E Greenwich 6 f 

114 IRELAND'S STORY [1216 

leaving Ireland fairly quiet, and this condition was main- 
tained until his death in 12 16. 

98. Norman law. The chief principle of Norman 
law which came into opposition with Irish traditions 
concerned the possession of land. Generally speaking, 
the districts of Ireland were the possession of the tribe, 
that is, of the supposed or real descendants of a common 
ancestor, who held the land in common. Their elected 
Irish land chief had a separate portion of the land for his 
customs. own USCj anc j was absolute owner only of this 
separate portion. It descended, not necessarily to his 
eldest son, but to his elected successor. The Norman 
principle was quite different. William of Normandy as- 
Norman serted his direct ownership of all the land of 
system. England, and made grants of it to his followers 
and officers. They became complete owners of the soil, 
which passed to their eldest sons, according to the sys- 
tem called primogeniture. The Norman lord of the land 
was thus in a much stronger position than the Irish tribal 
chief. He was complete owner of the whole region 
under his authority, and he could be certain that it would 
pass undivided to his son. All disputes of succession 
were avoided, and the estate was preserved intact. It is 
evident, of course, that here was an element of strength, 
similar to the great Norman castles ; and these two 
things were joint causes of the physical and moral power 
of the Norman invaders. It is equally evident that this 
Effect oi strength was gained by decreasing the rights 
tems 6 on the °^ t ^ ie trme > who, under the Norman system, 
people. became mere tenants of the lord, instead of 
free warriors owning their own land. In exactly the 
same way, the Norman system of inheritance often did 
great injustice to the younger sons, who were, perhaps, 
the most gifted, but who received little or nothing from 


their father, while the eldest son received everything. 
The Irish chief, on the contrary, was elected, so that the 
worthiest and strongest was put in power. The com- 
ing of King John marks the beginning of the conflict 
between these two legal principles. 

99. Conditions in Leinster and Meath, 1216-1315. 
From the accession of John's son, as Henry III, in 12 16, 
to the invasion of Edward Bruce, in 13 15, that is, for ex- 
actly a century, fighting went on incessantly in Ireland. 
The great Norman lords carried on a series of savage 
struggles among themselves, each trying to seize the 
estates and wealth of the others ; they also joined in the 
traditional quarrels of the native princes, aiding one side 
or the other, and receiving a share of the plunder. Typi- 
cal of these struggles was " the war of Meath," _ 

00 The wars ol 

which broke out in 1224 between two Nor- Meath and 
man families, the De Lacys and the Marechals 
or Marshalls of Leinster, and which did not end until 
Meath was completely devastated. The "war of Kil- 
dare " was a similar struggle. When William Marshall, 
who had taken a part in the "war of Meath," died, his 
estates passed to his brother Richard. Richard Mar- 
shall had a quarrel with the English king, and fled from 
England to Ireland, where he hoped to escape pursuit. 
Three powerful Norman lords, Geoffrey Marisco, Mau- 
rice Fitzgerald, and Hugh de Lacy entered into an agree- 
ment to attack Richard Marshall and divide his estates. 
They invited him to meet them in Kildare, and in a 
pretended quarrel attacked him and wounded him so 
severely that he died shortly after. When Henry III 
heard of this treacherous act, he banished Geoffrey 
Marisco and executed his son, who had also been impli- 
cated in the plot. 

100. Affairs in Connaught. In Connaught, the na- 


tive chiefs were still dominant. Here a bitter struggle 
for the kingship of the western provinces was fought 
out amongst various members of the O'Conor family, the 
descendants and relatives of Roderick O'Conor. The 
Marshalls, De Burgos, and other Norman lords took part 
in this quarrel, because they saw in it oppor- 
o'Conorin tunities of plunder. In 1249, Phelim, one of 
onnaug . R oc } ei -i c k' s nephews, succeeded in seizing and 
holding the throne of Connaught against all opponents, 
Norman and Irish alike. He reigned over the western 
province for sixteen years, until his death in 1265, show- 
ing the continuity of Irish tradition and kingship, side 
by side with Norman rule. 

It must be remembered that the life and culture of the 
Irish tongue continued unabated. Poems were com- 
posed, and the poems of olden days were recited ; the 
harpers practised their art in the halls of the chiefs ; 
the Brehons settled questions of law ; and, for centuries 
to come, the intellectual and moral life of the purely 
native Ireland continued in an unbroken stream. 

101. The state of Ulster. In Ulster, things were not 

less disturbed than in Leinster and Connaught. Maurice 

Fitzgerald aimed at the complete subjugation of the 

northern province, and, for this purpose, led an army 

north through Connaught. He had gone as far 

Battled & ° & 

Credran. as Credran, near Sligo, when he was met and de- 


•feated by Godfrey O'Donnell, lord of Tyrcon- 
nell. Both leaders were wounded in the fight, the Nor- 
man so seriously that he died shortly after. O'Donnell 
was disabled by his wound, and his army was left without 
a leader for several months. Brian O'Neill, prince of 
Tyrone, O'Donnell's old rival, seized the opportunity and 
invaded Tyrconnell, but was defeated at the river Swilly. 
Godfrey O'Donnell was too weak to lead his army, but, 


in order to give courage to his men, he had himself car- 
ried to battle with his army. As a result of this exer- 
tion and exposure, he died shortly after. In 1260, the 
Ulster chiefs made some efforts to unite against the 

Normans, under the leadership of Brian O'Neill. „ M 

' r Battle of 

Their efforts were unsuccessful, however, for Down- 
they were defeated in a hard fought battle at 
Downpatrick, and Brian O'Neill and several other Irish 
leaders were slain. 

102. Troubles in Munster. In Munster, the fiercest 
fighting took place between the Norman Geraldines and 
the old Irish family of the MacCarthys of Desmond, who 
were roused to opposition by the perpetual encroach- 
ments of the newcomers. In the year 1261, the Battle of 
MacCarthys won a battle at Callan, near Ken- Callan - 
mare. They then proceeded to overthrow the Norman 
strongholds throughout the south of Munster ; but, as 
happened too often with the Irish chieftains, they soon 
lost through lack of unity what they had gained by valor 
and hard fighting. These rivalries and contests, which 
were politically inconclusive, were nevertheless the 
causes of limitless evil to the land. The masses of the 
people, whether of the old Irish race, or the English 
retainers of the Norman newcomers, asked for nothing 
better than to farm their lands in peace. These were 
the people who suffered most, not only from the direct 
evils of fighting, but even more from the famines which 
followed the wholesale destruction of their crops, and 
the carrying off of their herds ; and from the pestilences 
which came in the wake of famine, sickness finding easy 
victims among multitudes of half-starved and emaciated 
men and women. 

103. The invasion of Edward Bruce. In 13 14, Rob- 
ert Bruce gained a victory over the English king, Edward 


II, at Bannockburn in Stirlingshire, and thus established 
the independence of Scotland. The news of this defeat 
of the English armies so roused the Irish of the north 
that they decided to make another effort to drive out 
the Normans, and invited Edward Bruce, brother of the 
Bruce lands Scottish king, to come over as their leader, 
at Lame. The proposal was accepted, and in the month 
of May, 131 5, Edward Bruce landed at Larne, in An- 
trim, with six thousand Scottish warriors, cousins of 
the Irish, and speaking the same tongue. He was met 
by an Irish army under Donall O'Neill, and the two lead- 
ers joined their forces. They at once proceeded against 
the Normans of Ulster, and won several battles. In order 
to deprive their opponents of food and shelter, they 
burned houses and devastated fields, thus causing great 
misery to the common people. Richard de Burgo, the 
"red earl" of Ulster, with Sir Edmund Butler, the lord 
justice, led an army against the Scottish and Irish forces. 
A contest of great cruelty and severity was now be- 
gun. The path of the Scottish and Irish army, as well 
as that of the Normans, was surrounded by misery and 
suffering. Though there was a famine that year, and a 
general failure of the crops, orders were nevertheless 
given by the commanders of both armies to destroy all 
food except what was required for their own support, 
regardless of the starvation inevitably inflicted upon 
the people. Phelim O'Conor, the younger, king of Con- 
naught, at first joined De Burgo, but was soon compelled 

to return to Con naught, on account of an out- 
Defeats & ' 

De Burgo break among his own people. The Norman 
force was thus greatly weakened, and De Burgo 
was completely defeated by Bruce at Connor, in Antrim, 
a short distance to the south of Slemish Mountain, where 
the apostle of Ireland once tended his master's flocks. 


104. Bruce is crowned king. Soon after this battle, 
Bruce was crowned king of Ireland, and, marching into 
Meath, defeated a Norman force of fifteen thousand 
men at Kells, and again, in the early part of the year 
1 3 16, routed the Normans in Kildare. By this time, 
Phelim O'Conor had restored order in Connaught, and 
now gave in his adherence to Bruce, and led his army 
to Athenry in Gal way. Here he suffered the severest 
defeat that had been inflicted on any Irish „ 

J Battle of 

army since the first coming of the Normans. Athenry. 


In a battle against William de Burgo, eleven 
thousand of the Connaughtmen were killed, including 
Phelim himself and most of his nobles. 

In 13 1 7, Edward Bruce was joined by his brother, 
Robert Bruce, king of Scotland, but little was accom- 
plished through his help. The two brothers attempted 
to reduce Dublin and afterwards Limerick, Bruce re- 
two of the strongest fortresses in the hands JubHn and 
of the Normans, but failed in both attacks. Limerick. 
Their army suffered greatly on its long marches through 
a country previously 
devastated. Many of 
the soldiers died of 
cold and famine, and 
this incessant hard- 
ship discouraged the 
hitherto indomitable 
Scottish king. Be- 
lieving that any more 
complete victory in king john's castle, limerick 

Ireland WaS imDOSSi- This castl f e ™ as built by order of King John and was 
~ one of the most formidable castles in Ireland 

ble, he returned to his 

own country, leaving Edward to face his troubles alone. 

105. End of Bruce's invasion. The closing battle 

120 IRELAND'S STORY [1318 

of Edward Bruce' s invasion was fought at Faughart, 
north of Dundalk, in October, 1318. The Normans 
under De Bermingham had a stronger force, but they 
b tti would probably have lost the battle, had not 

Faughart. one of their leaders met and killed Edward 
Bruce in a hand-to-hand combat. Their leader 
gone, the Scottish troops wavered, and were defeated. 
This ended Edward Bruce's invasion. 

106. Condition of the country after the invasion. 
Bruce's invasion left the country in a condition of misery 
from which it did not recover for generations. So many 
weakness of the Normans in Ulster had been killed that 
Norman the natrve chiefs once more came into power, 
government. This was true to some extent also in other parts 
of Ireland. Famine and pestilence were widespread, and 
lawlessness was more prevalent than before. The Anglo- 
Irish government, weakened as it was by Bruce's inva- 
sion, daily lost ground. The Normans were no longer 
able to extend their influence to new districts. More- 
Biending of over > the Normans were daily growing closer 
the races. to the Irish in thought, feeling, and language, 
and frequent intermarriages hastened this blending. 
Many of the Norman lords, at this time and later, were 
distinguished by their knowledge of the language and 
literature of Ireland. Thus we find the Annals record- 
ing the death of " Garrett, Earl of Desmond, a cheerful 
and courteous man, who excelled all the Normans and 
many of the Irish in the knowledge of the Irish lan- 
guage, poetry, history, and other learning." 

107. Monastic orders and abbeys. We must remem- 
ber that the possession of a common religion greatly 
helped this work of assimilation. All the combatants, 
Irish and Norman alike, were Catholics, and many of the 
foremost warriors of either party were fervent devotees 


of their religion. The Normans represented the culture 
of the continent, and were the means of introducing into 
Ireland a number of religious orders of continental origin. 
These religious orders were founded by a group Salnts 
of great men like Saint Francis of Assisi, whose Francis, 
followers were named Franciscans in his honor ; and Ber- 
Saint Dominick, a Spaniard of an old Castilian nard * 
family, who established the Dominicans ; and Saint Ber- 

This is situated at Thurles in Tipperary, and dates back to 1182 

nard the younger, of Clairvaux in France, who gained 

great influence for the Cistercian order founded by Saint 

Robert at Citeaux in Burgundy, a town called in Latin 

Cistercium, whence the order took its name. 

All these orders seem to have built their monastic 

establishments on a common plan : a cruciform 

The abbeys, 
or cross-formed church symbolized the source 

of their inspiration. The choir was toward the east, 


whence the Light had come. The nave, or main body 
of the church, was entered by the great western door, 
and the arms of the cross, or transepts, extended to 
the north and south. From one of the transepts, a 
side door generally led to the domestic buildings: the 
dormitory, where they slept ; the refectory, where they 
ate ; and the chapter-house, where the friars or brothers 
assembled, under the presidency of the abbot. There 
were also smaller buildings, storerooms, granaries, and 
workrooms. The church was the centre of all things, 
and under the stones of its floor the friars were at last 
laid to rest, while those who survived them carved their 
tombs and epitaphs. 

These abbeys were the homes of culture and art, as 
well as of devotion and learning, throughout the whole 
centres 01 period of turmoil we have described, and for 
learning. t ne next two or three centuries. They are, 
indeed, among the great art monuments of Ireland, and 
there is a world of beauty in their graceful arches, 
slender pillars with rare and fanciful carving, and beauti- 
ful windows with many lights. Into these strong yet 
delicate fabrics of stone, their builders worked that art 
inspiration which an earlier age had embodied in the 
finely-wrought chalices and intricately interlaced illumi- 
nations of the sacred manuscripts. 


The Normans inherited the Roman power of conquest 
through discipline. As they gained a more extensive 
footing in Ireland they secured their position by building 
castles and keeps of stone against which the power of the 
Irish was unavailing. Fighting between the two races was 
incessant, and, in 12 10, King John headed an expedition to 
restore order and peace. He divided that part of the country 


under English influence into twelve counties, and introduced 
Norman law, which was directly opposed to the Irish law 
of inheritance, and this difference later became the cause of 
much bloodshed. 

For a hundred years, from 12 16 to 1315, Ireland was kept 
in a continuous state of turmoil by quarrels between the 
Irish chiefs and the Norman barons, and by fighting among 
the Irish themselves. Meath, Connaught, Ulster, and Mun- 
ster were successively devastated, and the country suffered 
years of famine and pestilence. In 13 15, Edward Bruce 
was invited by the northern Irish to be their king. He 
landed at Larne with a Scotch army and was joined by Don- 
all O'Neill and the native Irish. The combined forces won 
several battles against the Normans, and Bruce was crowned 
king. He was killed in the battle of Faughart, in 13 18. 
Bruce's invasion left the Norman government for the time 
being in a very weak condition. 

Ireland owes to the Normans the introduction of the reli- 
gious orders of Franciscans, Dominicans, and Cistercians, all 
of whom built many beautiful abbeys, the ruins of which are 
still standing in many places. 




English Sovereigns : 

Edward II, 1307-1327 Henry V, 1^53-1422 

Edward III, 1327-1377 Henry VI, 1422-1461 

Richard II, 1377-13*99 Edward IV, 1461-1483 

Henry IV, 1 399-1413 Richard III, 1483-1485 

108. Old and new invaders. By the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, the government of England had 
ceased to be exclusively Norman, and was gradually be- 
coming more truly English in institutions, law, and lan- 
guage. English literature was blending the older tongue 
of the Angles and Saxons with the French imported by 
the Normans from France, and a mixed speech, half 
Germanic, half Latin in origin, was being formed, of 
great flexibility, color, and strength. The conquered 
English were absorbing and assimilating their conquerors. 

This change naturally affected Ireland. The first 
comers from Britain had been Norman knights like De 
Lacy and De Courcy, with French names, and speak- 
ing French. They often married Irish wives, a daughter 
of Roderick O'Conor thus becoming the mother of one 
branch of the Fitzgeralds. The children of these mar- 
riages of course learned Irish as a mother-tongue, and 
it is safe to say that many of these Celto-Normans never 
knew a word of English, passing directly from Norman- 
French to Irish. The common religion drew them closer 


to their adopted country, and we find Irish princes and 
Norman nobles vying with each other in founding the 
early Cistercian and Franciscan abbeys. Many of these 
first settlers became so completely acclimated, and felt 
themselves so much at home, that they took Irish names, 
as well as the Irish tongue, and of them it was said that 
they were " more Irish than the Irish themselves." 

109. Feuds between the Norman and English set- 
tlers. As Britain became more English, a new race of 
invaders began to come to Ireland, no longer Norman, 
but distinctively English, in thought and speech. As 
they were much more in harmony with conditions then 
prevailing in England, they were constantly favored by 
the Dublin government at the expense of the older Nor- 
man families. A keen rivalry grew up between the two 
elements, and the English newcomers spoke .« Deeen . 
contemptuously of the older Normans as the ©rate 

,, English." 

" degenerate English." A result of this hos- 
tility was the quarrel between the Gernons and Savages, 
from among the newer English on the one side, and the 
De Bermingham family on the other. Sir John de Ber- 
mingham, who had defeated Edward Bruce at the battle 
of Faughart, together with his brothers and nephews, 
and a number of his followers, a hundred and sixty in all, 
were treacherously murdered by his rivals at Braggans- 
town near Ardee in Louth, in the year 1329. 

Another similar affair happened one Sunday morning 
in 1333. Young De Burgo, called the Dun Earl of 
Ulster, was on his way to church at Carrickfergus on 
the north shore of Belfast Lough. He was Murderof 
attacked and murdered by Richard de Mande- De Burgo. 


ville, his uncle by marriage. As De Burgo was 

a great favorite with the Norman families, they avenged 

his death by killing all persons suspected of having a part 

126 IRELAND'S STORY [1333 

in the murder, so that nearly three hundred of De Mande- 
ville's followers were slain. De Burgo had vast estates 
in Ulster and Connaught, and at his death this territory 
fell to his daughter, then an infant. Two kinsmen of 
the Dun Earl, seeing that under Irish law, with its prin- 
ciple of election, the vast estates would probably fall to 
them, and not to the helpless girl, determined to seize 
the property. They announced that they had broken off 
their allegiance to England and English law, and in all 
things adopted the life and customs of the Irish. They 
founded two powerful lines of the Burke family. 

110. "The Pale" and the "Black Rents." The Eng- 
lish settlement in the immediate neighborhood of Dublin, 
which later came to be known as the " Pale '' (meaning 
" an inclosure," the same word as " paling," a fence, from 
an embankment which was built around it in the fifteenth 
century), was the only region which was really subject to 
England, and was now the one stronghold of English gov- 
ernment in Ireland. Wars, famine, and pestilence had 
so weakened the inhabitants of this small district that 
they were no longer able to defend themselves. The 
powerful Irish chieftains made the English of the Pale pay 
tribute for protection from attacks by bodies of Irish 
raiders ; and this tribute, which was called " Black Rent," 
was sometimes paid even by the Dublin government. 

111. Weakness of the English government. By 1330, 
the English government at Dublin was so weak that 
the lord lieutenant called in the help of Maurice Fitz- 
gerald, one of the powerful Norman lords, to ward off 
the attacks of the Irish chiefs, and gave him the title of 
first Earl of Desmond. Although Fitzgerald won a few 
battles for the English, his presence did more harm than 
good, for he quartered his immense army of ten thousand 
men on the poor settlers of the Pale. Furthermore, he 


permitted his soldiers to pay themselves in money and 
food, wherever and whenever they could find them. The 
result was the dire impoverishment and almost complete 
extinction of the settlement. The colonists left the Pale 
in hundreds, and returned to England. The Irish chiefs 
daily regained something of their lost power. The poor 
people, both English settlers and native Irish, were 
equally miserable. The great Norman barons, careless 
of everything but their own interests, and for- strenrtlI0f 
tified in their strongholds, were becoming more the great 
and more formidable. Edward III made three 
unsuccessful attempts to break the power of these barons 
between the years 1331 and 1344, but none of the gov- 
ernors sent by him to Dublin were able to accomplish 
anything. The strong castles were as effective against 
the Dublin armies as against the Irish chiefs, and the 
barons preserved their position of almost independent 
sovereignty for nearly two centuries more. 

112. Legal injustice. The Normans and the Irish 
had begun to mingle, in many places living together in 
comparative peace. There was, however, one powerful 
influence always at work to make them enemies rather 
than friends : namely, the condition of the law. Ever 
since the first coming of the Normans, there Two codes 
had been two codes of law, the English and the oi law - 
Brehon. (See sections 97, 98.) The former was for the 
colonists only ; no Irishman could seek its protection. 
The result was that an Irishman injured by an English- 
man could not seek redress under English law, and the 
Englishman was not compelled to submit to Brehon law. 
On the other hand, if the Irishman were the offender, he 
was at once tried by English law and punished. Thus 
all the native Irish were liable to licensed persecution. 
The Irish repeatedly asked that they might receive 

128 IRELAND'S STORY [1367 

equal protection under English law, and Edward I and 
Edward III had been willing to grant this demand. But 
the great barons, realizing that their own power would 
thereby be lessened, had persuaded the king to refuse 
the petition of the Irish. 

113. Statute of Kilkenny, 1367. Not satisfied with 

these existing causes of separation between the Irish 

and the English, the third son of Edward III, 

Introduced & 

by the Duke Lionel, duke of Clarence, when lord lieutenant, 
introduced a new law in 1367, called the Stat- 
ute of Kilkenny, which widened the gulf between the two 
races. Lionel had married the daughter of the Dun Earl 
of Ulster, whose murder has been recorded. He thus ac- 
quired the titles of Earl of Ulster and Lord of Connaught, 
through his wife. He was, however, full of bitter hatred 
to the Irish, and not without cause. He had been in 
Ireland three times before this, twice as lord lieutenant, 
in which office he had several times suffered defeat at 
the hands of the Irish, and thus became convinced that 
the natives could never be subdued and brought under 
English law. He therefore went to the opposite extreme, 
and tried to make laws which would cut off all inter- 
course between the settlers and the natives. 

The Statute of Kilkenny was intended forever to sep- 
arate the English settlers from their " Irish enemies," 
as the natives were called. Some of its principal clauses 
were : — 

Principal Marriages between the two races were for- 

provisions. bidden, as high treason, liable to punishment 
by death. 

An Englishman adopting any Irish custom or mode of 
dress was to be punished by imprisonment and loss of 
his lands. 

Where Irish and English were living in the same com- 


munity, the Irish were required to use the English lan- 
guage, while hitherto the settlers had much oftener 
adopted the speech of the country. 

Adherence to the Brehon law was considered treason. 

No Englishman should make war on the Irish unless 
with permission of the government, so that the Irish 
might be held responsible for all disturbances. 

No native priest could preach in an English church, 
or be admitted into an English monastery in Ireland. 

Irish bards were to be regarded as spies, and were not 
to be received. 

Other provisions were equally severe. 

It is easy to see that such a law could not be strictly 
enforced. Throughout the greater part of Ire- Lawn ot 
land there was no way to compel obedience to enforced - 
it. The powerful barons ignored it altogether. The 
authority of the Dublin government did not extend a 
mile beyond the Pale. England was at this time too 
completely absorbed by the Hundred Years' War begun 
by Edward III, who claimed the throne of France, to 
pay much attention to Ireland. 

114. Art MacMurrogh Kavanagh. One of the most 
heroic Irishmen and bravest defenders of his country in 
the fourteenth century, and a man who long boldly 
opposed Edward's successor, Richard II, was Art Mac- 
Murrogh Kavanagh, the native king of Leinster. He 
had married a daughter of Maurice Fitzgerald, fourth 
earl of Kildare. Under the Statute of Kilkenny, Fitz- 
gerald's daughter forfeited her titles and property by this 
marriage. In addition, the Black Rent hitherto paid to 
Art MacMurrogh was stopped by the Dublin council. 
Art was furious, and began to burn and plunder, until 
his Black Rent was restored as being the lesser of two 

130 IRELAND'S STORY [1394 

115. First Expedition of Richard II, in 1394. Mean- 
while Richard II was preparing the largest expedition 
ever yet sent to Ireland. Shakespeare makes him an- 
nounce his intention thus : — 

" We will ourself in person to this war. 
And, for our coffers, with too great a court, 
And liberal largesse, are grown somewhat light, 
We are enforced to farm our royal realm ; 
The revenue whereof shall furnish us 
For our affairs in hand: if that come short, 
Our substitutes at home shall have blank charters ; 
Whereto, when they shall know what men are rich, 
They shall subscribe them for large sums of gold, 
And send them after, to supply our wants ; 
For we will make for Ireland presently." 

And again, speaking of his uncle, John of Gaunt, brother 
of Lionel, duke of Clarence : — 

" Now put it, Heaven, in his physician's mind 
To help him to his grave immediately ! 
The lining of his coffers shall make coats 
To deck our soldiers for these Irish wars." 

.Richard landed at Waterford in October, 1394, with a 
force of thirty-four thousand men, determined to punish 
Lands at Art MacMurrogh. The latter, undismayed, con- 
waterford. tinueci to devastate the country about Dublin, 
putting all possible obstacles in the way of Richard's ad- 
vance. But the Irish chiefs soon learned that Richard had 
a vast army with him, and recognized that they could not 
successfully oppose him. Therefore seventy or more of 
them, including Art MacMurrogh, came to his camp, and 
made formal submission to him. There was great rejoi- 
cing in Dublin and throughout the Pale, and the secur- 
ity thus gained lasted during Richard's stay in Ireland. 
The king realized that the great barons were the source 


of the most widespread evils, but did nothing effective 

to curb their power. Richard knighted four Irish chiefs, 

O'Neill of Ulster, O'Conor of Connaught, Mac- _ 

' ° Four Irish 

Murrogh of Leinster, and O'Brien of Thomond, chiefs 
or North Munster. He then returned to Eng- lg 
land, leaving his authority in the hands of his cousin, 
Roger Mortimer, earl of March, at that time the recog- 


Taken from a contemporary French manuscript (1309) in the British Museum, which 
gives a metrical account of Richard II's invasion 

nized heir to the English crown. His expedition had 
cost an immense sum, but it accomplished nothing. 

116. Richard's second expedition to Ireland, 1399. 
No sooner had the king departed than war MacMur . 
broke out again, and, at the battle of Kells, in rogh's 
1397, Art MacMurrogh defeated the English 
under the Earl of March. The Earl of March was killed, 

132 IRELAND'S STORY [1399 

and Richard, eager to avenge him, at once prepared a 
second expedition against Ireland, from which he was to 
be recalled to find that his crown had been seized by 
Henry of Bolingbroke, who reigned as Henry IV. He 
again landed at Waterford, in May, 1399, and began the 
march to Dublin. Art MacMurrogh and his Irish army, 
as before, opposed him at every step of the way. Richard 
left the open marshy country and entered the forests 
that stretched down from the Wicklow mountains. Art 
Richard's MacMurrogh quickly took advantage of this 
iisastrous error. He led his three thousand men through 
the woods, steadily retiring before Richard, sub- 
jecting him to numberless harassing attacks, but never 
giving him battle in the open. The English king was 
ill supplied with provisions ; he was perplexed by the 
difficulties of the country, where forests and marshes 
alternated, and compelled to meet incessant attacks. 
Richard completely lost his way, and his army was on 
the verge of starvation, when he finally emerged at a 
point on the Wicklow coast, far to the south of Dublin. 
Here three ships from Dublin brought provisions, which 
were the means of saving the army, Richard followed 
the coast northward toward Dublin, with Art MacMur- 
rogh' s army still hovering close by, and attacking him at 
conference every opportunity. MacMurrogh agreed to 
rog^and 11 meet one °f Richard's representatives, but a 
Gloucester, discussion held between him and the Earl of 
Gloucester was without result. Richard was wroth, and 
swore he would never leave Ireland until he had cap- 
tured MacMurrogh, but, on his arrival at Dublin, he was 
met by the news of Bolingbroke's uprising, and returned 
to England to find that he had lost his throne. 

117. Close of Art MacMurrogh's career. After the 
departure of the English king, Art MacMurrogh became 




so formidable that the government decided to attempt a 
reconciliation, and agreed to compensate him for the for- 
feiture of his wife's estates. The restless Leinster chief 


From manuscript mentioned on page 131. MacMurrogh is here described as " a fine 
large man wonderfully active. To look at him he seemed very stern and fierce and an 
able man" 

remained at peace for a short period, but his love of war 
soon got the better of his pacific resolutions, and he re- 
newed his raids, plundering Carlow and Castledermot 
in 1405, and continuing through Wexford. In a battle 
near Callan in Kilkenny, in 1407, he suffered a crushing 
defeat at the hands of the lord lieutenant, Sir Stephen 
Scroope. Art MacMurrogh remained quiet for a short 
time after this defeat, but in 141 3 he was once more 
in the field. He attacked the colony of Wexford in this 
year, and again, three years later, won a decisive battle 
over the combined forces of the English. This was 

134 IRELAND'S STORY [1417 

his last fight, as he died in 141 7. Art MacMurrogh 
Kavanagh had ruled the Irish of Leinster for forty-two 
years, and, in spite of all efforts to subdue him, had 
maintained his power and authority close to the Eng- 
lish Pale. This is an accurate measure of the extent 
of England's power in the Ireland of the fourteenth cen- 

118. Conditions under Henry V and Henry VI, 
1413-1461. For the next thirty years, the condition of 
Ireland remained much the same. The kings of Eng- 
land were still too completely engrossed by the Hundred 
Years' War with France to pay much attention to Ire- 
land. The authority of the Dublin government dwindled 
to almost nothing. The great barons were stronger than 
before. The native chiefs, as of old, were fighting among 
themselves and against the English lords. During the 
sir John reign of Henry V, Sir John Talbot was sent 
Talbot. over, and temporarily subdued four trouble- 
some chiefs : O'Moore, MacMahon, O'Hanlon, and 
O'Neill. He quartered his soldiers on the people of 
the Pale, however, and thus caused them as much suffer- 
ing as they would have endured from the raids of the 
Irish chieftains. 

After the accession of Henry VI, in 1422, a quarrel cf 
twenty years' duration broke out between the Butlers 
and the Talbots, which brought the English settlement 
to the verge of ruin. Confusion and corruption were 
rife in the Pale. Debts remained unpaid, and extortions 
of all kinds were inflicted on the poor people by the 
Duke 01 officials. A short respite was enjoyed, in the 
York. year 1450, when Richard Plantagenet, duke 

of York, was lord lieutenant. He made the great inno- 
vation of adopting fair measures toward both parties, 
and was deservedly popular. His appointment had been 


for ten years, but Jack Cade's insurrection, breaking out 
in England in the following year, compelled his return. 

119. The Wars of the Roses. The Wars of the 
Roses, which began in England in 1455, between the 
rival houses of Lancaster and York, having as their em- 
blems the Red and the White Rose, were destined to 
last for thirty years. In Ireland, the Geraldines took 
the side of the House of York, while the Butlers sided 
with the House of Lancaster. Not only did _ ... 

J Geraldines 

these great Norman lords fight in Ireland, but and 
they even went to England, carrying Irish u ers " 
armies with them, to fight for the rival princes. Their 
absence gave the Irish chiefs fresh opportunities to 
reassert themselves, and to recover still more of their 
former power. The two factions also fought several 
battles on Irish soil. Among the captives at one of 
these battles was MacRichard Butler, whose ransom 
consisted of two Irish manuscripts, the Psalter of Cashel 
and the Book of Carrick. A part of the Psalter of 
Cashel still exists in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
and an account of this incident is recorded on one of its 

120. Thomas, earl of Desmond, 1463-1467. Thomas 
Fitzgerald, eighth earl of Desmond, was appointed lord 
lieutenant in 1463. He was popular with both factions, 
was a patron of learning, and founded and endowed the 
college of Youghal in Cork. He exercised his authority 
for four years, and somewhat mitigated the evils which 
existed in and beyond the Pale. Edward IV, against the 
wishes of many of his friends, had refused to marry a 
princess of France, and thus strengthen his throne. He 
had wedded a lady of noble though not of royal blood, 
and this had caused Warwick the king-maker to quarrel 
with him. The Earl of Desmond incautiously criticised 

*3 6 



the queen, and his words, reported to King Edward, 
were made the basis of a charge of high treason. Des- 
Executed. mond was arrested, condemned for his words 
1467. concerning the queen, and also for a breach of 

the Statute of Kilkenny, in making alliances with the 
native Irish chiefs, and executed in 1467. Garrett Fitz- 
gerald, the eighth earl of Kildare, called the Great Earl, 
succeeded him as lord lieutenant. 

121. Conditions within the Pale. When Henry II 
visited Ireland, he laid the foundation of the future 
Irish Parliament, by calling an assembly of the 
Norman barons, to whom he had granted lands. 
These powerful tenants of the crown, together 

with the English archbishops 
and bishops, formed the kernel 
of the future parliament, which 
gradually gained authority, and 
acquired the right to vote sup- 
plies of money for the king, 
and to make laws for the Eng- 
lish colonists in Ireland. These 
colonists were grouped within 
the Pale, which had gradually 
been diminished in area until 
it included only Louth and parts 
of Dublin, Meath, and Kildare, 
and was now wholly unable to 
cope with its assailants. Failing 
in armed force, the Dublin gov- 
ernment tried to assert itself 
by Acts of Parliament, which 
were very often unjust to the 
Irish. For example, in 1465 the Dublin Parliament 
passed an act ordering every Irishman within the Pale 


From a photograph of a man dressed 
in clothes found upon a body six 
feet below the surface of a bog in 


to adopt the English dress and an English name, on pain 

of forfeiture of his property. To this ordinance is due 

the fact that many Irishmen took names of _ 

J Oppressive 

towns, like Cork, Trim, Sutton ; or colors, like and unjust 
Black, Brown, Green ; or trades, like Carpen- 
ter and Smith. Another act forbade fishing in waters 
belonging to the native chiefs, as the money paid for 
this privilege would enrich the latter, to the detriment 
of the English. Most unjust was a criminal provision 
which made it lawful to execute any thief caught in the 
act, unless he was in the company of an Englishman. 
This made many opportunities for false accusations, as 
any Irishman might be murdered, and his head taken 
to the mayor, with the accusation that he had been 
caught stealing. His murderer not only escaped punish- 
ment, but was even paid a reward. It is true that the 
Pale swarmed with robbers ; but a law like this was 
more likely to increase crime than to diminish it. 


The Normans who had settled in Great Britain had by this 
time lost their Norman character and were blended with the 
English nation, so that all newcomers from Britain to Ireland 
may henceforth be called Englishmen. The old Norman 
barons began now to side with the Irish, and looked upon 
these new settlers as hostile intruders, and wars and murders 
were frequent. The English government maintained its only 
real authority in the small district round Dublin known as 
the " Pale." It was often forced to pay Black Rent or to 
call in the help of some Norman or Irish chief to protect it 
against the attacks of others. 

The Irish already suffered greatly through the injustice of 
the Norman law, which afforded protection to the English 
only. To make matters worse, in 1367 the Statute of Kil- 

138 IRELAND'S STORY [1467 

kenny was passed, which contained measures calculated fur- 
ther to separate the two races. 

Richard II made two expeditions to Ireland in 1394 and 
1399 to subdue Art MacMurrogh Kavanagh, who was the 
most active of the Irish chiefs. The kings of England were, 
however, too much engrossed in the Hundred Years' War 
with France to accomplish anything effective in Ireland. 

A subsidiary War of the Roses was carried on in Ireland 
between the Geraldines and Butlers while the great war was 
going on in England, 1455-1485. The Butlers, who were the 
Lancastrians, were defeated. In 1465, the Irish Parliament 
passed more unjust laws to be enforced against the Irish 
within the Pale. 



English Sovereigns: 

Henry VII, 1485-1509 Henry VIII, 1509-1547 

122. Henry VII. The Wars of the Roses were ended 

in 1485, by the accession of the Lancastrian Henry VII, 

who founded the House of Tudor. Under this line of 

sovereigns, the English were destined to extend their 

power in Ireland, regaining much lost ground. During 

this period, more attention was paid to Irish problems, 

and an attempt was made to find a serious solution for 

them. Henry realized that, if English author- 

J Power of 

ity was to prevail in Ireland, he must first com- the Irish 

promise with the great barons and conciliate nobles * 
them, for much depended on their support. The Ger- 
aldines were very powerful at this time, and though they 
had sided with the House of York, and opposed Henry, 
the latter nevertheless retained the Great Earl of Kil- 
dare as lord lieutenant, until Kildare gave his adherence, 
in 1487, to Lambert Simnel, a Yorkist pretender to the 
English throne. The earls of Kildare, it should be re- 
membered, were the Leinster Geraldines, the earls of 
Desmond being the Munster branch of the family. 

123. Poynings' Law. Besides the military force of 
the Norman barons in Ireland, a strong obstacle to the 
authority of the English crown lay in the control which 

140 IRELAND'S STORY [1494 

these barons exercised over the parliament at Dublin. 
Henry VII took measures to weaken the parliament. 
He sent over a new lord lieutenant, Sir Edward Poyn- 
ings, to undermine the power of the bar- 

Parliament ° f 

of Droghe- ons. After a short campaign in the north, the 
new lord lieutenant convened a parliament at 
Drogheda, in 1494, and at this session was passed the 
famous Poynings' Law, which contained the following 
provisions : — 

1. All Acts intended to be passed by the Irish Parlia- 
ment must first be submitted to the king of England 
and his Privy Council. 

2. English laws were to be enforced in Ireland. 

3. The Statute of Kilkenny was revived, alliances be- 
tween the two races being once more forbidden, though 
the use of the Irish language was now permitted. 

4. It was made a felony to allow enemies or rebels, 
that is, native Irish who resisted English authority, to 
pass through the districts on the border of the Pale. 

5. Certain high offices, such as those of the chancel- 
lor, the treasurer, the master of the rolls, and judges, 
which had formerly been held for life, were now held 
only during the king's pleasure. 

124. Results of Poynings' Law. All the measures 
carried out by the new lord lieutenant had two objects : 
to make the great Norman nobles more dependent on the 
king, and to protect the common people within the Pale 
from violence. Up to this time the Irish Parliament 
had been entirely independent; it had been called by the 
lord lieutenant when it seemed necessary to him, and 
had passed laws suited to Irish conditions. Poynings' Law 
made the Irish Parliament an echo of the English. The 
worst consequences of this step were not at once seen, 
because the native Irish had had no share in legisla- 


tion hitherto, and therefore did not visibly lose any- 
thing. The parliament was wholly an institu- _ 

o r j Dependence 

tion of the Pale, and no native Irishman could oftneiiisn 
either vote or sit in it. In later times, when " a* 1611 - 
the whole of Ireland came under English law, and the 
Irish Parliament made laws for the entire country, for 
the natives and the colonists alike, the injustice of this 
restriction was a fruitful source of evil. Irishmen were 
forced to submit to laws which they had no voice in 
making, and which were passed in another country by 
men who knew neither their wants nor their situation. 
Long years of strife passed before the repeal of this 
unjust law was finally secured. 

125. Trial and acquittal of the Earl of Kildare. 
Another act passed by this parliament at Drogheda 
accused the Earl of Kildare of treason for attempting to 
oppose the authority of Sir Edward Poynings. Kildare 
had been pardoned for his support of Lambert Simnel. 
This time he was arrested and taken to England for trial. 
Henry VII realized that the death of the Earl of Kil- 
dare would deprive him of a valuable officer. For some 
time, Kildare was kept a prisoner in London, but he was 
at last brought to trial, in 1496, and forced to answer 
many charges, largely for imaginary offences. One of 
the gravest accusations made by his enemies was that 
he had burned the cathedral at Cashel. " Spare your 
evidence!" said the Earl of Kildare, "I did set fire to 
the church, for I thought the archbishop was in it ! " 

Kildare was then given the right to choose his own 
advocate, to defend him against these charges. Taking 
King Henry by the hand, Kildare exclaimed : " Yes, your 
highness, I choose the ablest in the realm. Your high- 
ness I take for my counsel against these false knaves ! " 
Toward the end of the trial, one of his opponents, 

142 IRELAND'S STORY [1496 

exasperated at his bold front, exclaimed, " All Ireland 
cannot govern this earl ! " The king replied : 
made " Then this earl shall govern all Ireland ! " and 

deputy. Kildare was once more made lord lieutenant, 
and returned to Dublin in triumph. 

126. Kildare defeats Burke of Clanrickard. One of 
the most important acts of the reappointed lord lieutenant 
was the defeat of William Burke, lord of Clanrickard. 
This fight was the result of a private quarrel. The lord 
of Clanrickard, who was the leader of the "degenerate 
English " of Connaught, had married Kildare's daughter 
and had treated her harshly. His father-in-law remon- 
strated with him, and from words they came to blows. 
On the side of Lord Clanrickard were ranged O'Brien of 
Thomond and the Irish chiefs of Munster. The Earl of 
Kildare was seconded by the O'Kellys and many of the 
northern chiefs. The two parties met at Knockdoe, "the 

hill of the axes," a few miles from Galway, in 

Battle ol Jf 

Knockdoe. August, 1504, and there was great slaughter 
on both sides. The victory, however, remained 
with the Earl of Kildare and his northern allies, and 
two of Lord Clanrickard's sons were captured and held 
as hostages. The "degenerate English" received a 
severe blow through this defeat, and King Henry VII, 
naturally gratified by this result, rewarded the Earl of 
Kildare with the order of the Garter. 

127. Accession of Henry VIII, 1509. Henry VII 
died in the year 1509, and was succeeded by his son, 
Henry VIII. The new monarch retained, as lord lieuten- 
ant, the Earl of Kildare, who continued to represent the 
~ ,_ * king at Dublin for four years more. In these 

Death of ° J 

the old earl closing years of his life, he was also engaged in 

fighting, but his former good fortune deserted 

him. In 15 10, he invaded Minister, and was badly 


defeated near Limerick by his former opponents, O'Brien 
and Clanrickard. For three more years, Kildare con- 
tinued to fight, finally losing his life in an attack on the 
castle of one of the native chiefs. 

On the death of the old earl, there was an outbreak 
in the army. The Dublin Council decided that Hisson 
the most practical step to allay the disturb- Garrett 

. Fitzgerald 

ance among the soldiers was to nominate Kil- made lord' 
dare's son, Garrett Fitzgerald the younger, as Ueutenant - 
lord lieutenant, without waiting to hear from the king, 
who, however, confirmed the nomination. 

128. Career of Garrett Fitzgerald, ninth earl of 
Kildare. The new earl of Kildare, the ninth to bear 
that title, was as war- 
like as his father, and 
quite as much dreaded 
by the feudal lords of 
Ireland. His chief en- 
emies were the But- 
lers, who had opposed 
the Geraldines in the 
Wars of the Roses. 
They lost no time in 
seeking means to bring 
about his ruin. The 
Karl of Ormond Pierce armorial bearings of the fitzgeralds, 


Roe, head of the But- 
lers, had a strong ally in Henry's great minister, Cardi- 
nal Wolsey, whom he finally persuaded to take action 
against the Geraldines. Wolsey assented the 

.... . Wolsey 

more willingly, because he hated Kildare, whose opposes 
independence and haughty manner had offended 
the still more haughty cardinal. The Earl of Kildare 
was summoned to England, on a charge of attempting 




made lord 

to appropriate the king's Irish revenues to his personal 
use ; and, furthermore, of having suspicious relations with 
the native Irish chiefs. Kildare was tried and completely 
acquitted, but was not restored to the office of lord lieu- 
tenant. An enemy of Kildare's, the Earl of Surrey, was 
made lord lieutenant in his place at Wolsey's 
suggestion. The rule of Surrey was very bene- 
ficial to the English colony in the Pale. He 
quelled a number of uprisings with justice and modera- 
tion. He was ill supplied with funds, however, and this 
so displeased him that he resigned and returned to 
England in 1521. Pierce Roe Butler, earl of 

Onnond ° 

succeeds Ormond, was made lord lieutenant. Meanwhile 
Kildare, who had remained in England, had 

married the Lady Elizabeth Grey, a relative of the king, 

and this alliance as- 
sured his safety for a 
time at least. The 
new lord lieutenant 
directed all his ener- 
gies to weakening Kil- 
dare's position in Ire- 
land. He led an army 
into the territory of 
his rival, and cap- 
tured several castles. 
In 1523, Kildare was 
permitted to return to 
His indignation at the state of his lands roused 
him to an immediate attack on the chief of the 
Butlers. The king was alarmed, and sent over 

a commission to settle the dispute. This commission 

decided in favor of Kildare, who was reappointed lord 

lieutenant in 1524. 



Kildare re- 


The enemies of the Earl of Kildare did not cease trying 
to accomplish his ruin. The Earl of Desmond, head of 
the Munster Geraldines, had entered into correspondence 
with Francis I, king of France, hoping to induce him 
to invade Ireland. When news of this correspondence 
came to King Henry's ears, he ordered the arrest of the 
Earl of Desmond. The fulfilment of this command fell 
to the Earl of Kildare, who undertook it most reluc- 
tantly. Desmond was his kinsman, and Kildare .„ 

J \ Allowed 

was accused of having allowed his escape, as Desmond to 
he probably did, for Desmond was not arrested. escape - 
This disregard of the king's command, and certain minor 
charges against Kildare, gave Wolsey and Pierce Roe 
Butler the opportunity they had long sought. Kildare 
was again summoned to London. He went there in 
1526, but was not detained. He was deprived, however, 
of most of his power and was asked to act as adviser to 
a new lord lieutenant, Sir William Skeffington. The 
proud earl could not long endure this subsidiary position. 
He made vigorous efforts to secure his reappointment, 
and through his personal influence with the king com- 
pletely succeeded in 1529. 

Kildare, once more in high favor with the king of 
England, feared no attacks. He married his two daugh- 
ters to two very powerful Irish chiefs. He removed one 
lord chancellor and appointed another. To avenge him- 
self on his old enemy, Pierce Roe Butler, earl of Ormond, 
he invaded the territory of the Butlers. It is probable 
that at this time Kildare began to cherish larger ambi- 
tions, for he encouraged his brother, James Fitz- Hls 
gerald, and his cousin, Conn O'Neill, to attack ambition, 
the English of Louth, whose territory formed part of the 
Pale. This act, and the ceaseless hostility of Wolsey, 
brought him a third summons from King Henry VIII. 

146 IRELAND'S STORY [1534 

Instead of obeying it promptly, Kildare lingered in Ire- 
land, fortifying his castles, and strengthening his position 
in a way which suggested rebellion. 

At last, in 1534, another summons came from King 
Henry, in such terms as to permit no further delay. 
Kildare left Ireland full of misgivings. When 
prisonment he reached London he was imprisoned in the 
Tower. He left his son Thomas, commonly 
known as " Silken Thomas," from the richness of his 
raiment and retinue, as lord lieutenant in his place. 
Silken Thomas was then a youth twenty-one years old. 
He had little of the skill in affairs possessed by his 
father and grandfather, and was too easily influenced by 
those about him. A false report of his father's death, 
purposely circulated by his rivals, together with a rumor 
that the execution of several of his kinsmen was contem- 
plated, caused the young earl to renounce his allegiance 
to the English king, and to enter on that hopeless 
struggle which brought ruin to himself and his house. 
The old earl died of a broken heart in the Tower, when 
he heard of his son's wild act, and foresaw its conse- 

129. Rebellion of Silken Thomas. Thomas Fitz- 
gerald laid siege to Dublin, and although he failed to 
siege of take the city he caused great suffering to its 
Dublin. inhabitants and to the surrounding districts. 
Thomas Fitzgerald and his followers came under the ban 
of excommunication because of the murder of an arch- 
bishop, who took the king's side, and was captured by 
the insurgent army. Silken Thomas granted his appeal 
for mercy, but the soldiers wilfully misinterpreted their 
orders, and murdered the archbishop. 

Neither party gained any decided advantage. Parts 
of Kildare and Meath, as well as the districts around 


Dublin, were devastated. Skeffington had been reap- 
pointed lord lieutenant in 1534, and his arrival skeffington 
in Dublin was hailed by the colonists. It was "^ Sen- 8 * 
late in the year, and the lord lieutenant con- tenant, 
sidered it inadvisable to begin a campaign that winter. 
In the early spring hostilities were opened by Betrayal of 
the siege of Maynooth, one of the strongest of Ma y nootn - 
the Geraldine castles, on the borders of Kildare and 
Meath. Skeffington would never have been able to take 


From a drawing by Albert Diirer. preserved in Vienna. The artist, who was in the Low 
Countries at this time, and doubtless saw Irish knights and their followers, calls them 
" War Men " and " Poor Men." The mantles and axes of the latter are typically Irish ; 
the armor and swords of the former are less typical 

it had it not been betrayed to him. This loss some- 
what discouraged the rebels, and Silken Thomas lost 
one of his strongest allies, O'Moore of Leix, who was 
persuaded by the Butlers to desert his cause. 

Finally Lord Grey, commander of the English forces 

148 IRELAND'S STORY [1535 

in Ireland, proceeded with a large force against Silken 
Thomas, and soon put an end to the rebellion. 

Thomas , l 

surrenders. Silken Thomas, who had lost all his allies but 


O'Conor, surrendered on condition that his life 
should be spared. He sailed for England in 1535 assured 
of a pardon. On his way to Windsor, however, he was 
arrested and imprisoned in the Tower, where he remained 
for eighteen months, when he was executed together 
with five of his kinsmen who had been captured by Grey. 
Thus the executioner's axe put an end to the greatness 
of the house of Kildare. Their lands were devastated, 
their strongholds torn down, and the glory of their family 
was eclipsed. 

130. First Geraldine League. There remained, how- 
ever, two young sons of the ninth earl of Kildare and 
the Lady Elizabeth Grey. Gerald Fitzgerald, brother 
and heir of Silken Thomas, was a boy of ten. The earls 
of Kildare were connected either by blood or by marriage 
with the chief Norman and native families of Ireland ; 
the two youths were, therefore, well provided 
with protectors. With the hope of restoring 
the heir of the house of Kildare to his rights, the 
O'Donnells, Desmonds, O'Briens, O'Conors, and others 
combined in what was known as the first Geraldine 
League. Conn O'Neill was at its head. The king feared 
the threatening attitude of the league, and was not un- 
willing to conciliate them. But it was not until fifteen 
years later that the estates were restored to the heir of 
the Kildares, and two years more passed before the title 
was revived. The new earl never regained the position 
of power and influence held by his forefathers. 



When Henry VII ascended the throne, the Geraldines 
were the most influential of the Anglo-Irish families. In 
spite of their Yorkist sympathies Henry deemed it best to 
extend his favor to them, and placed Garrett, the eighth 
earl of Kildare, in the office of lord lieutenant. The latter 
was superseded by Poynings, shortly after the rebellion of 
Lambert Simnel. Henry now had a law passed known as 
Poynings' Law, which virtually destroyed the independence 
of the Irish Parliament, and made it absolutely subservient to 
the English Privy Council. The Geraldines were becoming 
daily more powerful. Kildare was reappointed lord lieu- 
tenant, and remained in office until his death in 1513. His 
son, Garrett the younger, ninth earl of Kildare, had two 
bitter enemies who finally accomplished his downfall, Pierce 
Roe, earl of Ormond, head of the Butlers, and Cardinal 
Wolsey. Twice he was summoned to England to answer 
charges, and acquitted, each time returning to enjoy in- 
creased power. The third time his enemies were successful. 
He was imprisoned in the Tower, and his son, Silken 
Thomas, a youth of little ability, led an unsuccessful rebel- 
lion. The old earl died of a broken heart in 1534. Silken 
Thomas was executed the following year. The power of the 
Geraldines was broken, and in years to come the family 
regained but little of its influence. 



I534-I5 82 

English Sovereigns : 

Henry VIII, 1 509-1 547 Mary, 1553-1558 
Edward VI, 1 547-1553 Elizabeth, 1 558-1603 

131. Henry VIII and the Reformation. During 
the reign of Henry VIII of England, events took place 
in Europe which had a marked influence on Ireland. 
The various upheavals in the Catholic Church, inaugu- 
rated by Martin Luther and carried forward by Zwingli 
and Calvin, had developed into the movement called the 
Reformation. Protestantism spread gradually through 
Germany, Switzerland, and other parts of northern and 
western Europe. In this movement England at first took 
no part, though tendencies in the same direction had ex- 
isted there since the days of John Wiclif. Henry VIII 
even wrote a book attacking Luther's views, and, in ac- 
knowledgment of this defence, the Pope conferred on 
him the title of " Defender of the Faith," still borne by 
the sovereigns of England. It is true that Henry VIII 
later came into open hostility to the Holy See, but this 
opposition concerned his divorce and remarriage, and 
not the questions of doctrine and discipline which had 
been raised by Martin Luther. 

Henry's marriage in opposition to the decree of the 


church caused his excommunication. He replied by 
disavowing the authority of Rome, and declaring himself 
the only Supreme Head of the Church within his domin- 
ions. He embodied this declaration in the Act A , 

Act 01 

of Supremacy passed in 1534. Many of the supremacy 
leading men in his kingdom refused to acknow- in ng m ' 
ledge him as their spiritual head, and were put to death. 
Two of the most prominent of these were Bishop Fisher 
and Sir Thomas More, author of " Utopia." 

Henry VIII was determined to establish his position 
as Supreme Head of the Church in Ireland also, and he 
intrusted the execution of his will to Skeffington, the 
lord lieutenant, Pierce Roe Butler, earl of Ormond, and 
a friar named George Brown who was appointed arch- 
bishop of Dublin. The latter was immediately and vigor- 
ously opposed by Archbishop Cromer, the Primate of 
Ireland, at the See of Armagh, and Henry was forced to 
recognize the fact that his revolutionary action would 
not be tamely accepted. In 1536, a parliament was as- 
sembled at Dublin, and an act was passed, similar 
to the English Act of Supremacy, by which Act of 
Henry VIII was declared Supreme Head of f^ e em ^ 7 
the Church in Ireland. All government offi- !536. 
cials were ordered to take the oath of supremacy, fail- 
ure to do so being considered high treason, and involving 
loss of office, and probable imprisonment and death. 

It was practically impossible to enforce the new order 
of things on all the religious houses in Ireland, which at 
that time were powerful institutions, affiliated with kin- 
dred bodies on the continent. Henry VIII determined 

to solve the matter by suppressing: them out- „ 

J rr & , Suppression 

right. So far as it was possible to do so, his oithemon- 

officers dispersed the friars and monks, seizing 

their lands and dispersing their communities. About 

152 IRELAND'S STORY [1541 

four hundred monastic establishments were thus broken 
up in all parts of Ireland, and their inmates made home- 
less. Henry granted their lands to his friends and fol- 
lowers, and the beautiful abbey churches were allowed 
to fall into neglect, and often into ruin. 

132. The Parliament of 1541. So much for the 
question of religion. Lord Grey, who had succeeded 
Skeffington as lord lieutenant, undertook at the same 
time to assert Henry's civil authority. He attacked the 
recently formed " Geraldine League," and compelled its 
chiefs to submit to his authority. Two of the leaders, 
however, the lords of Desmond and Thomond, still stood 
out against Henry's power in the southwest. In 1 54 1, 
Henry a parliament was assembled in Dublin, to pass 
kingof S an act declaring Henry ' King of Ireland,' 
Ireland. instead of ' Lord of Ireland,' the title which had 
previously been borne by the sovereigns of England 
since the time of King John. By the king's express 
direction both Anglo-Irish and native chiefs were asked 
to sit in this parliament, the latter thus appearing for the 
first time in any legislative body. The act investing the 
king with his new title was quickly passed by both houses, 
and the chiefs, worn out with incessant fighting, were 
overture t not unwmm g to accept Henry's overtures of 
tne Irish peace. A better feeling began, and English 

titles were conferred on many Irish chiefs ; 
among others, Conn O'Neill was made earl of Tyrone, 
and his son Matthew was made baron of Dungannon, 
with the right to succeed to his father's titles. We 
shall again hear of both father and son. Henry VIII 
also made two new political divisions by forming two 
counties out of the province of Meath : Meath proper 
and Westmeath. 

133. Edward VI. Henry's son, Edward VI, was a fer- 

i 5 53] THE REFORMATION 153 

vent follower of Martin Luther and the Reformation. 
His government inaugurated an unfortunate system 
of planting English colonies in Ireland, which Bn Ush 
generally meant that native Catholics were de- Protestants 

& . . J . . . . , r In Ireland. 

pnved of their possessions to make room tor 

foreign Protestants. This was the beginning of much 

national discord, because the English colonies Colonles 

continued to be hostile settlements, differing 

in that respect from the Norman invaders, who had soon 

been transformed by the Irish spirit, and did not try to 

destroy it. 

Edward also initiated the movement which placed 
Protestant clergymen in all the parishes of Ireland, con- 
ferring on them the right to levy tithes, that is, The S y S t em 
a tax of one tenth of the produce of the land, oltitnes - 
for their support. The Catholic priests, thus forced out 
of their churches, nevertheless continued courageously to 
minister to the needs of their flocks, and their fidelity 
never wavered in all the subsequent centuries of oppres- 
sion, misery, and persecution. It is a result of this fidel- 
ity that the Irish people to-day possess the qualities 
of faith, purity, and spirituality which distinguish them 
among the nations of the modern world. The attempt 
to make Protestant converts by armed force and the dis- 
possession of the natives by colonists were the two causes 
of most of the evils which afflicted Ireland for many 
generations. Sir Anthony Saint-Leger, who had suc- 
ceeded Lord Grey as lord lieutenant, and the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin were Edward's chief agents in this 
work, but they met with little success beyond the circle 
of government servants. 

134. Queen Mary. King Henry's daughter Mary 
succeeded her brother Edward on the English throne. 
Unlike him, she was a Catholic, but the few Protestants 

154 IRELAND'S STORY [1553 

who were then in Ireland were left in peace, to worship 
according to their own convictions, and many English 
Protestants sought refuge in Ireland from the conflicts 
in the church which then convulsed the larger island. 
During her reign two new counties were formed: Queen's 
County and King's County, in honor of Queen Mary and 
her husband, Philip, king of Spain. The chief towns of 
these two counties were called after the sovereigns — 
Maryborough and Philipstown. 

135. Queen Elizabeth and the age of persecution. 
The real religious troubles in Ireland began with the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth, in 1558. A parliament 
was convened in Dublin. The Act of Supremacy was 
renewed, and this time all clergymen were forced to take 
the oath of supremacy, or cease preaching. Further- 
more, the Act of Uniformity was enforced. This act re- 
quired the use of the English Protestant Prayer-book, and 
demanded that every man should attend service accord- 
ing to the Protestant liturgy, or pay a fine of twelve 
Prot t- pence (equivalent to three dollars to-day) for 
antism every failure to do so. The result of these 
acts was that, in all districts of Ireland where 
English authority could be enforced, though these were 
not numerous, the Catholic clergy were compelled to 
cease preaching openly. They continued, however, to 
preach and celebrate divine service in private. It was 
not often that fines were actually levied, and the Act of 
Uniformity was not effectively in force anywhere out- 
side the Pale. In the rest of Ireland, the English had 
no power to compel obedience ; and although from that 
time until the disestablishment of the Protestant Church 
three centuries later the doctrines of the Reformation 
remained the state religion of Ireland, they were never 
in any real sense the national religion. 


There were other and minor causes of trouble, includ- 
ing the tyrannous and arbitrary character of the Dublin 
government, which aroused against it co]onists Tyranny of 
and natives alike, so that any invader would g^^. 
have been welcome. The authorities never ment - 
relaxed their efforts to impose English customs upon 
the Irish, and many vexatious laws were passed as to 
matters of speech and dress. The fashion in which 
hair or beards might be worn and the cut of women's 
skirts were decided by legislative decree. It is true 
that these laws never came into effect, but their pre- 
sence on the statute-book and the spasmodic attempts 
made to enforce them were a constant source of exasper- 

136. Rebellion of Shane O'Neill. Conn O'Neill, 

whom Henry VIII created earl of Tyrone, had two sons, 

Matthew and Shane. Conn preferred the latter, 

Its cause. 
and purposed to leave him his title and lands. 

Matthew, who bore the English title of Baron Dungan- 
non, claimed the succession, and was supported in this 
claim by the authorities at Dub- 
lin. The English, to clear the ffim*tp\ «■/■ j\ja 
way for their favorite, Matthew, //( ||f^TlCu^ 
sought to remove his father, and 


for that purpose, enticed him to It is wrhten Misi , Neill> literally 
Dublin, and imprisoned him Nem" ted " by me the son of 
there. Shane determined to act 

at once, and took up arms in support of what he believed 
his right to succeed his father. During the years 1 55 1, 
1552, and 1553, a number of unsuccessful attempts were 
made to subdue the*young rebel, and, as usual, the coun- 
try suffered severely. The Scottish MacDonnells of 
Rathlin Island were Shane's allies, and against them Sir 
James Croft, the lord lieutenant, made the first attack. 

1 5 6 



It was an unlucky beginning for the government, for 
MacDonnell and his army surprised Croft as he was 
landing on Rathlin Island, and cut off the English forces 
First to a man. In the following year, Croft, associ- 

successes. ating his f orces with those of Matthew O'Neill, 

Baron Dungannon, made another attempt to subdue the 
young rebel and his allies, but with no greater success. 

The marching and counter- 
marching of the opposed forces 
was rapidly turning Ulster into 
a desert ; Croft finally recog- 
nized the uselessness of his 
attempt, and nothing more was 
done for the next six years. 

137. A renewal of the strug- 
gle. In 1558, some of Shane 
O'Neill's adherents murdered 
Matthew O'Neill, and soon af- 
ter the old earl died in captiv- 
ity. Shane was immediately 
elected earl according to Irish 
custom, while the Dublin gov- 
ernment recognized Matthew's 

icture of soldier from a charter SOn aS hlS SUCCeSSOr, aS much 

to weaken Shane as for any 
other reason. Combinations 

the queen's government in Ireland. r „j •„ . .1 „ 

He Is armed with the long deadly were formed against the pow- 

battle-axe of the Irish foot-soldier r 1 t c 1 i" i_ i.u 

erful "rebel by the govern- 
ment, with the hope of overthrowing him, but Shane 
was too quick for his enemies. He managed to meet 
and overcome them separately, before any combined 
successful force could be arrayed against him. In 1561, 
in 1561. he defeated an army under the new lord lieu- 
tenant, the Earl of Sussex, and before long had gained 

granted by Queen Elizabeth to 
Dublin in 1582-3. The soldier is 
no doubt one of the " gallow- 
glasses " who were employed by 


control of all Ulster, including the domain of his old 
rivals, the O'Donnells, lords of Tyrconnell or Donegal. 

At last Elizabeth decided to try conciliatory measures, 
and Shane was summoned to her court. He went there 
in December, 1561, and was cordially received Shane 
by the clever queen, in spite of a recommenda- JSJJ^J 8 
tion from Sussex that the great Irishman should court, 
be treated coldly, as befitted a rebel. An English his- 
torian describes his advance toward the queen, between 
two rows of admiring courtiers, followed by his "gallow- 
glasses," 1 with bare heads, long hair curling over their 
shoulders, saffron-dyed tunics, and wide mantles. Shane 
made friends with Queen Elizabeth, promising to recog- 
nize her authority, provided that she, on her side, ad- 
mitted his contested right of succession. All would 

1 Gallowglasses and Kerns. There were two classes of infantry 
in the Irish armies during the Middle Ages. The light infantry, 
to whom the name of kerns has been given, were armed with a 
javelin tied to the wrist with a string, so that it could be pulled 
back, after a throw, and used again ; they also had darts, or light 
spears to be thrown, and daggers or knives, which were used to 
kill a wounded foe. The gallowglasses were much more heavily 
armed. They were protected by a coat of mail, a breastplate, and 
an iron helmet, and their principal weapon was a sharp battle-axe, 
like those of the ancient Gauls. When going into battle, the 
cavalry went first, the heavily armed gallowglasses second, and the 
kerns third, the last being skirmishers, who hung on the skirts of a 
retreating army, or attacked it on the march, doing more damage in 
this kind of irregular fighting than in a pitched battle. The names 
" gallowglass " and " kern," which are taken from the Gaelic, and are 
used in the Irish Annals, have been made familiar by Shakespeare's 
use of them in Macbeth : — 

" The merciless Macdonwald 
(Worthy to be a rebel ; for, to that, 
The multiplying villanies of nature 
Do swarm upon him) from the western isles 
Of kerns and gallowglasses is supplied." 

158 IRELAND'S STORY [1562 

have gone well if certain persons in authority had not 
thought they could gain better terms from the powerful 
Irishman. They forced him to sign certain very severe 
conditions, which, however, he did not consider himself 
obliged to keep. Shane returned to Ireland, and once 
more took up arms in defence of his full rights. Elizabeth 
His claim ordered Sussex to conciliate Shane by substan- 
recognized. t j a j concessions, and an agreement was finally 
signed at his house at Benburb in Tyrone, in which the 
queen recognized Shane's headship of the clan of O'Neill, 
by admitting his right to bear the title, "The O'Neill." 

138. Shane's war with the MacDonnells. Now se- 
curely established in his rights, Shane made war on the 
MacDonnells and other Scottish settlers, who had come 
in great numbers to the north of Ireland, and who were 
much feared and disliked by the Dublin government. 
It must be remembered that these settlers were de- 
scended largely from the old Irish colonists who founded 
Scottish Dalriada, as recorded in an earlier part of the 
nation's story. When Shane was forced to sign the pro- 
mises already spoken of, an agreement to expel the Scot- 
tish settlers was among the conditions, but it is probable 
that the desire to assert his authority without rivals really 
determined him to make war on them. He was at first 

very successful, and won several battles, in 

victories. which many of the Scottish settlers were killed. 

In spite of the fact that the authorities had 

demanded the expulsion of the MacDonnells as part of 
the price of Shane's freedom, they were far from pleased 
to see him so completely successful, as it meant an in- 
crease of his power, which they already felt to be formid- 

139. End of the rebellion. Shane's day of doom was 
approaching. He met with a final defeat in the follow- 


ing year, 1567, at the hands of Hugh O'Donnell. The 
fight took place on the Donegal side of the , 

0x13.116 S Q6" 

Swilly, and Shane was barely able to retreat feat and 
across a ford of the river with a few followers. 
Thoroughly disheartened, he resolved to throw himself 
on the mercy of his former enemies, the Scottish settlers. 
He sought their camp at Cushendun, with only fifty fol- 
lowers. The Scottish leaders received him with a show 
of cordiality, but with treacherous designs in their hearts. 
At a given signal a pretended quarrel was begun, and, 
in the struggle and uproar, Shane was attacked, and he 
and all his men were killed. Shane's reputation as a war- 
rior stands high, in spite of the ruin and destruction 
which resulted from his struggle. He also left a name 
for fair and just dealing, tempered, however, rather with 
severity than mercy. 

A further step in the English organization of Ireland 
was taken at this time. In 1565, the lord lieutenant 
formed a new county out of Annaly, which he called 
Longford. He also divided Connaught into the follow- 
ing counties : Galway, Sligo, Mayo, Roscommon, Leitrim, 
and Clare, the last of which in later years became a part 
of Munster. 

140. The Second G-eraldine League. Religious dif- 
ferences had been growing in importance while these 
events were taking place. The English were trying to 
force the Protestant doctrines and ritual upon the Irish. 
Some of the Anglo-Irish nobles sided with the old native 
families, as, for instance, the Munster Geraldines, the 
Earl of Desmond and his adherents. Others took the 
side of the Dublin government, like the Earl The 
of Ormond and his family, the Butlers. The *™™™ 
result of the civil strife thus begun was further Butlers, 
devastation of the southern part of Ireland, the lesser 

160 IRELAND'S STORY [1567 

chiefs following the example of the greater, in this reli- 
gious and political war. Sir Henry Sydney, at this time 
lord lieutenant, and one of the harshest and most ruth- 
less of England's representatives in Ireland, led an expedi- 
tion through Minister, hanging, burning, and devastating 
with pitiless savagery. The Earl of Desmond, a Catho- 
lic, and his brother John, who was well disposed toward 
the Dublin government, were seized, carried to London, 
and imprisoned in the Tower for six years. The capture 
of the latter was due to the Earl of Ormond, however, and 
not to Sydney. These two unwarranted arrests, together 
with the reports which circulated concerning further in- 
tended " colonization " by the Dublin government, as well 
causes oi as attempts to force the doctrines of the Refor- 
the trouble. mar .ion on the Catholics of Dublin, aroused both 
native and Anglo-Irish chiefs to unite in self-defence in 
a new coalition called the Second Geraldine League. 

141. The Geraldine rebellion. James FitzMaurice 

Fitzgerald, a cousin of the Earl of Desmond, was the 

moving spirit of the rebellion against the Eng- 

Ledby & r & t> 

ntz- lish authorities which broke out in 1569. Syd- 

ney, greatly alarmed, headed an army and 
marched south, on a second expedition of massacre, and, 
by his awful severity, succeeded in terrifying some of 
the chiefs into submission. FitzMaurice fought long, 
but in 1573 he was forced to discontinue the struggle, 
and the rebellion was believed to be ended. The Earl 
of Desmond and his brother, who were in captivity in 
the Tower, were set at liberty, as it was thought that all 
danger of resistance was at an end. 
Fitz- • FitzMaurice, however, had not given up the 

s^curesaid cause as l° st - ^ e Aed to France, and after- 
fiom Spain, wards to Spain, whence he returned six years 
later to Ireland. This was in the year 1579, and Fitz- 


Maurice brought with him three ships and seventy or 
eighty Spanish soldiers to support his cause. 

As soon as FitzMaurice had landed in Kerry with his 
Spanish allies, he was joined by John and James Fitz- 
gerald, brothers of the Earl of Desmond. An English 
force, sent by the government to oppose the rebels, was 
defeated by John Fitzgerald. Nevertheless, the small 
body of Spaniards was soon scattered, FitzMaurice was 
killed, and John Fitzgerald was left in command of the 
Munster rebels. 

The Earl of Desmond, so far, had taken no part in the 
insurrection, but now, goaded by the systematic harsh- 
ness of the government, he joined the rebellion. He 
was a very powerful ally, and his loss was greatly felt by 
Queen Elizabeth. The Earl of Ormond, head of the 
Butler family, remained on the side of the English. The 
opposing forces now began a series of maraud- Renewed 

ins: expeditions, over the whole of Munster struggle in 

& . . Munster. 

from Limerick to Kerry, after the manner of 

the early tribal raids. They seem, however, to have 
avoided any attempt to meet in battle. Their tactics 
differed somewhat. The soldiers of the Geraldine 
League, although they laid waste the country whenever 
and wherever they could, did not kill the inhabitants. 
The English, on the contrary, not only spread devasta- 
tion through the towns, so that not a house was left hab- 
itable, but also killed the inhabitants. The English were 
gradually gaining the advantage. John and James Fitz- 
gerald were killed, the latter being executed, while the 
former fell fighting. 

Leinster also revolted under James Eustace, Viscount 
Baltinglass. This new uprising was due to uprising in 
the discontent felt by the people of the Pale, Leinster. 
partly on account of a tax illegally levied by Sydney 

162 IRELAND'S STORY [1580 

two years before, without going through the form of 
passing a law through the Irish Parliament ; and partly 
owing to measures taken to forward the cause of the 
Reformation within the Pale. Lord Grey of Wilton 
was directed to put down this rebellion, but, owing to 
Lord Grey hi s rashness, his army was almost annihilated, 
defeated. H e j iac j i anc ied at Dublin, and thence led his 
army south into Wicklow, to attack Baltinglass. He was 
caught by the allies in a narrow mountain pass, and com- 
pletely beaten. 

In October, 1 580, a small force of about seven hundred 
Spaniards and Italians arrived in Ireland, to help in the 
l in contest against the English. Lord Grey, furi- 

garrison ous at his former defeat, bombarded Fort Dun- 
anore, where the Irish were intrenched, until it 
surrendered, when he massacred the whole garrison, an 
act which excited indignation even throughout England. 
He continued this barbarous campaign through the year 
1 58 1, until the queen, realizing the lasting harm which 
was being worked by these savage methods, caused his 
recall in 1582. Affairs in the Geraldine camp had been 
End of the growing worse and worse. The army was too 
rebellion. we ak to accomplish anything, and most of its 
leaders had been killed or captured. The great Earl of 
Desmond, head of the Geraldine family, was roaming the 
woods as an outlaw, with a price on his head. He was 
finally killed in 1583. 


In 1534, by the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII had him- 
self proclaimed Supreme Head of the Catholic Church in his 
own dominions, and the English Church was declared inde- 
pendent of the Pope. By an act passed in Ireland in 1536, 
Henry VIII was further declared Supreme Head of the Irish 



Church; as a result, the monasteries, which refused to recog- 
nize his authority, were suppressed. The Irish Parliament 
of 1541 gave him the title of "King of Ireland.'' 

Edward VI tried to enforce the doctrines of the Reforma- 
tion \ also inflicting upon the Irish the abuses of colonization 
and the tithe system. There was a short respite during Queen 
Mary's reign, followed by a period of persecution under 
Elizabeth, 1558-1603, when the teachings of the Reformation 
were enforced by stricter measures. 

The difference between English and Irish law in the matter 
of succession to estates was the cause of the rebellion of 
Shane O'Neill, which broke out in 155 1 and lasted until his 
death in 1566. The continued efforts to impose the Protest- 
ant creed, and projects of Protestant colonization, brought 
about the formation of the Second Geraldine League in 1567, 
which was followed by the Geraldine rebellion in 1569-82. 
In this struggle, the Butlers fought on the side of the English, 
while the Geraldines secured aid from Spain. Munster and 
Leinster were devastated. 




English Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth, 1 558-1603 

142. Lord-lieutenancy of Sir John Perrott, 1584- 
1588. After the suppression of the Geraldine rebellion, 
Queen Elizabeth appointed a new lord lieutenant, Sir 
John Perrott, a man of great ability, who had the interests 
of Ireland at heart. His first act was to proclaim a gen- 
eral amnesty to all those who returned to their allegiance 
to the English government. He even sent the Earl of 
Desmond's son to England to be educated. His leading 
idea was that English law should be put in force all over 
Ireland to the exclusion of the traditional Brehon law ; 
and he won over most of the native chieftains to his view. 

He further planned to maintain a large stand- 
His policy. . & 

ing army, regularly paid; and to strengthen the 

English position by building forts, garrisoning towns, and 
repairing bridges. These plans were, however, defeated 
by the shortsightedness of the English queen, who habit- 
ually sent only a half or a quarter of the money that was 
absolutely necessary. 

In carrying out his plan for introducing English law, 
Sir John Perrott incurred much opposition among the 
native tribesmen, because of the ignorance and tactless- 
ness of his agents. He made a very serious mistake 
when, in 1587, he treacherously captured Hugh Roe, the 


son of O'Donnell, chief of Tyrconnell, and imprisoned 
him in Dublin Castle along with the two sons Captllre ^ 
of Shane O'Neill, because O'Donnell had re- Hugh Roe. 
fused to allow the English law-agents and sheriffs to enter 
his territory. After several unsuccessful attempts, the 
boys escaped and made their way back to Ulster. This 
act of Perrott aroused the lasting hatred of the O'Don- 
nells, who had hitherto been well disposed toward him. 
As a consequence, they joined the next great attack on 
the Dublin government. The position of the English 
forces in Ireland was the more critical, as the great 
Spanish Armada was already being prepared by Philip 
II of Spain to attack the dominions of his sister-in-law, 
Queen Elizabeth. 

In 1584, Sir John Perrott divided the province of 
Ulster into seven counties, Armagh, Monaghan, Tyrone, 
Coleraine (which was later changed to Derry), 
Donegal, Fermanagh, and Cavan. The two counties 
counties of Antrim and Down in Ulster had 
been formed some years before. These counties, to- 
gether with those we have previously named, and Wick- 
low, which was separated from Dublin a little later, in 
1605, complete the number which exist to-day, thirty- 
two in all. 

143. Hugh O'Neill. The Dublin government had 
supported Matthew O'Neill, Baron Dungannon, against 
Shane O'Neill, thus causing the latter to rise in arms in 
defence of his cause. Matthew left a son, Hugh, who be- 
gan his career in the army of Queen Elizabeth, Early 
and, through her favor, in 1587, obtained the career. 
earldom and estates of Tyrone, which had been confis- 
cated on the death of Shane. Hugh had to agree to one 
condition : that he would surrender a district on the 
bank of the northern Blackwater for an English fort. 

1 66 



This fort, called Portmore, was built to command the 
ford across the river, which was the usual road from 
Armagh to Tyrone. 

Hugh O'Neill now tried to make friends with both 
Duplicity sides. He married a sister of Sir Henry Bage- 
oi O'Neill, n^ military commander of Ireland, a warm 
partisan of the English government. It was noticed, at 

the same time, that 
he was continually 
drilling his men, and 
that he had large 
quantities of lead 
brought to his castle, 
ostensibly to repair 
the roof, but really to 
be cast into bullets. 
Meanwhile he en- 
tered into close rela- 
tions with Hugh Roe 
O'Donnell, whose es- 
cape from Dublin Cas- 
tle he had assisted ; 
and while not openly 
helping Maguire, then 
in arms against the Dublin government, he refrained 
from opposing him. By the end of 1594, though still 
protesting loyalty to Elizabeth, he was carrying on a 
correspondence with Philip of Spain. 

144. Beginning of Hugh O'Neill's rebellion, 1595. 
Early in the following year, an army of about three 
thousand men arrived in Ireland under Sir John Norris. 
Portmore O'Neill decided to take action without further 
taken. delay, and instructed his brother to seize Port- 

more, while he himself attacked the English at Cavan. 







From a nearly contemporary picture. The English troops approaching are seen crossing 

the ford in front 

From Cavan he marched to Monaghan, and besieged the 
English garrison there. In the summer of 1595, the 
English made repeated attempts to recover Fort Port- 
more, but they were defeated at every turn by O'Neill 
and O'Donnell. 

Whenever the English representatives met him in con- 
ference, Hugh O'Neill demanded absolute freedom in 
religion for the Catholics as one of the conditions on 
which he was willing to make peace. Meanwhile Queen 
Elizabeth, rinding that things in Ireland were going 
from bad to worse, resorted to the usual ex- Appoint- 
pedient of a change of rulers. The new lord ™\^ 
lieutenant, Lord Borough, arrived in Ireland lieutenant, 
in 1597. He was met by Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare, 
and other lords of the Pale, and immediately planned a 
threefold attack against Ulster and the rebels. He him- 

1 68 IRELAND'S STORY [1597 

self led one division against O'Neill at Portmore, and 
sent another under Sir Conyers Clifford against O'Don- 
nell, while a third was to go to Ballyshannon, near the 
south border of Donegal, to unite with the two other 
armies. The junction was never formed, as the last 
division was intercepted and annihilated by Captain 
Tyrrell at Tyrrell's Pass ; the second division met with 
scarcely better success, as it was forced to retreat into 
Connaught, after losing all its stores and ammunition ; 
Borough was defeated by O'Neill, and lost his life at 

Batue 01 t ^ ie b attle °f Drumflugh on the Blackwater, 
Drumiiugh. but not before he had retaken Portmore and 


garrisoned it with English soldiers under Cap- 
tain Williams, a thoroughly capable commander. 

145. Battle of the Yellow Ford, August 14, 1598. 
Portmore was the strongest fortress in the north, and 
was eagerly sought by both sides. Hugh O'Neill now 
made a series of attempts to take it by assault, but, fail- 
ing, decided to starve out the garrison. After much 
indecision, the Dublin Council sent Bagenal, O'Neill's 
brother-in-law and old enemy, with a relief force of cav- 
alry and infantry, numbering four or five thousand men. 
This army reached Armagh, five miles south of Portmore. 
The intervening country was marshy, partly wooded, and 
cut by a small stream, the Callan. On this stream, at a 
place called the Yellow Ford, two miles north of Ar- 
magh, O'Neill had stationed his army to op- 
superior pose Bagenal's advance. O'Neill had a slight 
pos on. advantage in numbers, and of course had cho- 
sen his own position. Bagenal's men were better drilled, 
and were also supplied with armor. In O'Neill's army 
were Hugh Roe O'Donnell, MacDonnell of the Glens of 
Antrim, Maguire, and other valiant chiefs. O'Neill had 
dug trenches and thrown up earthworks, so that before 




Bagenal could reach him he had to cross a trench four feet 
wide and five feet deep, with a thick hedge of thorns on 
the edge. 

Bagenal divided his army into three sections, and took 
command of the centre. He posted his cavalry on both 
wings, and ordered the first division to proceed six hun- 

A 10 B 

B 9 Longitude C 8 Went from D 7 Greenwich E 6 F 


dred yards in advance of the central division. O'Neill 
had sent out a body of skirmishers to harass the enemy, 
but in spite of all opposition, Bagenal's first division suc- 
ceeded in crossing the intrenchments, and managed to 

170 IRELAND'S STORY [1598 

re-form on the other side. Unfortunately for them, the 
second division was too far behind, so that the first was 
cut to pieces before the second could come to its aid. 
Bagenal himself was shot while exposing himself in an 
attempt to reconnoitre. The second division was in like 
manner almost annihilated before the arrival of the third. 
Meanwhile, O'Neill had sent O'Donnell and his Donegal 
men to attack the English in the rear. To add to the 
mishaps of the latter, their reserve of powder 
army was accidentally exploded. The rout of Bage- 

nal's forces was now complete. The few sur- 
vivors of his army fled back to Armagh, with the Irish 
in pursuit. The English lost their general, most of their 
officers, and two thousand men, besides a large quantity 
of provisions and ammunition destined for Portmore, 
while the losses of the Irish were trifling. 

146. The rebellion at its height. Almost immediately 
after the battle, Armagh surrendered. Williams at Port- 
more also capitulated, and was allowed to withdraw to 
Dundalk. O'Neill was hailed as the deliverer of his 
country by the Irish chiefs, who were all eager to take 
up arms and join him. In Ulster and Connaught the 
insurrection became general. In Leinster it was headed 
by O' Moore, who began by retaking his forfeited terri- 
tory of Leix, and then marching into Munster, where he 
was joined by the Geraldines. Sir Thomas Norris, the 
president of Munster, was compelled to retire to Cork. 
The English settlers were so few that they were unable 
to make an effectual stand, and all that they had gained 
ten years before, when they crushed the Geraldine rebel- 
lion, was lost in a few weeks. 

When the news of these events reached Queen Eliza- 
beth, she laid the blame on the Dublin Council, and was 
convinced of its entire helplessness. She decided that 


her cause in Ireland required the presence of a large 

army and an experienced general, and, in 1599, 

sent Robert Devereux, the earl of Essex, with Essex 

an army of twenty thousand men, under orders 

to march at once against O'Neill, and to garrison the 

English forts at Lough Foyle and Ballyshannon. 

Essex, however, failed to carry out any of these com- 
mands. On the contrary, he divided his army, scattering 
his men about in unimportant and distant posts. _ 

r r Essex 

Then, influenced by the members of the Dub- scatters 
lin Council, many of whom owned property in 
Munster, he marched to the southern province with a 
force of seven thousand men against the Munster Geral- 
dines and their allies. This undertaking was 
a miserable failure, and, after two months, he 
had accomplished nothing beyond the capture of one 
insignificant castle. He then returned to Dublin, having 
lost a large part of his army. 

Meanwhile, in the west Sir Conyers Clifford was 
severely defeated and killed by O'Donnell in the battle 
of " The Yellow Pass," at Ballaghboy. 

Essex had lost his entire army within a few months, 
and was compelled to ask the indignant queen for rein- 
forcements. She sent him two thousand soldiers, with 
renewed orders to proceed immediately against O'Neill, 
which he now did. It was August, 1599. O'Neill was 
encamped on the bank of a stream called the Lagan, 
which flows across the plain of Louth ; he was so well 
intrenched that Essex at once saw that an attack would 

be useless. A truce was arranged and Essex „ . 

Return and 

returned to England, where he was executed execution 
shortly after. Negotiations continued ; but the 
determination of O'Neill to secure religious liberty for 
the Catholics was a perpetual stumbling-block. 

172 IRELAND'S STORY [1600 

147. Southern provinces devastated. Thus for six 
years, up to the year 1600, the Irish cause had every- 
where prospered, and O'Neill had gained an unbroken 
English series of victories, but now the tide of his for- 
leaders. tunes began to ebb. Lord Mountjoy was lord 
lieutenant, the Earl of Ormond was in command of the 
army, and Sir George Carew was president of Munster. 
Carew was deeply hostile toward the Irish, chiefly be- 
cause of the death of his brother at their hands in the 
Geraldine rebellion. He and Mountjoy set to work to 
defeat O'Neill by a plan as simple as it was cruel. They 
proceeded to turn the three provinces of Ul- 

Munster _ . __ , _, 

devastated ster, Leinster, and Munster into a desert. The 
byOaiew. turn Q f ^iq southern province came first. Ca- 
rew destroyed the castles, slaughtered the cattle, and 
burned the corn in the fields, and thus produced a fam- 
ine. O' Moore was reduced to nominal submission, and 
the queen allowed Carew to extend pardon to the Mun- 
ster rebels. 

The two principal Irish leaders, Hugh O'Neill and 
Hugh Roe O'Donnell, could not help Munster, because 
Mountjoy had kept them in the north by making a move 
against Tyrone. This pretended attack was designed 
to give Sir Henry Docwra, who arrived in May, 1600, 
with large supplies of soldiers, food, and ammunition, an 
opportunity to plant along the Foyle the forts 

Three new . 

English which Essex had failed to build : Culmore, at 
forts ' the mouth of the Foyle, and Derry and Dunna- 

long, farther up the river. These forts greatly strength- 
ened the position of the English. 

The destruction that had been wrought by Carew in 
Munster was now repeated by Mountjoy in Leinster. 
O' Moore, the chief of Leix, had, during the early part 
of the rebellion, regained much of the authority formerly 


wielded by the native kings, and Leinster itself was in a 
prosperous condition, owing to a succession of M 0Unt j y 
good harvests. Within a few weeks, Mount joy in Leinster. 
and his soldiers changed the whole of this fair province 
into a region of desolation and famine, so that by the 
middle of 1601 the rebellion in the south was completely 
crushed by the destruction of all means of subsistence 
for the native armies. 

148. Help from Spain. After devastating the south, 
Mountjoy had marched north and treated Ulster in a 
similar manner. O'Neill and O'Donnell were still fight- 
ing, but they were now on the defensive, and were be- 
ginning to lose hope. In the autumn, news came that 
the long desired and long expected help from Spain had 
at length arrived. It will be remembered that England 
and Spain had been at war during the whole of this 
period. On September 23, General Don Juan 
del Aguila landed at Kinsale with about four lands at 
thousand Spaniards, and sent word to the Irish 
leaders to effect a junction with him. O'Neill and 
O'Donnell immediately set out to meet him, the latter in 
the lead. The English generals, however, had learned 
of Aguila's arrival, and marched their forces to a point a 
short distance north of Kinsale, where they encamped 
with about twelve thousand men. 

Carew heard of the approach of O'Donnell, and ad- 
vanced to intercept him. When the latter reached Holy- 
cross in the centre of Tipperary, he found that Carew 
was waiting for him a few miles to the south, joined by 
at Cashel. On his left hand were the settle- theIrish - 
ments of the Pale, on his right a difficult mountainous 
country, extending to the west coast. He saw no alter- 
native but to cross these mountains, and Carew himself 
bore testimony to the skill with which O'Donnell's army, 

174 IRELAND'S STORY [1601 

though encumbered with baggage and cattle, made the 
passage through the defiles and ravines. Toward the 
end of December, O'Neill rejoined O'Donnell. 

Previous to this time, Aguila and his Spaniards were 
besieged in Kinsale by Mountjoy. The coming of 
O'Donnell and O'Neill from the north turned the scale, 
Battle of and Mountjoy in his turn was hemmed in. 
Kinsale. Famine, sickness, and cold afflicted both armies 
alike. O'Neill was inclined to wait until the English 
army had been weakened by sickness and hunger, before 
making an attack ; but in a council of war it was decided 
that the English should be attacked on the night of Jan- 
uary 3, 1602. Unhappily for the Irish, their plan became 
known, and Mountjoy's soldiers were drawn up, ready 
to receive them. It was raining, and very dark, and 
O'Neill's guides lost their way. About dawn, the Irish 
suddenly found themselves close to the English lines. 
O'Neill hurriedly retreated, for his men were worn out, 
and not at all fit to attack fresh troops. Mountjoy took 
advantage of this circumstance, and ordered a cavalry 
charge, spreading confusion through the ranks of the 
Irish. O'Neill tried again and again to rally his troops, 
but with small success. The division led by 

Causes of J 

Irish O'Donnell fled without striking a blow, while 

Aguila failed to attack the English on the 

other side at the critical moment. 

Aguila surrendered Kinsale shortly after this, although 

help was on the way to him, both from Spain and from 

O'Neill, who had rallied his army. The Spanish gen- 
eral had failed in everything that had been 

Aguila J ° 

returns to expected of him, and now, after having been a 
pan " main cause of the defeat at Kinsale, he sud- 
denly sailed away to Spain. King Philip was so enraged 
that he threw him into prison, where he died. 




After the battle of Kin sale, the Irish chiefs held a 
council, at which it was decided that O'Don- _„, 


nell should go to Spain to seek further help, goes to 

He left his brother Rory in command of the p 

Tyrconnell soldiers, and took ship for Spain, where he 

was cordially received by the king. He was 

put off with empty promises, and, before the 

king had decided on anything effective, O'Donnell fell 

/Sl y »%, « M •• 

, , / 


From a cut in the Pacata Hibernia, published in 1633, giving a 
nearly contemporary view of the castle 

sick and died, September 10, 1602, sad at heart from the 
news of fresh defeats. 

149. The loss of Dunboy. One of these defeats was 
the surrender of Dunboy Castle. After Aguila had 
decided to retreat, he promised to give up other strong 
positions to the English, Baltimore, Castlehaven, and 
Dunboy, three fortresses along the southwest coast of 

176 IRELAND'S STORY [1602 

Cork. Dunboy was built on a rocky peninsula jutting 
into Bantry Bay, and belonged to Donall O' Sullivan, 
chief of Bear and Bantry. This castle was thought by 
both parties to be impregnable. It was garrisoned by a 
hundred and fifty Irishmen under MacGeoghegan, and 
O'Sullivan decided to hold it, in spite of Aguila's promise 
that it should be surrendered. In the early part of June, 
1602, Carew appeared before Dunboy with several ships 
and an army of four thousand men. Never was doomed 
cruelty of castle more valiantly defended. When all hope 
carew. was g 0ne an d the few survivors surrendered, 
Carew had them slaughtered. The side-walls of the 
castle still stand above Bantry Bay, marking the site of 
one of the most savage incidents in Irish history. 

The lord of Dunboy, Donall O'Sullivan, was now 

homeless and forced to begin his famous march to the 

north. For, some weeks, he had held out among the 

Munster mountains against Wilmot, the Eng- 

The retreat 

of csuiii- lish commander, but, toward the close of 1602, 
he realized that his one hope of safety lay in 
reaching Ulster and joining forces with O'Neill. It was 
evident that no help could be expected from Spain. He 
set out toward the close of the year with four hundred 
soldiers and six hundred women and followers. They 
were opposed and harassed at every point of their miser- 
able march, and only thirty-five out of the entire number 
lived to reached Ulster. 

150. End of the rebellion. The end was fast approach- 
ing. Munster and Leinster were prostrate, and Ulster 
was now to bear the brunt of the fighting. Mountjoy 
and Carew continued their policy of devastation, burning 
houses and corn, and slaughtering cattle. Famine spread 
over the whole of Ireland. O'Neill, with a few followers, 
was hiding in the forests and among the mountains. He 


still hoped against hope for help from Spain. Queen 
Elizabeth, wearied by the endless war, had made over- 
tures to the Irish chieftains, offering pardons and titles 
to all who should cease fighting. Rory O'Donnell and 
several others had already come to terms with the queen. 
To O'Neill, also, Elizabeth made flattering offers, but 

he held out resolutely, until he received news 

J Death of 

of the death of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, in Spain. Elizabeth. 

With the disappearance of this last hope, 1603, 

O'Neill saw that his cause was lost, and decided to 

close the struggle, when Queen Elizabeth died. 


Sir John Perrott, who became lord lieutenant in 1582, did 
much for Ireland. He enforced English law all over the 
country, and attempted a policy of conciliation. He made the 
mistake, however, of treacherously capturing and imprison- 
ing Hugh Roe O'Donnell and several other young chiefs as 
hostages. They became allies of Hugh O'Neill, who headed 
a rebellion against the government in the name of freedom 
and tolerance for Catholics, in 1595. Up to the year 1600, 
O'Neill was everywhere successful, and by his excellent tac- 
tics and good generalship defeated every army sent against 
him. Portmore was taken in 1595 by the Irish, who also won 
the battles of Drumflugh, 1597, and The Yellow Ford, 1598. 
A truce was made in 1599. The arrival of a new lord lieu- 
tenant, Lord Mountjoy, who, with his army, devastated the 
provinces of Munster and Leinster, and the inefficiency of 
the Spanish general, Aguila, who landed at Kinsale in 1601, 
brought the rebellion to an end. The Irish lost the decisive 
battle of Kinsale, and Aguila returned to Spain. Ulster was 
then devastated. Most of the Irish chiefs accepted Eliza- 
beth's offers of pardon, and submitted to her authority. 
O'Neill had laid down his arms and was on the point of 
making formal submission when the queen died, 1603. 



i 603- i 64 I 

English Sovereigns : 

James I, 1603-1625 Charles I, 1625-1649 

151. Flight of O'Neill and O'Donnell. James, the 
son of Mary Stuart, ascended the throne of England as 

James I in virtue 
of his descent from 
Henry VII. It is 
worth remembering 
that James, like the 
Scottish monarchs 
who preceded him, 
was descended from 
Fergus, who, with 
his brothers, led an 
Irish colony to Scot- 
land, at the begin- 
ning of the sixth 

After O'Neill's 
submission he and 
Rory O'Donnell re- 
ceived the English 
title of earl, and external tranquillity seemed to be re- 
stored to Ireland. The position of the two great chiefs 
was, however, full of difficulties. They had been restored 



to their estates, and this caused envy and jealousy among 
the adventurers who had hoped to secure these estates 
in case of forfeiture. They were surrounded by enemies 
and spies, who constantly sent false reports of their say- 
ings and doings to London. Matters reached a climax 
when the report was spread, in 1607, that these two 
chiefs were planning another rebellion. Both were old 
and worn out with the fatigues of war, and they deter- 
mined to leave Ireland, rather than endure a Thelr 
new period of perils. They fled to the conti- death s- 
nent with their families ; first to France and later to 
Rome, where they were hospitably received by the Pope, 
and pensioned. O'Donnell died in 1608, and O'Neill 
did not long survive him. 

152. The system of plantations. One more great 
rebellion was to come a generation later. It had two 
main causes : the suppression of the Catholic Church, 
and the system of plantations. In order thoroughly to 
understand the latter, we shall have to go back a little, 
and trace its origin and development. 

Until the year 1547, whenever the English govern- 
ment wished to be rid of a troublesome Irish chief, it had 
settled matters by removing the offender, and putting 
another chief in his place, leaving the mass of the tribes- 
men unharmed and undisturbed. During the reign of 

Edward VI, a new system was introduced. The „ 

J Begun 

entire estate of the rebellious chief was confis- under Ed- 
cated, and the tribesmen, who were considered 
to be his tenants, as they would have been under Eng- 
lish law, were turned out of their farms and homes. The 
whole land of the tribe was then given to an "under- 
taker," who received it on condition that he should bring 
over a certain number of English colonists and plant 
them on the confiscated land. Hence the name " plan- 

180 IRELAND'S STORY [1608 

tation." This naturally caused great loss, suffering, and 
misery to the dispossessed tribesmen, who became bitter 
enemies of the English government. Hundreds of cul- 
tivators were often turned out of house and 
Its evils. . .... , . 

home in this way, no provision being made for 

their future, beyond a general order to settle elsewhere. 
This sad fate overtook them through no fault of their 
own, but simply because a quarrel had arisen between 
the head of their tribe and the Dublin government. 
There was no place for the dispossessed peasants else- 
where. The tribesmen of other regions could not find 
room for them, or give up their own fields, which, indeed, 
they would rather have defended by the sword. 

153. Early attempts at plantation. The first ex- 
periment in the new system occurred in 1547, shortly 
after the death of Henry VIII. Two chiefs, O'Moore 
and O'Conor were banished, and their lands confis- 
cated and given to "undertakers," to found plantations. 
An Englishman, who had received a grant of part of 
this land, was able to gain possession only after severe 
fighting, and his settlement was ruined by the perpetual 
attacks of the dispossessed tribesmen. The loss of life 
through fighting was not the only evil resulting from 
this system. Hardly less mischievous was the fall in the 
value of land. An estate which had been in admirable 
condition under its native chief was usually reduced to 
a wilderness before the planters gained possession of it. 

A second attempt at plantation, in the south and west, 
during the reign of Queen Mary, met with a like fate. 
On this occasion, the full force of the English govern- 
ment was brought to bear against the Irish tribesmen ; 
yet, after years of bitter fighting, during which the fam- 
ilies of the original cultivators were all killed, the Eng- 
lish were forced to admit the defeat of their scheme. A 

pouttcal divisions 



1600 - 1900 

Scale of Miles 

■ ■ ' l i 

10 20 30 40 50 

West Jleath was separated from Meath in 
King Henry VIU's time 

Wicklovv was separated from Dublin in 1605 


1 10 2 Longitude 9 

3 West from 8 

4 Greenwich 7 

o 6 


third failure followed the death of Shane O'Neill in 1570, 
when half of Ulster was confiscated by Queen Elizabeth. 

154. Failure to plant Munster. In the year which 
saw the end of the Geraldine rebellion, 1585, a Dublin 
parliament confiscated the estates of the Earl of Des- 
mond and a hundred of the Munster chiefs, who had 
taken part in the rebellion. In the following year, Eliza- 
beth made a proclamation that " undertakers " were 
wanted to plant these lands, and estates were offered at 
merely nominal prices, and free of rent for five years. 
The " undertakers " were to settle a certain number of 
families, according to the size of their estates. Thus, 
on an estate of twelve thousand acres, eighty or ninety 
English tenants were to be planted. Many of the Eng- 
lishmen who received these estates never saw Ireland, 
while a few, like Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund Spen- 
ser, came and settled in some of the old castles. 

But the attempt on the whole was an absolute failure, 
for it was impossible to find a sufficient number of Eng- 
lish tenants to occupy the immense areas confiscated. As 
a result, the " undertakers," rather than let Difficulty 
their lands lie idle, violated the conditions of of planting, 
their grants by accepting Irish tenants, who thus came 
back into possession of their former lands. It was almost 
always necessary to drive them out in the first instance, 
by armed force, and they made repeated attacks on the 
plantations, after the manner of the old-time raids. This 
condition of things went on until the reign of James I. 

155. Revival of the Acts of Supremacy and Uni- 
formity. James I was not only a descendant of the 
old Milesian race, but was also strongly inclined toward 
the Catholic Church. His accession was hailed with 
hope in Ireland, and, in defiance of the penal laws of his 
predecessor, Catholic worship was restored in parts of 




Leinster and Munster. This tendency was checked 
when, in 1605, parliament revived the Act of Supremacy, 
which practically excluded all Catholics from office, and 
the Act of Uniformity, which compelled attendance at 
Protestant places of worship, on pain of fine and im- 
prisonment. Though these acts could not be generally 
enforced, they were, nevertheless, the cause of great irri- 
tation and indignation. 

156. Plantation of Ulster. King James had long in- 
tended to establish further plantations in Ireland. He 

settlers' houses in the ulster plantation 

From a book published in 1622, entitled " A Brief Survey of the Present Estate of the 
Plantation of London Derry." The houses represented were erected by the compauy 
of Drapers. 

accordingly took advantage of the flight of O'Neill, earl 
of Tyrone, and O'Donnell, earl of Tyrconnell. James had 
no legal claim to their lands, as they had been lawfully 
instated, and had broken no law when they left the coun- 
try. Nevertheless, in 1608, he confiscated the greater 
part of six of the nine counties of Ulster, including some 
three quarters of a million acres of fertile land. This 
was distributed among three classes of holders, 

Distribu- *=> . »i 

tionof the who were known as "undertakers," "servitors, 

and "old natives." The undertakers, who were 
English or Scotch, had holdings of two thousand acres, 
and were obliged to plant either English or Scotch Prot- 
estants. The servitors, who were Protestant Irish who 


had upheld the English government during the late 
rebellion, received fifteen hundred acres, and might take 
Scotch, English, or Irish Protestant tenants. The third 
class held a thousand acres, and were allowed to plant 
Catholics, who were exempted from the Act of Suprem- 
acy. The formation of these settlements sharply di- 
vided by religious differences added a new element to 
the already existing causes of strife. 

Besides the distribution of land just described, many 
thousand acres were granted to Protestant special 
churches and educational institutions, Trinity grants. 
College in Dublin, for example, receiving nearly ten thou- 
sand acres. Companies of London merchants and a few 
favored individuals also received large grants. The dis- 
possessed cultivators were supposed to go elsewhere to 
seek new lands. They were so numerous, however, that 
there was nowhere for them to go, so that many whatl)e . 

of them remained as laborers for the new ten- came of 

i r • • the dis - 

ants, or became wanderers and fugitives near possessed 

their old homes. Some managed to find refuge naUves - 
in the wilder mountain regions, where they were able to 
keep a few cattle or sheep, and so to eke out a miserable 
existence. They were so worn out from past years of 
fighting that they offered no armed resistance, and the 
new plantations were for the time comparatively free 
from attack, and fairly prosperous. 

157. The first national parliament. King James con- 
ferred one benefit on Ireland. Formerly, only English 
settlers could claim the protection of the law English 
courts in Ireland. Now the uniform protection Jj^ °J" 
of the law was extended to all inhabitants of the Ireland, 
country, English and Irish alike. The act which brought 
this about was passed by a parliament assembled at 
Dublin in 161 3 ; a parliament which is memorable as 

184 IRELAND'S STORY [1625 

being the first to contain representatives from every part 
of Ireland. Forty fictitious boroughs were created by 
the lord lieutenant, each of which sent two representa- 
tives to parliament, thus insuring a majority favorable 
to the purposes of the government. The parliament 
voted King James a large subsidy, in acknowledgment 
of the benefits he had conferred by extending the pro- 
tection of the law to the whole country. How much 
real protection there was in this law, however, will be 
seen shortly. 

158. A new system of confiscation. The king and 
his followers, elated at the success of the Ulster planta- 
tion, now invented a new weapon of attack against the 
Irish chiefs. The open confiscation of coveted lands was 
discontinued. The law courts were set to work, and the 
titles of Irish land-owners were attacked and declared 
imperfect. The owners had either to lose their land or 
pay exorbitant bribes to the officials and courts, to secure 
a legal title to their estates. The funds thus extorted 
went to fill the royal treasury. 

Leinster suffered most, as that province was overrun 
by swarms of men known as " discoverers," who found 
"Discov- or invented flaws in the titles by which Irish 
erers." families held their estates. They then pro- 
ceeded to threaten the owners with legal dispossession, 
thus compelling the latter to bribe them heavily. It 
was almost useless to refuse their demands, with a hope 
of gaining justice in the law courts, as judgment almost 
invariably went against the land-owners. 

159. Accession of Charles I. James I died in 1625, 
and was succeeded by his son Charles. Like his father, 
the new king was perpetually in need of money, and 
by no means more scrupulous as to how he obtained it. 
His arbitrary methods finally cost him his throne and his 


head. He inherited from his father a costly war with 
Spain, and this led him to extort money from Catholics 
and Protestants alike. He made promises to Hls 
both, which he never intended to keep, and, in duplicity, 
return for these promises, received large subsidies from 
Ireland. The Catholics wished to obtain religious free- 
dom and civil equality, while the Protestants, alarmed 
at the corruption of the law courts, and fearing that it 
would soon be their turn to suffer legalized robbery, 
sought to have the titles to their lands indorsed by royal 
decree. Instead of summoning a parliament and having 
money voted in the usual way the year of his accession, 
Charles made an agreement under which the Irish land- 
owners were to pay him a subsidy of a hun- -rheFiity- 
dred and twenty thousand pounds, in instal- one Graces, 
ments, in return for a series of concessions, called the 
"Fifty-one Graces." The Irish paid the subsidy, and 
waited for the parliament which was to have been sum- 
moned to confirm these " Graces." When Charles had 
received the money, his interest in the matter ended, and 
the parliament was never convened. 

The violation of the two most important of these 
" Graces," namely, the protection of estates against con- 
fiscation and plantation, which affected Protestants and 
Catholics alike, and the extension of religious toleration 
to Catholics, was the immediate cause of the Irish re- 
bellion of 1641, as similar acts of the king were the cause 
of the revolution in England at the same time. 

160. Arrival of Wentworth. The new lord lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Wentworth, later known as Lord Straf- 
ford, was a fit servant for such a master. He viewed 
Ireland as a conquered country, which had, therefore, 
no rights or liberties, save such as the king, in his royal 
clemency, might deign to grant. Wentworth came to 

186 IRELAND'S STORY [1634 

Ireland in 1633 with a firm determination to accomplish 
two things, no matter what they might cost : first, to 
make the king undisputed master throughout the coun- 
try, and, second, to make him rich by trading in grants 
of Irish land. He began by collecting twenty thousand 
pounds from the Catholics, for freedom from the penal 
laws, and an extra year's subsidy from the Irish 
"Graces" land-owners for permission to call a parliament 

6 V 3.(16(1 

to ratify the " Graces." This parliament met in 
1634, and voted two hundred and forty thousand pounds 
to the king, but Wentworth, by his determined cunning, 
succeeded in rendering the " Graces" ineffective. 

161. "Wentworth breaks all promises. Now that 
Wentworth had received the money he required, he pro- 
ceeded to break all his promises, and violate 

Confisca- t r 

tionsin every law for the protection of land. He began 

onnaug . ^ attacking the titles of the Connaught estates, 

and confiscating them one after another. Each case was 

brought to trial before a fictitious court, where judge, 

jury, and sheriff were paid servants of Wentworth, who 

had given them their instructions beforehand. Victims 

were found among the Protestants and Catholics alike. 

After these confiscations in Connaught, the lord 

lieutenant extended his system to Clare and Tipperary, 

in Munster. Much as he wished to turn the 
tions In confiscated estates into plantations, he feared 

to do so, owing to the unstable position of 
Charles in England. Such an attempt would undoubt- 
edly have brought about an immediate rebellion, and he 
was wise enough to recognize this. He failed, however, 
to see that the result of his master's policy was equally 
certain to bring disaster, though it was slower in com- 

162. Wentworth's administration. Although Went- 




worth was the most despotic governor the Irish had 
known, his administration had a bright side. He suc- 
ceeded in maintaining order among the quarrelsome 
lords and chiefs, and thus gave the country and the 
poorer classes time to recover from the continual war- 
fare. He gathered together, drilled, and armed nine 
thousand Irish Catholics, to support his royal master, 

4^/ %x <fo v S^ ■ 



and in the absence of local wars trade began to recover, 
and the country enjoyed a measure of prosperity. We 
must condemn Wentworth for the destruction 

. . Destruction 

of the Irish wool trade, which had always been of the wool 
a very flourishing industry. He considered trade " 
that the Irish trade interfered with the English, and 
therefore must be stopped. To replace it he introduced 
the manufacture of linen, which was very successful, and 

188 IRELAND'S STORY [1641 

has since become, especially in Ulster, one of the most 
valuable Irish industries. 

Wentworth was made Earl of Strafford for his loyalty 
to the king, but his course was almost run. In 1640, he 
End of was recalled to England, to subdue the Scottish 
worth's Covenanters, who, in their own way, were fight- 
career. i n g the battle of religious liberty. A few months 
later, he was impeached by the House of Commons, and 
brought to trial on certain grave charges, the severest of 
which was that he had raised an Irish Catholic army, to 
be used against the people and parliament of England. 
He was condemned, and went bravely to the scaffold, 
being beheaded at the Tower, in May, 1641. 


The plantation system was an abuse which originated in 
the time of King Edward VI, and during the two succeeding 
reigns several unsuccessful attempts to plant various parts 
of Ireland were made. James I, in 1605, revived the Acts 
of Supremacy and Uniformity. In 1608, he seized and con- 
fiscated the estates of the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell, — 
that is, nearly all Ulster, — distributing it to planters under 
specified religious restrictions. This Plantation of Ulster, 
1608, was the first successful plantation. In 16 13, the first 
national parliament decreed the extension of English law to 
all of Ireland. At the same time King James, with the help 
of the "discoverers" and the corrupt law courts, extorted 
great sums from the Irish by attacking the titles to estates. 

Charles I added to the abuses of his father. In return for 
large subsidies, he promised to the Irish "Fifty-one Graces," 
which were never ratified by parliament. Wentworth, Lord 
Strafford, was lord lieutenant from 1633 to 1640. His admin- 
istration was marked by confiscations in Connaught and Mun- 
ster, and by the destruction of the Irish wool trade. Other- 
wise the country prospered under his rule. 




English Sovereign: Charles I, 1625-1649 

163. Plans for rebellion. The many evils which Ire= 
land had suffered since the accession of the Stuarts, espe- 
cially through the system of confiscation and spoliation, 
together with the ever-present Catholic abuses, were be- 
ginning to bear fruit when Strafford left Ireland. The 
Anglican Church party represented the king, while the 
Scottish settlers, and many of the English colonists, 
drawn from the mass of the people, were on the side of 
the parliament. The native Irish were fully convinced 
that they could hope for no redress from the king, and 
that their only course was to fight against the Dublin 
government. Their leaders, headed in the beginning 
by Roger O'Moore of Leix, whose family had once 
been very powerful but had lost its possessions under 
Queen Mary, and Sir Phelim O'Neill of Ty- Determina- 
rone, held repeated meetings, and determined native tte 
to make a resolute stand for reform, or at least chiefs, 
for relief from oppression. They hoped for assistance 
from their exiled fellow-countrymen, who, by this time, 
had grown numerous in various European countries, espe- 
cially France, Spain, and Italy, and who had in many 
cases risen to positions of great distinction. Through 
the influence of these exiles, the Irish also hoped for 




His ability. 

aid from the countries where they had taken refuge, and 
which they had served so well. 

164. Owen Roe O'Neill chosen as leader. The lead- 
ers of the Irish, having determined to act, gath- 
ered their armies together, and sent an invita- 
tion to Owen Roe O'Neill, a nephew of the great Hugh 

O'Neill, earl of 
Tyrone, to take 
command. Owen 
Roe was then in 
the Netherlands, 
and was an admi- 
rable leader and 
a most accom- 
plished man, who 
wrote and spoke 
Latin, French, 
Spanish, and Eng- 
lish, as well as 
Irish, his mother- 
tongue. He had 
won renown on 
numerous conti- 
nental battlefields, 
and was well fit- 
ted, both by gen- 
ius and training, to 
lead a national party, not only in council, but in the field. 

165. Outbreak of the rebellion. The plan finally 
agreed on by the Irish leaders was to open the cam- 
paign by an attack on Dublin in October, 1641. O'Moore 
was to surprise Dublin Castle, while at the same time Sir 
Phelim O'Neill was to attempt the capture of a num- 
ber of English forts in Ulster, and thus give the signal 


From a portrait on wood supposed to have been painted 
by a celebrated Dutch artist 




for a general uprising. In spite of repeated warnings, 
the Dublin government had no realization of what was 
taking place till the last moment, when the Maguire 
lords justices arrested two of the leaders, Ma- ^acMaium 
guire and MacMahon, who were sent to London, captured, 
convicted, and hanged. The authorities at once strength- 
ened Dublin, so that, if need be, it might stand a siege. 
If the attack on Dublin failed, on the other hand all 


Captured by Phelim O'Neill in October, 1641. This land was 
first intrenched by Lord Mountjoy in 1602. The fort above 
was built not long after, and was formerly surrounded by a 
moat crossed by a drawbridge 

Ulster was soon in the power of the national leaders. 
Sir Phelim O'Neill,. by the subterfuge of a false Slr p helim 
commission from the king, gained possession of O'Neiuin 
Gharlemont Fort ; and Newry, Dungannon, and 
other strongholds were also taken. Sir Phelim was now 
at the head of thirty thousand undisciplined men, drawn 
from among the dispossessed tribesmen, whose 
one desire was to seek revenge and plunder, devasta- 
For a few days the determination to avoid un- 
necessary bloodshed was carried out. Then the army 

192 IRELAND'S STORY [1642 

began to burn and kill. It was the progress of Mount- 
joy repeated, but with the tables turned. The blood of 
thousands, innocent and guilty, flowed together ; settlers 
and natives, Protestants and Catholics, butchered each 
other. In many instances Protestants were protected 
from the army through the interposition of the Catholic 

166. Four parties in Ireland. At the beginning of 
1642, we find four fairly well defined parties in Ireland, 

each of which had control of an army. First 
was the Old Irish, which stood for total separa- 
tion from England. This party included those who had 
suffered most from the plantations and the religious 
persecutions. They were in possession of Ulster. Sec- 
Angio-irish on< ^ came the old Anglo-Irish or Normans, who 
catholics. h ac i suffered in the same way, though not so 
severely. They stood for civil and religious liberty, but 
in political union with England. They occupied the cen- 
tral and southern parts of the country. These two parties 
were both Catholic, but, from lack of union, they greatly 
weakened their cause. Third, there were the Presby- 
terians and Puritans, under Robert Monro in 
Ulster, adherents of the English Parliamenta- 
rians and working with the Scottish Covenanters, the 
most bitter enemies of the king. They were naturally 
extremely hostile toward the Catholic parties. Fourth, 
there were the Royalists, with their strong- 
hold in Dublin. They belonged to the Angli- 
can established church, which recognized the king of 
England as its head. 

167. Arrival of Owen Roe O'Neill. For nearly a 
year fighting went on in Ulster, the Old Irish under 
Phelim O'Neill attacking Monro and his Puritans with 
varying success Sir Phelim was a bad general, so Monro 


began to gain ground steadily. Ulster had become a wil- 
derness during months of relentless warfare and devasta- 
tion, when the Irish cause was strengthened by the arrival 
of the long-expected Owen Roe O'Neill, in July, He takes 
1642. He brought a large number of conti- J]!"™ 4 of 
nental officers with him from Belgium, where irfdL 
he had done brilliant service for the Spanish armies. 
With his headquarters in Tyrone, in the heart of his 
ancestors' territory, he and his officers immediately set 
about forming a disciplined army, drilling and training 
recruits to add to the Old Irish army. The new general 
immediately put an end to all acts of lawlessness and 
cruelty, ordered the release of the Protestant prisoners, 
and punished many of those who had been guilty of out- 
rage and violence. 

168. Confederation of Kilkenny. Both Catholic 
armies now had competent leaders and were fairly well 
equipped, but there was no union, either of purpose or of 
organization, between them. An important step toward 
attaining this end was now taken in the Confederation 
of Kilkenny, an elected representative body which as- 
sembled at the suggestion of the Catholic bishops, on 
October 24, 1642. It had as its main aim the .. 

^ . . . Aimed to 

union of the various Catholic interests into unite ail 
one solid party. The confederation was well 
supplied with funds, and spent largely on shows and 
pageants. We read of an endless series of illumina- 
tions, banquets, and balls. The members of the great 
Norman houses of Leinster vied with each other in 
display. The Supreme Council journeyed in state from 
Kilkenny to Wexford, from Wexford to Waterford, from 
Waterford to Limerick and Galway, surrounded by 
hundreds of horsemen with drawn swords, and accom- 
panied by numerous officials. We hear of civil and 


military representations, of comedies and stage-plays, 
feasts and banquets, and "palate-enticing dishes " during 
the journey. 

169. The Parliament of Kilkenny. The parliament 
which met on October 24, 1642, consisted of eleven 
bishops, fourteen lords, and two hundred and twenty- 
six commoners. Its first official act was a formal decla- 
ration of loyalty to the king, for no sooner had the new 
parliament met than the Royalists of Dublin proceeded 
to denounce its organizers as rebels. Its second act was 
to assume the government of the country, according to 

the provisions drawn up at a preliminary meet- 

Supreme , J 

Council ing. A Supreme Council of twenty-four mem- 
bers was elected, six being chosen from each 
province. This council minted money and enlisted sol- 
diers to form a national army. 

170. Attitude of Charles I. Owen Roe O'Neill was 
at the head of the Old Irish army in Ulster, opposing 
Monro ; while Preston, with the Anglo-Irish in Leinster, 
was opposed to the Royalists. The king meanwhile con- 
tinued his policy of short-sighted self-seeking, breaking 
pledges whenever he saw a slight temporary advantage. 
The chasm between him and his parliament was growing 
His false daily wider ; he was, therefore, willing enough 
overtures. t0 ma k e friends with the Supreme Council of 
the Confederation at Kilkenny, hoping to use them as 
allies in his English wars. His ministers, and especially 
Ormond, appointed lord lieutenant in 1644, caused this 
plan to miscarry. Moreover, when attacked in parlia- 
ment, and accused of seeking help from Ireland, Charles 
did not hesitate to disown the authorities at Kilkenny, 
saying he had never had anything to do with them. At 
this, the latter were very naturally disgusted. 

171. Lack of union among the Catholics. The Pope 

1 645] 


J 95 

sent money and arms to the Irish Confederation, but they 
could not fully profit by this help, owing to increasing 
dissensions among themselves. The Catholic bishops 
and the Old Irish wished to fight actively for the full 
independence of Ireland, while the Anglo-Irish desired 
to temporize, and retain a connection with the English 
crown. O'Neill and Preston, the two ablest Irish gen- 
erals, were at swords' points, more ready to hinder than 
to help each other. 

172. Attempt of the Scottish forces to unite. In 
May, 1646, General Robert Monro and the Scottish 
forces prepared to begin an offensive campaign from 
their base at Carrickfergus in Antrim, where they had 
an army of about seven thousand men. Monro's brother 
George had five hundred in the north of County Derry, 
while there was a Scottish army of about two thousand 

Giving a good idea of the castle with its large keep as it appears from the water 

at Londonderry. It was decided to bring these three 
forces together toward the southern border of Ulster, 
and then to proceed southward against the government 
of the Confederation, centred at Limerick. 

196 IRELAND'S STORY [1646 

Owen Roe O'Neill, with five thousand foot and five 
hundred horse, all "good, hopeful men," to use his own 
O'Neill words, by a forced march reached the northern 
intercepts. Blackwater, and pitched his camp on the north 
bank, where he was directly between the two Monros, 
who could join their forces only after dislodging him. 
Robert Monro, who by this time had reached Armagh, 
saw that it would be necessary to give battle without 
delay, if the much smaller forces of his brother and the 
Scots from the north were not to be cut off. 

173. Battle of Benburb. Robert Monro began a 
northerly movement toward O'Neill's position at dawn 
on June 5, 1646, and presently reached the Black- 
water, where he found himself face to face with O'Neill's 
army across the river. The two forces marched along 
the river-bank, keeping parallel to each other for some 
time, till Robert Monro finally forded the Blackwater. 
, O'Neill continued to withdraw his army toward the hill 
o'Neii's of Knocknacloy, the position he had from the 
geous ta " fi rst nac * m rrrind for the battle. Here, he had 
position. the centre of his army protected by the hill, 
the right by a marsh, and the left by the Oona Water, 
a stream which flows into the Blackwater. Monro was 
thus prevented from making any but a frontal attack. 

While fighting was going on at the pass through 
which O'Neill had retreated and left guarded, he drew 
up his line of battle. We should remember that the 
Irish army was not only outnumbered by Monro's, but 
that O'Neill had no artillery, while Monro was well sup- 
plied with guns. The two armies now met and opened 
First fire. The Scottish artillery was planted on a 

BoXi hillock a quarter of a mile from the Irish cen- 

repnised. tre, and, under cover of its fire, an infantry 
charge was attempted, which was brilliantly repulsed 


by the pikemen of Owen Roe's army. A second attack 
was made by the Scottish cavalry, who tried to ford the 
stream, and thus turn the left flank of the Irish army. 
They were met and routed by the Irish horse. It was 
about six in the evening, and the sun, hanging low in the 
sky, fell full in the faces of the Scottish troops. O'Neill 
promptly followed up the rout of the Scottish horse by 
an advance, making a sweeping movement from right to 
left, and thereby forcing Monro into the angle between 
the Blackwater and its tributary, where he had no room 
to move. At this point, O'Neill received reinforcements, 
consisting of four squadrons of cavalry, sent earlier in 
the day to guard against the possible approach of George 
Monro from Coleraine, and which now returned, having 
fulfilled their mission. 

At a signal from O'Neill, the army advanced against 
Monro, and was met by a charge of the Scottish cavalry, 
instantly replied to by a charge of the Irish cavalry. 
Monro's first line was broken, and an advance of the Irish 
pikemen, equivalent to a charge with bayonets, steadily 
forced him backward. It was a fierce hand- Monro 
to-hand struggle. The order of O'Neill's ad- JS'^J** 
vance was well held, while the Scottish forces, river - 
already broken and crowded into the narrow space be- 
tween the two rivers, were in confusion. Finally the 
Irish army reached and stormed the hill where Monro's 
artillery was placed, and victory was won. The defeat of 
the Scottish army was turned into a complete rout, and 
when the sun set, more than three thousand of Monro's 
men lay dead on the field. 

It is almost incredible that the Irish losses were only 
seventy, yet such is the number recorded by their ad- 
versaries. Not only was Monro's army utterly defeated, 
but all his artillery, his tents and baggage, fifteen hun- 




dred horses, twenty stand 
of colors, two 

Extent of 

the Irish months' provi 



sions, ana nu- 
merous prisoners of war 
fell into O'Neill's hands. 
As a result of the battle, 
the two auxiliary forces 
had to turn back, while 
General Robert Monro 
fled to Carrickfergus. 

174. Dublin in the 
hands of the English 
Parliamentarians. In 
the following year, 1647, 
an attempt was made to 
capture Dublin. The Con- 
federates heard that the 
lord lieutenant, Ormond, was planning to surrender the 
city to the Parliamentarians, and O'Neill and Preston were 
sent with orders to take it before Ormond could act. 
As before, the two generals disagreed. O'Neill and the 
jealousy other Old Irish leaders wished to take the town 
by force ; while Preston and the Anglo-Irish 
wished to negotiate. Further, a false alarm 
caused the Irish generals to break up their camp, and to 
begin a retreat. Before they could recover the ground 
thus lost, Ormond seized the wished-for opportunity to 
hand the town over to the Parliamentarian army, and 
then fled to France. 

175. O'Neill's successes. During the two years after 
the battle of Benburb, Owen Roe O'Neill held the cen- 
tral plain, the west, and most of the north of Ireland 
against the English armies of Royalists and Parliamen- 

of O'Neill 




tarians alike, gaining victory after victory, generally 
against superior numbers, better armed and better 
equipped. We find him frequently almost betrayed by 
the Supreme Council, because the Norman lords of 
Leinster, perpetually anxious for their own feudal es- 
tates, were ready to treat with either one of the English 
parties which was for the moment victorious. At this 
time the Norman lords were in possession of many of 
the confiscated abbey lands in Ireland, and there was per- 
petual friction between them and the Catholic Attitude of 
Church on this account. The Norman land- ^ d Norman 
owners were the element of weakness through- owners, 
out the whole of this national movement. While pray- 
ing for the final defeat of the English Parliamentarian 
forces, they dreaded to see this defeat brought about by 
Owen Roe O'Neill, in whom they saw the representa- 
tive of the old Gaelic tribal ownership, a return to which 
would mean their own extinction. 

176. Defeat of two Irish armies. The other Irish 
generals were less successful than O'Neill. In August, 
1647, the Confederate and Parliamentarian armies met 
in battle near Summerhill, in Meath. Preston was in 
command' of the Irish, and was completely defeated by 
the Parliamentarian army under Colonel Jones, governor 
of Dublin, losing more than five thousand men. This 
defeat was followed by another shortly after, though 
under other leaders, near Mallow, in the north of Cork. 

177. Alliance of Royalists and Confederates. Or- 
mond returned to Ireland in 1648, after about a year's 
absence, and took command of the Anglican Royalists, 
on behalf of King Charles. He hoped to carry out a 
plan by which the Royalists were to act with the Confed- 
erates, on condition that the laws against the Catholics 
should be repealed. Both parties were then to try to 

200 IRELAND'S STORY [1649 

save the king from the English Parliament, which had 
Execution definitely gained the upper hand in the long 
January** contest. It was, however, too late to help the 
1649. fallen monarch. He was tried, condemned, 

and beheaded, on January 30, 1649, an d England was 
completely in the power of Oliver Cromwell and the 


By 1641, discontent had become so strong in Ireland that 
the chiefs of the Old Irish clans determined to rebel. Owen 
Roe O'Neill was invited to return from the continent and 
command the army. An unsuccessful attempt to take Dublin 
was followed by the devastation of Ulster by the Irish. 

There were four distinct parties in Ireland at the begin- 
ning of 1642 : two of them were Catholic, but they thwarted 
rather than aided each other. They were opposed by the 
Scotch Presbyterians under Monro and the Anglican Royal- 
ists of Dublin. A Catholic assembly met in 1642, and drew 
up a plan which was brought into operation by the Con- 
federation of Kilkenny. The Confederates took the govern- 
ment of the country into their own hands, under a Supreme 
Council which was elected from the Parliament of Kilkenny 
in October, 1642. Fighting between the different parties 
was more or less continuous during the next few years. On 
June 5, 1646, O'Neill won the famous battle of Benburb, where 
Monro and his Scots were completely routed. The following 
year Dublin was handed over by Ormond to the Parliamenta- 
rians. During 1646-48, O'Neill led a successful campaign 
in the west and north, but other Irish generals suffered 
repeated defeats. Charles I was already in serious danger. 
Ormond returned to Ireland and attempted to unite Royal- 
ists and Confederates in a vain endeavor to save the king, 
who was executed by the Parliamentarians, January 30, 1649. 



i 649-1 688 

English Sovereigns : 

Commonwealth, 1649-1660 Charles II, 1 660-1 685 
James II, 1685-1688 

178. Charles II proclaimed king. For some time 
after the execution of Charles I, the Parliamentarians 
lost ground in Ireland. Charles, prince of Wales, was ac- 
claimed king as Charles II by nearly all the contestants, 
including Ormond, the Confederation, and the Scottish 
Presbyterians. Several important forts which had been 
lost were recaptured for the new king. Ormond now 
decided to besiege Dublin, held by the Parliamentarians 
under Colonel Jones, although his force was too small to 
undertake a regular siege. He marched toward Dublin, 
and encamped at Rathmines, ordering one of his officers 
to fortify a castle just outside the town. Colonel Jones 
anticipated him. Making a sortie on the night of Au- 
gust 2, 1649, he surprised Ormond, and com- Defeat0 j 
pletely defeated him, slaying six hundred of Ormond. 
his men, and capturing his baggage. Ormond withdrew 
the remnant of his army, but the blow to the new king's 
cause was a severe one. 

179. Arrival of Cromwell. In England, the parlia- 
ment was supreme, though destined soon to be over- 
shadowed by the personal power of Oliver Cromwell. 
The Irish Royalists were weak. Dublin and other 

202 IRELAND'S STORY [1649 

strongholds still remained in the hands of the Parlia- 
mentarians. The greater part of Ireland had declared 
for Charles II, and therefore the English Parliament 
decided that Ireland must be conquered by the Parlia- 
Landsat mentarian army. On August 14, 1649, Oliver 
Dublin. Cromwell landed at Dublin with eight thou- 
sand infantry, four thousand cavalry, twenty thousand 
pounds in coin, and a large quantity of artillery ; he was 
supported by his son-in-law, Ireton, as second in com- 
mand. Shortly before this, Cromwell had been appointed 
lord lieutenant of Ireland by the English Parliament, 
with an understanding that he should enforce the penal 
laws against Catholics. He immediately issued two pro- 
clamations, one promising pardon and protection to all 
who submitted to the English Parliament, and the other 
ordering his soldiers to abstain from violence against the 
natives of Ireland. 

180. Capture of Drogheda. Ormond had strength- 
ened the defences of Drogheda, and garrisoned it with 
two thousand foot and three hundred horse, well offi- 
cered, and well supplied with provisions and ammunition. 
Immediately upon landing, Cromwell marched thither 
from Dublin, and ordered the town to surrender. On its 
refusal, he began a cannonade which lasted two days. 
Only after the third assault did he succeed in taking the 
town. Then, in spite of his recent proclama- 

Massacre . *" c 

of the gar- tion, ne ordered a slaughter of the garrison. 
Neither the governor nor his officers were 
spared, and a number of citizens were also slain. A few, 
who escaped death, were sent as slaves to Barbados. 

Cromwell's aim was to terrify the Irish into submis- 
sion. So great was the consternation caused by the 
massacre at Drogheda, that several strongholds in the 
north, Newry, Carlingford, Lisburn, and Belfast, as well 


as Trim and Dundalk surrendered without a blow. Cole- 
raine was betrayed to Sir Charles Coote, and George 
Monro, who had joined the Royalists, was forced to 
retire before him, surrendering all Down and Antrim, 
except the castle of Carrickfergus. Meanwhile Ormond 
was trying to organize an army to oppose Cromwell. 

181. Cromwell takes Wexford. After the capture 
of Drogheda, Cromwell marched south, to give another 
example of his pitiless and merciless severity. Wexford 
was held by a garrison of three thousand men. Cromwell 
arrived on October 1 1, 1649, surrounded the town, and 
opened fire. The news of the betrayal of a castle just 
beyond the walls caused a panic in the garrison, and 
the town was speedily taken. Again Cromwell A seC ond 
ordered the entire garrison and many of the massacre - 
citizens slaughtered. The report of this massacre had a 
similar effect to that of Drogheda. Many southern towns, 
including Cork, surrendered. Cromwell then marched 
southwest to Youghal, where he decided to rest his army. 

182. Death of Owen Roe O'Neill. To add to the 
distress of the Irish party, their best general, Owen Roe 
O'Neill, died suddenly on November 6, 1649, after a- 
brief illness. For seven years he had led his armies to 
constant victory, while the Norman lords, who were his 
nominal allies, were secretly opposing him for their own 
selfish ends. Yet so great was his genius that he won 
fight after fight, even though the Irish Confederation 
was a source of weakness rather than strength to the 
cause for which he was fighting. He alone among the 
Irish leaders could have met Cromwell on equal terms, 
and it is greatly to be regretted that history was de- 
prived of the spectacle of a contest between these two 
masters in the art of war. 

183. Cromwell devastates Munster. After Crom- 

204 IRELAND'S STORY [1650 

well had rested his troops, he prepared to subdue Mun- 
ster. The inhabitants of the small towns fled before his 
army, so that he advanced almost unopposed. Clonmel 
proved an exception, however. This city was held by 
Resistance Hugh O'Neill, a nephew of Owen Roe, and a 
ofcionmeL commander of considerable ability. Cromwell 
was repulsed several times before he was finally able to 
take the town, and in the end succeeded only because 
O'Neill's supply of ammunition gave out. As he had no 
hope of reinforcements, O'Neill determined to save his 
army by secretly retiring toward Waterford by night, and 
leaving the townspeople to surrender the city, which they 
did, obtaining favorable terms. 

184. Parliamentarians virtually hold Ireland. Since 
the siege of Drogheda, Cromwell had confined his ac- 
tions to the south. In the north, the Parliamentarian 
forces, under Colonel Venables and Sir Charles Coote, 
had gained one victory after another ; so that by May, 
1650, there was scarcely a fortress left in the hands of 
the Royalists throughout Ulster. Cromwell's victories 
in the south completed his command of the island. The 
Royalists, fighting for Charles II, a most ungrateful sov- 
ereign, who deserted them in every difficulty, 

returns to still held Limerick and a few other towns, but 
England. were little to be feared. Cromwell decided to 
leave Ireland in the care of Ireton, his son-in-law, and 
returned to England, May 29, 1650. 

185. Fall of Limerick. Ireton now prepared to take 
Limerick, after having first sent Sir Charles Coote to 
besiege Athlone, the key to Connaught. Limerick, the 
last important stronghold of the Royalists, was com- 
manded by Hugh O'Neill, the defender of Clonmel. 
Limerick lies along the south bank of the Shannon. 
Ireton first attacked it from the south ; then, forcing the 


bridge, he renewed his attack from the Clare side, firing 
his cannon across the river. O'Neill made a brave de- 
fence, but circumstances were adverse, and the plague 
was raging in the town. Half the citizens voted to sur- 
render, while the rest wished to hold out to the last. 
The fate of the city, as at Wexford, was de- Thetown 
cided by the treachery of one of the officers, strayed, 
who opened the gates and admitted the enemy, October 
27, 165 1. This time the garrison was spared, but some 


From a picture in Dineley's Journal. The tower of the cathedral and Thomond bridge 
are seen in the centre and the castle on the left 

of the leaders were executed ; among others, Dr. O'Brien, 
bishop of Emly. 

A few weeks later, Ireton died of the plague, and 
General Edmund Ludlow took command. Lud- surrender 
low captured a few isolated strongholds, and 0lQalwa y- 
then went to aid Coote, who, having taken Athlone, had 

206 IRELAND'S STORY [1652 

marched to the west, and laid siege to Galway. After a 
nine months' siege, the city surrendered in May, 1652. 

186. Fleetwood's High Court of Justice. The mid- 
dle of the year .1652 saw Ireland completely in the hands 
of the Parliamentarians, and the war for the time being 
at an end. Charles Fleetwood, who had just married 
Ireton's widow, the daughter of Oliver Cromwell, was 
made lord lieutenant of Ireland. He organized a High 
Court of Justice, to punish the leaders in the rebellion 
of 1 64 1. This court tried and sentenced to death some 
two hundred persons, among them Sir Phelim O'Neill, 
who, it will be remembered, had forged a commission 
Execution ^ rom tne king, authorizing him to take posses- 
of Pneiim sion of Charlemont fort. (See section 165.) 


On the scaffold he was offered his life and lib- 
erty if he would swear to the genuineness of this com- 
mission, but he refused. The Parliamentarians wished 
him to do this, that they might justify their execution of 
King Charles by proving the latter a traitor to England, 
showing that he had ordered towns to be surrendered to 
the Irish enemy. 

187. New confiscation in Ireland. The war was 
over ; its results were still to come. Pestilence and fam- 
ine were raging everywhere, but these were not the worst 
evils. Cromwell's soldiers had to be paid, and it was 
decided that they should be rewarded by grants of Irish 
land. The English Parliament held that the whole of 
Ireland was liable to confiscation, and passed an act dis- 
lodging the Irish land-owners in large tracts of Ulster, 
Leinster, and Munster. 

The process of transplanting was begun in August, 
1652. Catholics and Protestants in many cases suffered 
together ; but, on the whole, the persecution of the 
Catholics was the more cruel. They were ordered to 


withdraw to Connaught by May i, 1654. After this date 
they were outlaws, liable to be murdered by Extreme 
whoever chose to kill them. Moreover, they ^ e ^J 
might not settle within four miles of the sea or Catholics, 
a town, or within two miles of the Shannon, the bound- 
ary of Connaught. It happened that during this Crom- 
wellian confiscation the greatest sufferers were well-to-do 
people, who had been accustomed to comfort and even 
luxury. Now that they were driven from their homes, 
they passed through dire hardships, wandering in winter 
along unknown roads, till they came to the miserable 
little tracts of land allotted to them, in the barren west- 
ern province. Many, especially the poorer, remained as 
hired laborers and servants in their own former homes. 
In Down and Antrim the Presbyterians were presbyteri- 
treated with equal harshness, because they had a 113811 ** 61 - 
sympathized with the cause of the king. They were 
ordered to surrender their estates, and were transplanted 
to the forests and hills of Leinster, where the few miser- 
able acres assigned them were hardly enough to keep 
them from starving. 

188. Results of confiscation. The natural result of 
all this persecution was retaliation and open hostility. 
Crowds of able-bodied men formed themselves into bands, 
under the names of "Tories" and " Rapparees," and, 
vowing vengeance upon the usurpers, attacked Bands of 
the new settlers with fire and sword. They 0Utl a w8 - 
were hunted as outlaws by the settlers, who did all they 
could to exterminate them. 

It remained to dispose of the large army who had 
fought for the Royalist cause. They were _ . 
allowed, or practically compelled, to leave the soldiers 
country, and many of them entered the service 
of continental nations. Thirty-five thousand enlisted in 

208 IRELAND'S STORY [1654 

the armies of France, Spain, Austria, and Venice. The 
lands of these exiled soldiers, when they had any, were 
distributed among the Cromwellian soldiers. Widows 
and orphans were hunted down, and sent as slaves to 
the West Indies. 

The brunt of this persecution was borne by the Catho- 
lics, whose religious freedom was now fiercely assailed. 
Catholicism Zealous priests still worked among the people, 
kept alive, enduring awful hardships, but all the old laws 
had been put in force against them, and they were com- 
pelled to preach in secret and remain hidden, to escape 

189. The restoration of Charles II. We may pass 
over the next four or five years, during which the suffer- 
ings of Ireland were unalleviated, unless by the absence 
of actual war. Cromwell died in 1658. His son Rich- 
ard lacked the force to uphold the system created by his 
father, and England decided to recall Charles II. He was 
proclaimed king in 1660 amid general rejoicing through- 
out the chief towns of Ireland, and a convention voted 
him a donation of twenty thousand pounds. 

The Irish Catholics expected much from this king,, 
who was at heart a Catholic, and for whom they had 
fought so valiantly and suffered so much. They looked 
for the restitution of their lands, at the very least. 
Charles was besieged with claims from all sides, and 
decided to pay no attention to any. He made provision 
for a few powerful enemies, but wholly neglected his 
friends, who had ruined themselves fighting for his cause, 
Act of in England and Ireland alike. A parliament 

emen . wag summonec i j n i 65j ) which passed an Act of 

Settlement, confirming the Cromwellians in their new 
holdings, and thus taking away all hope from the dis- 
possessed native owners. Those Catholics who were 


able to prove that they had taken no part in the rebellion 
of 164 1 were to be compensated by grants of unoccupied 
land elsewhere. Here the exertions of Charles on be- 
half of the Catholics ended. 

190. Court of Claims. In 1663, a Court of Claims 
was instituted, to hear cases of disputed estates, and 
pass judgment upon them. It was soon discovered 
that nearly all the Catholic land-owners were able to 
prove that they had not taken part in the rebellion. 
The new settlers became greatly alarmed. To 
prevent trouble, the Act of Explanation was Expiana- 
passed, in 1665, by which the new settlers 
agreed to give up one third of their lands to the dis- 
possessed Catholics. 

191. Restriction of the cattle trade. In 1663, the 
English Parliament prepared to strike another blow at 
the well-being of Ireland. We have seen how the wool 
trade was destroyed. (See section 162.) England now 
made it unlawful to import cattle from Ireland in the 
second half of each year. Two years later, 1665, a bill 
was introduced prohibiting the importation of cattle from 
Ireland at any time. This measure, however, failed to 
pass the House of Lords. 

192. Division of land. To add to the general dis- 
tress and discontent, the king now began to give large 
grants of land to his relatives and favorites. The amount 
of reclaimed and fertile land in Ireland was limited, and 
there were at least three claimants to every acre. Before 
the Cromwellian confiscation and the Act of Settlement, 
the Catholics possessed two thirds of the arable and pas- 
ture land, while the remaining third was owned by the 
Protestants of the plantations made under Elizabeth and 
James I. Under the new conditions, the Catholics were 
reduced to one third, while two thirds was left in the hands 

210 IRELAND'S STORY [1665 

of the Protestants. It was, of course, impossible to re- 
instate all the dispossessed Catholics, as there 
to Protest- was not land enough for all. The claims of 
many were never even heard, and the older 
nobility was to a large degree reduced to penury. The 
newcomers, on the other hand, were gradually assimi- 
lated, as the Danes and the Normans had been before 
them. They learned the Irish language, gradually 
adopted Irish customs, and became saturated with the 
Irish spirit. 

193. Rule of the Anglican Church restored. At this 
time, the population of Ireland was slightly more than 
a million ; there were about eight hundred thousand 
Catholics, both Irish and Norman-English ; a hundred 
thousand Anglican Protestants ; and two hundred thou- 
sand Nonconformists, Presbyterians, Puritans, and In- 
dependents, who accepted the Reformation of Luther, 
but did not follow the ritual of the Church of England. 
During Cromwell's time, the Nonconformists were the 
strongest element, and the other two parties were almost 
equally maltreated. Cromwell oppressed the Anglicans, 
because they had supported the king ; he oppressed the 
Catholics, because he held them to be children of evil. 
Charles II now reestablished the Anglican Church. The 

Act of Uniformity was enforced against the 

Act of • 

uniformity Presbyterians, who, it should be remembered, 
enforced nac j h e ]p e d the king toward the close of the 

against r & 

Presbyteri- struggle. They suffered a short but severe per- 
secution, because their clergy refused to receive 
ordination from the Anglican bishops. Many sailed from 
Ireland to New England, to find new homes in the Puri- 
tan colonies. 

194. Catholics again in disfavor. Meanwhile, the 
Catholics enjoyed a brief respite. Charles permitted his 


lords lieutenant to give them considerable freedom, in 
spite of the Act of Uniformity. This condition of things 
was not destined to last. It was at once suspected that 
the king intended to restore Catholicism throughout his 
dominions. The pronounced Catholic views of the king's 
brother and heir, James, duke of York, increased the 
partisan feeling in England. The plot of Titus Oates, 
who spread a rumor that the English Catholics had 
sought to murder King Charles, added fuel to the flames, 
and, though wholly false, brought the Irish Catholics 
into disfavor. One oppressive measure after another was 
passed, so that during the next few years the unjust 
condition of the Catholics was pitiful in the ariests - 
extreme. Arrests were made, and many were thrown 
into prison, simply because they were Catholics. 

195. James II restores Catholicism. James came to 
the throne in 1685, determined to restore Catholicism. 
He was, however, so arbitrary and oppressive that he 
aroused the whole Protestant population of England 
against him, and caused a veritable panic among the 
Protestants of Ireland. He chose, as his agent in Ire- 
land, Richard Talbot, an over-zealous Catholic, whom he 
made Earl of Tyrconnell, and intrusted with the com- 
mand of the army. Talbot dismissed the Protestant 
garrisons, and put Catholics in their place. Most of the 
dismissed Protestant officers went to Holland, where 
they enlisted in the service of William, prince of 
Orange, and, later, followed his standard to Tyrconnell 
England. An ineffective attempt was made to Jjfj mes 
repeal the Act of Settlement (see section 189), lieutenant, 
with a view to reinstating the banished Irish land-owners, 
and Protestants were everywhere driven from office, to 
make room for Catholics. Talbot succeeded in having 
himself appointed lord lieutenant in 1687. 

212 IRELAND'S STORY [1688 

196. The Revolution of 1688. The oppressive mea- 
sures to which James II resorted in England, and his 
encroachments on the liberty of his subjects, brought 
about the Revolution of 1688. William, Prince of Or- 
ange, the nephew and son-in-law of King James, was 
invited to take possession of the English throne, an offer 
which he promptly accepted, landing in Devonshire on 
November 5, 1688. Six weeks later, James II fled to 


The execution of Charles I was looked upon with extreme 
disfavor by all parties in Ireland except the Parliamentarians, 
and Charles II was immediately proclaimed king. Cromwell 
landed in Dublin with a large army on August 14, 1649, de- 
termined to subdue the country. He captured Drogheda 
and Wexford and devastated Munster, carrying terror among 
the natives wherever he went, on account of his extreme 
cruelty. By May, 1651, Ireland was virtually subdued, and 
Cromwell returned to England, leaving Ireton in command. 
Ireton captured Limerick, 165 1, and Galway surrendered to 
Coote, 1652. Fleetwood's " High Court of Justice " was 
now instituted, and under its decrees Sir Phelim O'Neill and 
many others were tried and executed. 

Between 1652 and 1654, nearly the whole of Ireland was 
confiscated. It was a period of great suffering for the Catho- 
lics. Charles II was formally restored to the throne in 1660. 
The " Court of Claims " organized a new division of land in 
Ireland in favor of the Protestants, and the Anglican Church 
rule was restored. With the accession of James II, in 1685, 
the Catholics regained their privileges. But James's tyrannical 
measures brought him into great disfavor in England, and he 
was forced to flee to France, leaving his throne to William, 
Prince of Orange. 





English Sovereigns: William and Mary, 1 688-1 702 

197. Attitude of the Irish toward William. The 

appointment of Tyrconnell as lord lieutenant had filled 
the Protestants of Ireland with apprehensions, which were 
allayed by the news that William of Orange had reached 
England. His claim to the throne came through his 
descent from Charles I, and his marriage with Mary, 
daughter of James II. Protestant anxiety was again"^ 
aroused by the tidings that James had fled to France. 
It was feared that he would return with a foreign army, 
and wild rumors of uprisings and impending massacres 
spread from one garrison to another. In Eng- very 
land, and among the Protestant settlers of Ire- hostlle - 
land William was hailed as a deliverer ; but the Irish 
Catholics, in spite of all they had already suffered from 
the Stuarts, took the side of James. Consequently Wil- 
liam, received with open arms in England, had to fight 
for every inch of ground in Ireland, before his position 
was secure. 

198. Ulster a Protestant centre. Tyrconnell headed 
the adherents of the Stuarts in Ireland, to whom the 
name of Jacobite was now given, from Jacobus, The 

the Latin form of James. Realizing the condi- Jacobites. 
tion of affairs in England, Tyrconnell immediately did all 

214 IRELAND'S STORY [1688 

in his power to strengthen the position of King James in 
every part of Ireland. He met with no obstacles, except 
in Ulster, which, owing to the large numbers of Scottish 
and English settlers, was strongly Protestant, especially 
in the cities. Some of these, Derry and Enniskillen 
among them, refused to recognize the authority of Tyr- 
connell as lieutenant of James, holding that the latter 
had already forfeited his crown. Derry was a small town 
on the left bank of the Foyle, but it was a strong fortress, 
owing to the sturdy surrounding wall, which is intact 
to-day. From the right bank of the river, Derry could 
be reached only by boat. A forged letter, telling of a 
coming massacre by the Catholics, and the rumored 
Excitement approach of one of the Jacobite leaders, so 
in Deny. aroused the citizens of Derry, that, in spite of 
the governor, they shut the gates, and defied the author- 
ity of the lord lieutenant. A few days passed, with 
neither uprising nor attack. The inhabitants, somewhat 
reassured, consented to admit two companies of the 
Jacobite army as a garrison, provided that these sol- 
diers should all be Protestants. Colonel Lundy com- 
manded this new garrison, and was made governor of 
the city. 

Tyrconnell's actions again aroused the suspicions 
which were beginning to be allayed. He daily removed 
Protestants from his army, and filled their places with 
Catholics. Reports also began to come from England 
of William's growing power, and these encouraged the 
Protestants of Ireland to take sides openly against the 
Stuart king. The people of Derry, who, up to this time, 
Derry had kept the gates of the city closed in fear 

SSSS of massacre by the Catholics, now declared for 
to wiiiiam. William and Mary, as sovereigns of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland. Confusion reigned within the town. 


Lundy and others, who were inclined to recognize the 
authority of James, were forced to take the oath of alle- 
giance to William and Mary. 

199. James comes to Ireland. James had waited in 
France, at the court of Louis XIV, trying to gather cour- 
age and money, until he was thoroughly assured of Cath- 
olic support in Ireland. Now with a small French force, 
and a number of Irish exiles, chief among whom was 
Sarsfield, he landed at Kinsale in Cork on March 12, 1689. 
Twelve days later, Lord and Lady Tyrconnell welcomed 
him to Dublin. In spite of the bitterness of the sea- 
son, he immediately led his army north toward Derry, 
where he expected to be received with open wj t 

r . r His hostile 

arms. He was astonished beyond measure reception 
when the citizens began to fire on him from a erry * 
the walls. Within the town everything possible was 
done to strengthen the fortifications. Protestant fugi- 
tives arrived daily from all sides seeking refuge. 

After his cold reception at Derry, James withdrew to 
Dublin, and assembled a parliament there, leaving the 
siege of Derry in the hands of two of his gen- James 
erals. The parliament spent months in empty JJJuJ^JSt* 
talk, since the few acts it passed were never at Dublin, 
enforced. It attempted to secure religious toleration for 
all denominations, and to repeal the Act of Settlement 
(section 189), at the same time providing for the com- 
pensation of the Protestant land-holders, who would be 
dispossessed by the repeal of the act. On the other 
hand, the lands of William's adherents were confiscated, 
and debased coin was put into circulation, which, how- 
ever, was recalled two years later. 

200. The siege of Derry. Meanwhile, on April 14, 
two ships sent by William had reached Derry with sup- 
plies and soldiers. Lundy was still anxious to bring 






in the two 

about a surrender. He had persuaded many of the 
townspeople that the city could not stand a 
siege, with the result that some of the most 
capable defenders embarked aboard the two ships and 
sailed away to England. Lundy was suspected of treach- 
ery and had to flee. The garrison now numbered seven 
thousand fighting men, and the defences were strong, 
but the supply of provisions was very small and the 
number of refugees very great. 

'On April 18, 1689, the real siege of Deny, one of the 
most famous in Irish or English history, began. Neither 
defenders nor besiegers were well prepared for 
their work. The town was ill supplied with food, 
its leaders inexperienced ; while the army of 
James, which lacked ammunition and military supplies, 
was scattered and undisciplined. The Jacobite leaders 

expected the town to 
surrender after the 
first real assault, but 
the courage and deter- 
mination of the be- 
sieged garrison grew 
daily. Breaches were 
repaired as fast as they 
were made. Women 
and men worked to- 


This picture from a contemporary map shows the gettier, IUll 01 TdlglOUS 
condition at the time of the siege ., T n 

enthusiasm. In a sally 
made on April 2r, one of the two Jacobite generals was 
killed, but the party which made the sortie was forced 
to retire after losing heavily. 

During the next two months, fighting went on with 
varying success and great bloodshed. There was a fort 
on Windmill Hill, near the south gate of the town, and 


Hamilton, now the chief leader of the besiegers, tried 
to capture it. But the defenders kept up a steady mus- 
ket fire, killing every man who tried to reach mu 

* b / The assault 

the fort. The Jacobite soldiers were brave, and on wind- 
pushed on, in spite of the hail of bullets, but it 
was not within their power to take the fort or reach 
the town. The fight for Windmill Hill was the fiercest 
contest of the siege. The Irish attacking party lost four 
hundred men, and their leader, who was taken prisoner. 
Starvation was meanwhile doing its work within the 
town, and Hamilton resolved to depend on this ally. 
^When the defenders were already feeling the pangs of 
hunger, thirty ships were seen sailing up Lough Foyle. 
They were the help promised by William. But their 
commander was intimidated by the line of Jacobite forts 
that separated him from the city, and anchored William's 
at some distance from the town, but within sni P ssail 

up the 

sight of the heroic defenders. The wonderful lough, 
courage displayed by the men of Deny in this terrible 
trial has been described by eye-witnesses as passing 
belief. In order to prevent the approach of the relief 
ships, Hamilton ordered a boom of cables and logs to be 
stretched across the river, two miles below the town. 

By the end of June, King James, losing patience, sent 
Marshal Rosen with orders to proceed to extremes. 
Rosen conceived a shameful plan, which was not ap- 
proved either by James or by the Irish Jacobites. He 
sent out soldiers, with orders to gather about a thousand 
of the poorer Protestant settlers, men, women, Rosen's 
and children, from the neighboring" regions, cruelt y- 
and ordered them to be driven into the open space be- 
tween the besieging army and the city walls. Then he 
sent a messenger to the people of Derry, announcing 
that the defenceless settlers would be kept there, to 





This building was erected in 1620 for 
military as well as civil purposes, and 
was destroyed during the siege. 

starve beneath the walls, unless the city surrendered. 
This fiendish device failed. The victims exhorted the 
defenders to stand firm, and instant death was proclaimed 
for any one uttering the word 
" surrender." In answer to 
Rosen's threat, a large scaf- 
fold was erected in sight of 
the Jacobite army, and the 
prisoners taken from that 
army were gathered beside it. 
Word was then sent to Ro- 
sen, that, unless the settlers 

_. ^ were released, the 
The Derry- 

men's Jacobite prisoners 

rep 7 ' would all be hanged 

on the next morning. Among 
the prisoners were many officers, who wrote to Hamil- 
ton to use his influence with Rosen. The French com- 
mander was afraid to put his evil plan into execution, 
and released the settlers, a number of whom had already 

Meanwhile starvation was doing its work. Horseflesh 
was sold at exorbitant prices within the walls, and the 
ships still failed to come to the relief of the city. Finally, 
when the defenders were at the end of their 
resources, the commander of the fleet made an 
attempt to reach the town, and, on July 28, three of his 
ships sailed up the Foyle, broke the boom, and reached 
the water-front of the city, in spite of the heavy fire of 
the land batteries. Hamilton, seeing that all danger 
of famine was over, and that the garrison was strength- 
ened, gave up the siege July 31, and withdrew his army. 
The town was saved after a memorable siege of a hun- 
dred and five days. 


201. Battle of Enniskillen. Enniskillen, on an island 
in Lough Erne, and protected by a strong castle, had, 
like Derry, refused to recognize the authority of Tyrcon- 
nell, and James had sent a small force against it. The 
colonists bravely defended themselves, and JacoWt es 
the expedition ended in a shameful rout rather routed. 
than a battle, for the Jacobites seem hardly to have 
struck a blow. This contest took place July 30, the 
day before the relief of Derry. A second stronghold was 
thus in the hands of William's adherents, and with Derry 
formed a base of operations against the Jacobite forces. 

202. Schomberg takes Carrickfergus. The siege of 
Derry was only the beginning of the struggle for Ireland 
between William and James. William's position in Eng- 
land was now quite secure, and a month after Hamilton 
retired from Derry, William sent the . Duke of Schom- 
berg to Ireland with fifteen thousand men. This army 
landed near Bangor, on the south shore of Belfast 
Lough. Schomberg refused to negotiate with the Jaco- 
bite garrisons gathered at Carrickfergus, and at once laid 
siege to the town, which surrendered after a week, in 
August, 1689. The garrison was allowed to depart with 
arms and supplies. 

203. Sickness in the English army. Schomberg 
now made a serious mistake. He followed the retreat- 
ing Jacobites as far as Dundalk. Here he encamped, in 
a very unfavorable position, to await reinforcements. 
These were a long time coming, as William was short of 
funds. Schomberg's camp was in the midst of marshy 

ground, and disease soon broke out amon? his 

& 1V . .. T , . & Soldiers 

soldiers. Meanwhile James was threatening an die by 

attack from the south, so that Schomberg was t ousan 

forced to fortify his camp. Sickness spread, until eight 

thousand of William's men died in this way in winter 

220 IRELAND'S STORY [1690 

quarters. Schomberg, who was over eighty years of age, 
was untiring in his effort to relieve his troops, but the 
mischief was already done. 

204. Arrival of William. Schomberg opened the 
spring campaign by taking Fort Charlemont on the 
northern Blackwater, the only place that still held out 
for James in the north. On June 14, 1690, King Wil- 
ms foreign nam came t0 Ireland to lead his army in person, 
troops. His troops were largely made up of continental 
veterans, excellent soldiers from Holland, Denmark, 
Sweden, and Prussia, and in his train were Prince George 
of Denmark and the Duke of Ormond. One of his first 
acts was to pension the Nonconformist ministers in 
Ulster who had been foremost in upholding his cause. 

205. Battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690. The rival 
kings were now to meet in a decisive battle. James, at the 
head of twenty-six thousand men, poorly drilled and mis- 
erably armed, had taken a position at the village of 
Oldbridge, on the south bank of the Boyne, three miles 
above Drogheda. William advanced steadily southward 
toward James's army. The latter was such an incapable 
general that he did not even throw up trenches to defend 
the ford of the Boyne. William's army arrived on June 29, 
and encamped on the north bank of the river, and on the 
Artillery day following an artillery duel was begun be- 
contest. tween the two armies. Considerable injury was 
inflicted on William's forces, although he was far better 
supplied with artillery than was James. During the night, 
James, already certain that he was going to be beaten, 
sent all but six of his guns back to Dublin. He also made 
preparations for his own escape, and then retired to a 
little church on the hill of Donore, where he could safely 
watch the battle. 

When the battle was resumed on the next day, July 1, 




William's army numbered between forty-five and fifty 
thousand, with probably four or five thousand cavalry. 
James had from twenty to twenty-five thousand men, 


with the same proportion of horse. By his own fault, he 
had only six guns against about fifty in William's batter- 
ies. William's line of battle was formed with Thear- 
the infantry in the centre and the cavalry on "^Eng- 
the wings. He gave Schomberg the elder ush forces, 
command of the centre, while the younger Schomberg, 
son of the old general, was sent four or five miles up the 
river to Slane, in command of the right wing. He was 
to cross at Slane, and turn the left flank of James's 
army. William himself commanded the cavalry on the 
left wing. Later in the day he went down the river, and 
crossed at a lower ford. He was thus able to attack his 

222 IRELAND'S STORY [1690 

opponents on the right flank also. Meanwhile the in- 
fantry forming the centre of his army advanced under 
cover of a heavy artillery fire to ford the Boyne. 

The river at that point was shallow, and in the mid- 
dle of summer could be very easily forded. It was, 
William's therefore, only a slight protection for James, 
crosses the William's right, under the younger Schomberg, 
river. made several unsuccessful attempts to cross 

the river at Slane, but it was repeatedly driven back by 
Arthur O'Neill's horse. Finally the way was cleared by 
a vigorous cannonade to which O'Neill was unable to 
reply. William's right wing was thus able to cross the 

The centre of the English army now advanced, and 
began to cross the Boyne, supported by the artillery. 
The Irish troops fought so well that Schomberg's body- 
guard was cut to pieces, and he himself was killed. The 
centre of William's army was undoubtedly being beaten 
back, when, crossing lower down, with eighteen squad- 
rons of cavalry, he fiercely attacked the right flank of 
the Irish army, and thus turned possible defeat into 
The Irish certain victory. That the Irish troops, although 
retreat. outnumbered two to one, and led by a coward, 
fought valiantly, is admitted by all. They charged ten 
times in succession, and only gave way at the last under 
pressure of greatly superior numbers. Their main body 
retreated in good order to Dublin, and later to Limerick, 
in spite of William's efforts to intercept them. 

James fled from the battlefield as soon as he saw that 
fortune was against his army. Arriving in Dublin, he 
called a council of the Catholic magistrates and 
King officials, and declared his intention of ceasing 

James. ^[ s opposition to William. He then fled with 
all haste to Waterford, burning the bridges as he crossed 


them to prevent pursuit. There he embarked for France, 
and landed at Brest, bringing the first news of his own 

206. Tyrconnell's duplicity. Within a week after the 
battle of the Boyne, the Irish army occupied Limerick, 
and made preparations to hold that strong position, 
relying on the untouched resources of Connaught, and 
the help which the runaway king might possibly send 
them by sea. Tyrconnell, who hoped to make his peace 
with King William, secure his Irish estates, and very 
possibly be appointed lord lieutenant, was steadily seek- 
ing to undermine the resolution of the Irish army. 

207. Attempt to take Athlone. William marched on 
to Dublin, where he was welcomed by the large English 
colony. He issued a proclamation, granting wllllam , 8 
pardon to all the Irish soldiers who would lay prociama- 
down their arms. In this offer the Catholic 
gentry were not included, owing to the bigotry of 
William's counsellors, who hoped, as in former days, to 
gain possession of the confiscated estates. 

William now prepared to open his second campaign. 

Waterford and Kilkenny surrendered by Tyrconnell's 

orders. The chief strength of the Irish now lay along 

the river Shannon. Here it was determined to form a 

line of defence, and, from the two strongholds, Limerick 

and Athlone, to keep the English out of Con- En u 

naught. A section of William's army, number- retire before 

, , 1 \ . Sarslleld. 

mg twelve thousand men, was sent to take 

Athlone, which was valiantly defended for seven days, 
when Sarsfield's approach compelled the English to with- 
draw, as he threatened their line of supplies. Athlone 
was none the worse for this attack. 

224 IRELAND'S STORY [1690 


With the exception of Ulster, all Ireland declared alle- 
giance to James, and looked upon William as a usurper. 
Derry and Enniskillen, two of the principal strongholds in 
Ulster, were active Protestant centres, and promptly pro- 
claimed their allegiance to William. James landed at Kin- 
sale on March 12, 1689, and immediately marched against 
Derry. The siege that followed is the most famous in Irish 
history. After a hundred and five days of heroic defence and 
extreme suffering, the city was relieved on July 30, 1689. 
The Protestants won the battle of Enniskillen and captured 
Carrickfergus. During the winter of 1689-90 the English, 
under Schomberg, suffered severe losses through sickness. 
In the spring William came himself to Ireland and defeated 
James in the decisive battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690. James 
fled to France. 




English Sovereigns : William and Mary, 1688-1702 

208. First siege of Limerick. King William arrived 
before Limerick on August 9, 1690, and began to pre- 
pare for a long siege. The French general, Lauzun, and 
the Earl of Tyrconnell, who were in command of the gar- 
rison, at once proposed to surrender, but were opposed 
by Sarsfield, who did not share their view that Limerick 
was incapable of defence. Lauzun and Tyrcon- Departure 
nell retired to Galway with all the French troops ^inch 
and a great deal of much-needed ammunition, troops, 
and Limerick was left with about twenty-five thousand 
Irish defenders, who determined, if need be, to emulate 
the heroism of Derry. They met William's summons to 
surrender with a refusal, and made vigorous prepara- 
tions for defence, while a party under Sarsfield cut off 
one of William's convoys from Dublin, destroy- Sarsfleld 
ing the siege guns, which were being brought captures 

& fe & j & & William's 

for the attack on the city. Although the Eng- baggage 
lish had been short of guns and ammunition, 
they had begun operations when news of the loss of the 
siege guns reached them. Discouraged, they suspended 
the attack for a week, during which the defenders were 
able to strengthen the walls and add to the defences. 
Unfortunately, Sarsfield was not able to bring back the 

226 IRELAND'S STORY [1690 

cannons and powder he had captured, so he exploded 
the powder, and contented himself with taking the 

Limerick was the second city in Ireland, Dublin alone 
being more important. As was the case with many Irish 


cities, it had an Irish and an English quarter. The Eng- 
lish part was built on an island in the Shannon, and con- 
tained the cathedral and castle, while the Irish quarter 
was on the south bank of the river, and was connected 
with the other quarter by a bridge. High walls sur- 
rounded the entire town, from which the defenders fired 
upon the assailants in the trenches. Frequent sorties 
were made, during which every foot of ground 
ment was fiercely contested. William's guns demol- 

ished the high towers, and also covered the 
operations of the men in the trenches. He then concen- 


trated all his force on one point, hoping to make a 
breach. Combustibles were hurled on the roofs of the 
houses, so that the city caught fire in several directions. 
The town was connected by a bridge with the Clare 
side of the Shannon, and across this bridge the women 
and children were sent into safety. 

Finally a breach was made in the wall, and William 
determined to enter by assault. On the afternoon of 
August 27, he ordered a detachment of five hundred 
grenadiers, followed by ten thousand foot-soldiers and 
horse, to prepare for the attack. When the signal was 
given a rush was made from the trenches to- Assault 
ward the breach. The assailants were stunned made - 
by a hail of bullets and shot, but succeeded in reaching 
the opening in the wall, and forcing their way inside. 
Here they ran into a rude rampart of earth, from the 
top of which cannon-balls and bullets rained down on 
them. Retreat was out of the question, so the English 
pushed forward in spite of the cannon which mowed 
them down at every step, while the Irish steadily re- 
treated. The townspeople, seeing the defenders thus 
falling back, joined in the conflict with whatever weapons 
they could lay hands on. 

Chief among William's foreign troops were the Prus- 
sians, who distinguished themselves by conspicuous dar- 
ing. They had entered the city with the rest, 

° J J Bravery 

and centred their attack on the Black Battery, of the 
which they took after a bloody fight. Owing Prussians - 
to carelessness the powder-vaults exploded, and men and 
battery were blown to pieces. Steady fighting had been 
going on for four hours, without any great headway 
being made, when the English lost courage, TheEng- 
and began to withdraw. Suddenly they rushed ust retreat. 
in a panic back through the breach, leaving two thou- 

228 IRELAND'S STORY [1690 

sand of their bravest dead inside the wall. The losses of 
the Irish were comparatively small. 

In this unsuccessful attack, King William had seen 
some of his best troops slaughtered. Besides, the wet 
wiiiia months were approaching, with their threat of 
returns to sickness. Thoroughly disgusted, he decided to 
give up the siege, and withdrew to Waterford, 
whence he sailed for England, leaving the conduct of the 
Irish war in the hands of his generals. 

209. Capture of Cork and Kinsale. When William 

embarked for England on September 5, 1690, he left 

Ginkel and Count Solmes, two of his most 


losses tor competent generals, in command, with orders 
to lead an expedition against Cork and Kinsale, 
two towns which afforded the Irish easy communication 
with France. Reinforcements arrived to aid Ginkel, and 
both towns surrendered after short but severe sieges, and 
their garrisons were taken prisoners. With the capture 
of Cork and Kinsale, the Irish lost much more than 
had been gained by the successful defence of Limerick. 
These two cities surrendered in the end of September 
and nothing more was accomplished that year. 

Tyrconnell had meanwhile followed his runaway king 
to France, and was entangled in plots and counterplots, 
the one clear principle of which was the future advance- 
ment of Tyrconnell. Louis XIV, who had reasons of 
his own for wishing to keep William's army locked up 
in Ireland, was altogether willing to advise and help a 
continuance of hostilities in that country. James seems 
to have recognized his own incapacity too clearly to 
attempt anything definite, or, as is more probable, was 
too irresolute by nature even to decide to give up the 
fight. The Irish army was thoroughly determined to 
fight to the end. 




210. Disorder in both armies. During the next few 
months, desultory righting went on in various parts of 
Ireland. The armies were partly disbanded, and partly 
in winter quarters. Some of the disbanded Irish formed 
themselves into roving bands under the name *«R a p- 
of " Rapparees," and roamed about commit- parees - 
ting acts of plunder and outrage. They burned villages, 
and killed the inhabitants, especially English settlers 

W&(S% m. 

j/ 'h L "^d 



; I188r hB 

j JI;I 


%"' 1 -^* 


5a i * S %^^^ f j* — 



"••■.. Wm 

A 1 IB 

From a contemporary portrait 

and Protestants. General Ginkel did what he could 
to check these depredations, but was not able to effect 

211. Aid from France proves disappointing. In Janu- 
ary, 1 69 1, Tyrconnell, the deserter of Limerick, returned 

230 IRELAND'S STORY [1691 

from France, "but he brought with him no soldiers, very 
few arms, little provision, and no money," at least not 
enough to pay the Irish troops. Besides, he was daily 
becoming more unpopular with the soldiers, because he 
steadily advised submission to William. A month later, 
a message came direct to Sarsfield, then with the army 
Evidence at Galway, promising reinforcements under the 
comSrs renowned French soldier, General Saint Ruth, 
duplicity. This letter to a great extent revealed the double 
part Tyrconnell had been playing at the French court, 
and did much to undermine his credit with the Irish 

The French fleet finally arrived at Limerick in May, 
1691, under Saint Ruth, and brought a considerable 
Arrival of quantity of provisions for the Irish troops ; but 
saint Ruth, ft [ s doubtful whether this arrival added any 
real strength to the Irish army. Saint Ruth, who was 
a conceited, overbearing man, was placed in command 
over Sarsfield, a bad arrangement, since the Irish gen- 
eral was as good a soldier, much more familiar with the 
country, and very popular with the soldiers. 

212. Ginkel captures Athlone. Notwithstanding his 
inferior numbers, Ginkel now marched against Athlone, 
opening the way by the capture of Fort Ballymore, in 
West Meath. Athlone was almost as important as Lim- 
erick. The Irish army there was encamped on a strip 
of land two miles from the Shannon. On June 19, 1691, 
Ginkel managed to take the English part of 
quarter the town before Saint Ruth arrived with help, 
cap 8 ' so that the latter put all his efforts into the 
defence of the Irish quarter, and, with this intention, 
had earthworks thrown up along the river-banks. The 
English cannon soon made short work of these, as well 
as of the castle walls. Ginkel then attempted to cross 


the bridge into Connaught, and for several days his pas- 
sage was fiercely contested. The Irish broke down one 
arch of the bridge, but, under the protection of his bat- 
teries, Ginkel succeeded in having planks thrown across 
the opening. This was no sooner accomplished Daring 01 
than a sergeant, at the head of ten Irishmen, theI ris&- 
rushed to the bridge, under a deadly fire, and dislodged 


Representing the castle about 1830. This castle was built by 
the early Norman invaders 

the planks. This brave act was repeated several times, 
until the English commander saw that it would be im- 
possible to force the bridge. 

Cannonading had been going on for ten days, but the 
town was still as firm as ever. Ginkel was completely 
discouraged, and wished to discontinue his attack, but 
his council of war advised him to make one more at- 
tempt. A short distance below the bridge was a ford, 
just passable in dry weather, and only wide enough for 
twenty to cross abreast. The footing was insecure, and 
in some places the water reached the necks of the sol- 

232 IRELAND'S STORY [1691 

diers. Across this ford two thousand of Ginkel's men 
made their way in the face of the Irish batteries. Saint 
Ruth had been warned of this move by a deserter ; but 
he did nothing beyond sending two of his weakest regi- 
ments to guard the ford. He absolutely refused to con- 
Saint su ^ the Irish chiefs, or to inform them of his 

Ruth's plans. The result was that, when Ginkel's 


careless- men had crossed the ford, Athlone was taken 

ness ' in half an hour, while the Irish army was rest- 

ing in camp (June 30, 1691). The garrison, which con- 
sisted of five hundred men, surrendered. Twelve hundred 
of the defenders had fallen during the siege. 

Ginkel for the third time proclaimed that the king 
would pardon all who laid down their arms, and, in spite 

Effort °^ tne oppose* 011 °f fortune-hunters, this pro- 

to end clamation was immediately indorsed by the civil 

til 9 *Wfl.T 

government at Dublin. Saint Ruth did all he 
could to keep his soldiers from submitting. He was 
thoroughly alarmed at the result of his neglect at Ath- 
lone and fearful lest he might incur the displeasure of 
unsuc- hi s ki n g» Louis XIV. He therefore determined 
cessfui. j-q j- a k e j-he fj rst opportunity to win a battle. 
The taking of Athlone left the road to Galway open, and 
Ginkel prepared to advance on that place, as the chief 
stronghold of Connaught, the last unsubdued province. 
Saint Ruth prepared to resist Ginkel's approach, and re- 
tired to the village of Aughrim, " the hill of the horses," 
where he selected an excellent position. 

213. Battle of Aughrim. Saint Ruth drew up his 
army along a hilly ridge, at the foot of which a wide 
marsh protected his front. There were only two nar- 
row paths across the marsh. The Irish army, composed 
of about ten thousand foot, two thousand men at arms, 
and two thousand horse, was drawn up in two lines, 


with Sarsfield in command of the cavalry some distance 
away. Ginkel appeared on July 12, and ap- .... 
proached near enough to use his guns, hoping tneadvan- 
by that means to force Saint Ruth from his ad- age " 
vantageous position on the hill. But the Irish, encour- 
aged by the presence and generalship of Saint Ruth, 
kept their ground, and beat the English as often as they 
advanced. The fight lasted from noon till sunset, the 
Irish steadily gaining, and Saint Ruth was on the point 
of making the victory complete by a cavalry charge when 
an unlucky shot killed him. The loss of their saint Ruth 
leader caused a sudden panic among the Irish, e ' 
and Ginkel, observing the disorder, commanded his army 
to advance. The Irish cavalry, discouraged, fell back, 
while the infantry continued fighting till they TheIrlsll 
were surrounded by the whole of the English break and 
army, so that nearly all of them were cut off 
from escape. Had Saint Ruth not refused to confide 
his plans to Sarsfiejd, the latter might have filled his 
place and saved the day for the Irish. 

214. Surrender of Galway and Sligo. Ginkel's sol- 
diers slept that night on the battlefield. A few days 
later, they reached Galway, which surrendered July 21, 
on very favorable terms. The garrison was permitted to 
withdraw, and the inhabitants left in enjoyment of all 
their rights. Sligo surrendered, and received the same 
treatment. The garrisons of these two towns, thus per- 
mitted to depart, went south to swell the defence of 

215. The second siege of Limerick. The war was 
now drawing to a close. Limerick was almost the only 
stronghold still in the hands of the Jacobites. Sarsfield 
was in command, as Tyrconnell had died during the 
autumn. Ginkel now turned his attention to this for- 




tress and appeared before the city with his army on 
August 30, 1 69 1, just a year after the first siege. Ginkel 
took the precaution to post vessels at various points 
along the river, to prevent the coming of supplies. He 
then placed his cannon and mortars in position, and 
began a bombardment which continued night and day 
without intermission, until the city was reduced almost 
to ashes. In order to reach the Clare side, Ginkel built 
a bridge of boats across the Shannon. Over 
this he sent a detachment, which repulsed the 
Irish and cut the cavalry off from the town. On Sep- 
tember 24, Limerick asked for a truce. 

216. End of the war. The winter months were ap- 
proaching, Ginkel's forces were exhausted, and William's 

Bridge of 


Showing the Thomond bridge, castle, and cathedral tower. It is interesting to compare 
this with the picture in Charles Il's time on page 205 

position in England was not as firm as might have been 
wished. It was clearly advisable to end the struggle, if 
possible, on reasonable terms. The Irish, on their side, 


realizing that they could not hold out much longer with- 
out help from abroad, which they had small prospect 
of receiving, also wished to end the war. Accordingly, 
on October 3, 1691, a treaty of peace was signed which 
brought the war to a close. Ginkel and the English 
lords justices signed for the English, while Sarsfield, 
now earl of Lucan, and others, represented the Irish. 

This treaty, known as the treaty of Limerick, was 
shortly after ratified by King William, and it was no 
fault of his that its terms were violated. No _ 


sooner had the Irish agreed to end the war, treaty 01 
than, contrary to all their expectations, a 
French fleet of twenty transports, with three thousand 
soldiers, two hundred officers, and ammunition for ten 
thousand men, sailed up the Shannon. Sarsfield hon- 
orably refused to receive them, and they returned to 

217. Terms of the treaty of Limerick. The treaty 
was in two parts, one referring to civil affairs, one to 
the army. It contained in all forty-two articles. The 
most important of the civil regulations referred to the 
Catholics and the estates of those who had fought for 
King James. The first article read : — 

"The Roman Catholics of this kingdom shall enjoy 
such privileges in the exercise of their religion as are 
consistent with the laws of Ireland, or as they Religious 
did enjoy in the reign of King Charles II ; and ln,ert y- 
their Majesties King William and Queen Mary (as soon 
as their affairs will permit them to summon a parliament 
in this kingdom) will endeavor to procure the said Roman 
Catholics such further security in that particular as may 
preserve them from any disturbance upon the account 
of their said religion." 

Furthermore, in the ninth article, "the oath to be ad- 

236 IRELAND'S STORY [1691 

ministered to such Roman Catholics as submit to their 
Majesties' government shall be the oath (of allegiance) 
aforesaid, and no other." 

It will be remembered that during the reign of Charles 
II the Catholics had enjoyed more freedom than at any 
period since the Reformation. By the treaty of Limer- 
ick, those who had fought as Jacobites were permitted 
to keep the property they owned under Charles II, and 
to follow their professions and occupations unhindered. 

The most important of the military articles provided 

that the garrison should be allowed to leave Limerick, 

_ and that all officers and soldiers should be free 

What be- 
came of the either to leave Ireland for some other country, 

on ships provided by the government, or to en- 
list in the armies of William and Mary. Only about a 
thousand soldiers joined the English army, while many 
thousands took service in foreign lands, distinguishing 
themselves and their country on foreign battlefields. 
(See section 332.) A great many, the famous Sarsfield 
among them, went to France, and died in the service 
of the French king. The war which was now ended 
had cost England immense sums, and had left Ireland 
devastated and poverty-stricken. 

King William was well disposed toward the people of 
Ireland, and was fully determined to keep the terms of 
More land tne treaty, but, like many other sovereigns, he 
grants. wa s tempted to reward his followers with grants 
of land. He made Ginkel earl of Athlone and gave him 
26,000 acres ; while to others he gave even larger es- 
tates. This revived the old contests, as he could not 
restore and bestow the land at the same time. 

218. The Parliament of 1692. Notwithstanding the 
provisions of the treaty of Limerick for toleration of 
Catholic worship, the next parliament, which was sum- 


moned by Lord Sydney on October 5, 1692, and which, 
with the exception of the Dublin Parliament summoned 
by James II, was the first since 1665, destroyed the 
hopes of the Catholics. It was strongly Protestant, and 
in spite of Sydney's opposition immediately passed an act 
framing an oath to declare the doctrines of the Catholic 
Church false. This was a direct violation of the ninth 
article of the treaty of Limerick, which only required 
the Catholics to take the oath of allegiance, and raised 
no question of doctrine. The few Catholics present 
rose and left both houses. This parliament also passed 
an act which may be said to mark the beginning of the 
long parliamentary struggle which we are approaching. 
It declared itself independent of the English Parliament, 
and, on the strength of that position, rejected a finan- 
cial bill from England, on the ground that it had not 
originated with the Commons of Ireland. The parlia- 
ment was dissolved in the following year, 1693. 

219. Third great confiscation. Now took place the 
third great confiscation of lands within the century. The 
first followed the Geraldine rebellion and the flight of 
the earls. (See section 152.) The second was in Crom- 
well's time. (See section 187.) The new distribution 
of territory left only one seventh cf the whole island in 
the possession of the Catholics, though they were three 
times as numerous as their Protestant neighbors. 


King William opened the attack on Limerick on August 9, 
1690, but after a long siege was forced to give up the attempt 
to take the town, which was defended most valiantly by Sars- 
field and the Irish. The king in disgust returned to England, 
leaving Ginkel in command. Cork and Kinsale surrendered 
to Ginkel. 

238 IRELAND'S STORY [1691 

In January, 1691, Saint Ruth arrived from France. Gin- 
kel attacked Athlone and, after a siege, took it, owing to the 
carelessness of the French commander. At the battle of 
Aughrim, July 12, 169 1, Saint Ruth was killed and the Irish, 
although they fought bravely, were defeated. The surrender 
of Galway followed. 

On August 30, 1 69 1, Ginkel began the second siege of 
Limerick. The city was still undefeated when the war was 
brought to an end by the treaty of Limerick, October 3, 169 1. 
The terms of this treaty provided for the security of the Cath- 
olics, requiring them to take only the oath of allegiance. Their 
estates were to remain intact. The Parliament of 1692 vio- 
lated the first of these conditions, and another great confisca- 
tion of land followed, making the fulfilment of the second 



English Sovereigns : 

William and Mary, 1688-1702 George II, 1727-1760 

Anne, 1 702-1 714 George III, 1 760-1 820 
George I, 1 714-1727 

220. Violation of the treaty of Limerick. The 

terms of the treaty of Limerick, had they been faithfully 
carried out, would have brought a measure of well-being 
to Ireland, and opened the way for steady improvement, 
toleration, and unity. Unfortunately, these fair prospects 
were not to be realized. On the contrary, Ireland now 
entered on a century of the worst oppression in her 
history. From 1691 to 1782 was a period of absolute 
dependence on the English Parliament. During this 
time, the settlers, or rather the Anglican minority, a 
party comprising barely one third of the Protestants 
in the kingdom, and not more than one eleventh of the 
whole population, were dominant in the country, and 
directed the course of the Irish Parliament, which be- 
came nothing more than the instrument of ^ 


the Parliament of England. So long as the of the Irish 
wishes of the latter were carried out abso- 
lutely, the Irish body was permitted to retain its nomi- 
nal power. The Catholics were completely disheartened. 
Their strongest leaders were on the continent, fighting 
under foreign standards. At home, no Catholic could 

240 IRELAND'S STORY [1693 

sit in parliament, hold any office, or have any voice in the 
Absolute government. They were utterly crushed, and 
o?tne Cti ° n sou g nt only to escape further injury. Added 
catholics, to all this came the violation of the treaty of 
Limerick by the adoption of the penal laws, which re- 
mained in force for about three quarters of a century. 
These laws were as much the work of the Irish Angli- 
can party as of the English Parliament, if not more. 
The laws, which were rapidly made, were slowly re- 
pealed, as we shall see, and not until 1829 did the Act 
of Emancipation finally secure unconditional freedom 
for the long-suffering Catholics. 

There is much to be told before we finally reach that 
act, however. We cannot here go into the details of 
each separate act as it was passed. We shall simply give 
an outline of the Penal Code at its worst, as it was dur- 
ing the reigns of the early Georges, when, at the close 
of each session of the Irish Parliament, a resolution was 
passed that " it was the indispensable duty of all magis- 
trates and officers to put the laws made to prevent the 
growth of popery in Ireland in due execution." 

In 1693, after Sydney had dissolved his parliament, 
he was summoned back to England, and a new lord 
Sydney lieutenant was appointed, who was willing to 
recalled. promise that the treaty of Limerick should be 
ignored. The Protestants hoped that he would permit 
no acts to be passed which might prevent their retain- 
ing the lands they had received through confiscation. 

221. Penal laws of 1695-97. The first real mischief 
was done by the Parliament of 1695, which ignored the 
more important articles of the treaty of Limerick, and 
only confirmed the minor articles after modifying them 
in such a manner as to lessen the security of the Cath- 
olics. It then passed the following penal laws : — 

1698] THE PENAL LAWS 24 1 

Catholics were strictly forbidden to teach either in pri- 
vate or in public, and Catholic parents were not allowed 
to send their children out of Ireland to be educated. 
This meant absolute lack of education for Catholics. 

The Catholics whose lands had been restored to them 
by the treaty of Limerick were again deprived of them 
by parliament, which gave the estates to Protestants. 

No Catholic was permitted to own or carry firearms, and 
the government officials were authorized to break into any 
house where they suspected that arms were hidden. 

No Catholic could remain secure in the possession of 
a valuable horse ; any Protestant could become its owner, 
on paying the small sum of five pounds. 

Catholic priests in charge of parishes were not to be 
removed, provided they registered their names, and gave 
promises of good behavior. They were then allowed to 
celebrate mass, but might not have the assistance of a 
curate. About a thousand were allowed to enter their 
names. All the remaining servants of the 

. Severity 

Catholic Church, whether bishops, regular toward the 
clergy, Jesuits, friars, monks, or members of press- 
one of the preaching orders, were ordered to leave the 
country before May 1, 1698, under penalty of death if 
they returned. Thus it was proposed to wipe out the 
entire body of Catholic teachers, as, in the absence of 
bishops, no further priests could be ordained. Need- 
less to say, only a few obeyed the decree. The rest 
remained, as outlaws, it is true, but venerated and cher- 
ished by the people, whose faith and courage they pre- 
served, though in daily danger of discovery and death. 

Many other vexatious laws were passed, as, for exam- 
ple, one which required Catholics to tear down the 
steeples and belfries of their churches ; and others, con- 
ceived in the same spirit. 




222. English Parliament passes laws for Ireland. 
The English Parliament now proceeded to interfere in 
the making of laws for Ireland. It passed an act substi- 
tuting other oaths for the oath of supremacy, with the 
effect that Catholics were excluded from both houses of 
parliament. The acts of the parliament which James II 
had assembled at Dublin (see section 199) were annulled. 
Through the influence of the Irish Parliament, William 
was prevailed on to sanction a new destruction of the 

wool manufacture, 
and laws were passed 
to encourage the 
growth of hemp and 
flax in place of wool. 
In 1698, such high 
duties were placed on 
exported wool as to 
completely stop its 
exportation. Any 
one accused of evad- 
ing this law was sub- 
ject to trial in Eng- 
land, by a foreign 
jury, though this was 
absolutely contrary 
to the spirit of the 
English constitution. 
223. Penal Codes 
of 1703 and 1704. 
The Catholics bowed 
their heads in submission to these outrages, for they 
were too weak and disheartened to resist. Still, the 
Anglican party was not satisfied, and in 1704, when 
Ormond, grandson of the Ormond of Confederation days 


1704] THE PENAL LAWS 243 

(see section 170), came over as lord lieutenant, the 
House of Commons at Dublin immediately petitioned 
him to extend the Penal Code. A supply of ;£ 150,000 
was voted to cover the expenses of that and the follow- 
ing year, and a list of grievances drawn up by 
the new parliament to present to Queen Anne, grievances 
who, in 1702, had succeeded her brother-in-law lgnored - 
William on the English throne. Among these griev- 
ances were the interference of the English legislature, 
restrictions on trade, the infrequent meetings of parlia- 
ment, and other similar complaints. 

The English government paid no attention to this 
appeal. Instead, the chief results of the session were the 
following new provisions against Catholics : — 

The eldest son of a Catholic land-owner, if he de- 
clared himself a Protestant, could straightway Family 
oust his father and take possession of his land. ca*houcs° 
The father became a mere life tenant, with no strictl y 


rights of ownership. 

If a Catholic child professed to be a Protestant, the 
law required the father to surrender the child to a Pro- 
testant guardian, who was to bring him up at the father's 

If the wife of a Catholic became a Protestant, she 
could claim separate support, and a third of her hus- 
band's property. 

No Catholic could be legal guardian of a child, so that, 
when a Catholic died, he could only appoint a Protestant 
guardian for his children. 

No Catholic could buy land or lease it for a longer 
period than thirty-one years ; nor could he re- catholic 
ceive an estate under a will. A Catholic farmer ^ers 
was not permitted to make a profit on his farm oppressed, 
greater than one third of the rent. A Protestant who 

244 IRELAND'S STORY [1704 

proved that a greater profit was being made could seize 
the land in question. All this was done to put obsta- 
cles in the way of Catholics owning any land whatever. 

224. The Test Act. Of course it has not been for- 
gotten that no Catholic could sit in parliament. As for 
the native Irish, they were considered so far outside and 
beneath the law that there was no need to oppress them 
legally. After 1704, no Catholic was permitted to vote 
at an election for a member of parliament, unless he 
took the oath declaring that the Catholic doctrines were 
false. He could hold no civil or military office without 
taking the same oath, and supplementing it by the 
" sacramental test," that is, receiving the Sacrament on 
Enforced Sunday in some Protestant place of worship, 
Htanora- according to the rites of the Anglican Church, 
lormists. This act, which was known as the Test Act, 
was enforced not only in the case of Catholics, but also 
of all Nonconformists, that is, Protestants who did not 
conform to the Church of England. This bill was an 
utter violation of the terms of the treaty of Limerick. 

225. The Schism Act. The Schism Act, which was 
passed in 1714, the last year of Queen Anne's reign, 
provided that only those who had received a license 
from a bishop of the Church of England could teach a 
school. Nor could any one secure this license without 
submitting to the sacramental test. 

226. A third instalment of penal laws. A third 
series of penal restrictions was imposed in the second 
year of George IPs reign, 1728. Under these, the 
Catholics Catholics were completely disfranchised, losing 
SlSrmn- every right to vote. No Catholic might move 
cnised. i n to the cities of Limerick and Galway, the two 
last strongholds of the old race. Any one discovering a 
bishop or a Jesuit unregistered, or a schoolmaster whose 

1728] THE PENAL LAWS 245 

name was not in the government books, could report 
such a person, and receive a reward, which the Catho- 
lics were forced to pay. The "sport of priest-hunting" 
became very popular with the dregs of the population, 
Portuguese Jews being employed as trackers. 

227. Enforcement of the Penal Code. There were 
certainly sufficiently severe provisions in these penal 
laws to destroy Irish Catholics and Catholicism together, 
had they been rigidly carried out. This was, however, 
impossible, since the party which upheld them was a 
very small minority, though armed with the full powers 
of the civil law. It should be said, also, that Not always 
the bulk of the Protestants protested against strlct 
these laws, and did much, in a quiet way, to lighten 
them for their oppressed Catholic fellow-countrymen, 
protecting their property and children from the injustice 
of the officials. This was in part due to the fact that 
Protestant Nonconformists were also under the ban of 
the law, but in larger part to the inherent kindness of 
human nature. 

But there were periods of awful severity and oppres- 
sion, especially just after the passing of a new restrictive 

act, when for a time the Penal Code was car- _ 

Spread of 

ried out to the letter. The worst suffering was Catnoii- 


endured during Queen Anne's reign, and again 
under George II, and yet, in spite of it all, we find the 
Irish Parliament complaining to England of the con- 
tinued growth of Irish Catholicism. Ulster 
Tk 1 • i 1 XT r 1 Emigration. 

Presbyterians and other Nonconformists who 

also suffered under the Test and Schism Acts emigrated 
by thousands to America. 

In considering this legislation, it must be borne in 
mind that a similar state of affairs existed in other lands 
at the same time. Only in Ireland, however, did a small 

246 IRELAND'S STORY [1728 

minority try to suppress the religion of a whole nation, 
conditions on wnose confiscated lands they lived, and 
in Ireland whose revenues they enjoyed. What stamps 

compared . . . 

with other the Irish penal laws as particularly infamous 
coun es. -^ t ^ a t they represented not only religious 
bigotry, oppression, and cruelty, but also a broken pro- 
mise, a violation of the solemn pledges of the treaty of 
Limerick, under whose provisions the Irish leaders had 
consented to end the war, and had dismissed the army of 
relief which had already reached Limerick from Catholic 

228. Manufactures and trade prosperous. The only 
occupations left open to the Catholics by the penal laws 
were commerce and trade. The large seaports and 
towns had been gradually filled with energetic mer- 
chants, mostly Protestants, who, in spite of the wars 
and other disturbances, were building up large factories 
Jealousy oi an< ^ other business enterprises. The English 
England. began to fear successful rivalry, with the re- 
sult that repressive laws were directed against trade 
and commerce, injuring all Irishmen alike, of whatever 
race and creed, and ruining the only activity left to the 

These laws were passed in the same period which saw 

the growth of the penal laws. They were particularly 

the work of the Parliament of England, and 

Severe m , 

trade laws are thus distinguished from the penal laws, 
passe . t ^ e chief responsibility for which must be borne 
by the Anglican Church in Ireland. The Irish Protest- 
ants suffered more than the Catholics under the trade 
laws, as they were more largely engaged in commerce. 

229. Parliament prohibits exportation. Ireland 
had always exported a great variety of products, such as 
cattle, sheep, pork, beef, mutton, cheese, and butter, her 

R02 m 

Its I 

248 IRELAND'S STORY [1663 

chief markets being England and the English colonies in 
America. After 1663, the English Parliament began to 
pass a series of acts prohibiting trade relations between 
Ireland and all external ports, with the exception of a 
very few cities in England, so that this large trade, which 
Poverty nac * Deen the means of subsistence of masses 
results. f the people, was deliberately killed. It is 
easy to conceive the misery which was thus spread, first 
through the ports which sent forth these articles of trade, 
and then to all the farms of the land, which sent their 
produce to the ports. 

230. Destruction of the wool trade. Ireland's 
best single commodity was wool, the trade in which was 
wholly in the hands of Protestant colonists. Irish wool 
was famed all over Europe, finding a large market, and 
bringing high prices. In the reign of Charles I, Went- 
worth had done his best to destroy this trade (see sec- 
tion 162), but it had again struggled to life and vigor. 
Now the English merchants demanded its complete de- 
struction, on the ground that it was ruining the wool trade 
of England. The result was that, in 169Q, the cowardly 
Irish Parliament obeyed orders from England to put an 
exorbitant export duty on wool, which was followed by 
an act prohibiting the export of wool or woollen goods 
from Ireland to any part of the world, outside a few 
English ports, where the English merchants could buy 
them cheap, and sell them dear, as English products. 

Forty thousand people were thus thrown out 
misery ana of employment. There was nothing for them 

emigration. , . . , ~ 

to do but starve or leave the country. Great 
numbers of them, especially Presbyterians and Noncon- 
formists, found their way to New England. 

231. Growth of smuggling. Smuggling was natu- 
rally resorted to, as a means of evading the unjust re- 

1728] THE PENAL LAWS 249 

strictions on trade. All classes were involved in it, and 
the authorities were powerless to prevent it. The mer- 
chants carried their cloth to France, and returned with 
brandy, wine, silks, and other foreign commodities. These 
smuggled goods were landed in the sheltered coves and 
inlets of the southern coast, well out of sight of the 
customs officials. Many Catholic youths went with the 
outgoing ships, eager to seek their fortunes as soldiers 
or citizens in foreign lands. 

232. Ruin of the minor trades. Not satisfied with 
the destruction of the wool trade, the English Parliament 
also passed laws to restrict the manufacture and sale of 
such products as beer, malt, gunpowder, hats, sail-cloth, 
and ironware. Money was debased till there was no 
longer silver enough in the country to meet the most 
pressing needs of trade ; and workmen were often com- 
pelled in consequence to take their wages in the goods 
which they were manufacturing, and could only sell 
at a great loss. The scandal of "copper halfpence" 
we shall have occasion to speak of later on, in connection 
with Dean Swift. (See section 240.) The poverty 
and misery caused by the destruction of all these trades 
brought famine and pestilence in their wake. p an i nea nd 
During the eighteenth century, the peasantry pestilence, 
of Ireland, the most wretched in all Europe, were re- 
duced to a state of misery from which they have not 
fully recovered to-day. The industries were so com- 
pletely ruined that, in many cases, they could not be 

233. Rent and tithe grievances. Another evil of the 
times was the treatment the peasantry received "Middie- 
at the hands of the "middlemen." These men "" 
middlemen took tracts of land from the landlords who 
preferred to remain in Engand, and then sublet them to 

250 IRELAND'S STORY [1750 

farmers and small settlers, at very high prices, which 
"Rack- were called " rack-rents," meaning rents which 
rents." rack or torture. Sometimes there were several 
middlemen, between the landlord and the cultivator, each 
seeking a profit from the miserable peasant. 

Besides this, tithes had to be paid to the Anglican 

clergy, who collected them rigorously. The richer class 

often managed to evade them, so that they fell 


almost wholly on the peasants. The poor man 
always had a band of robbers around him, ready to snatch 
even the clothes off his back. Protestants and Catho- 
lics suffered equally. 

Toward the middle of the century, there was a gen- 
eral movement among the landlords to take up all the 
land which had formerly been cultivated, and turn it into 
cattle and sheep pastures, thus driving out the farmers 
and their families. They also began to inclose for their 
own private use the large tracts of land which had for- 
merly been common pasture ground. They further ex- 
acted excessive rents for waste tracts and bogs, on which 
the peasants who were too poor to rent fertile lands had 
taken refuge. 

234. Peasant grievances enumerated, 1762. The 
special misfortunes of the Irish peasant in the middle of 
the eighteenth century have been graphically enumerated 
as follows : — 

He was rack-rented by the landlord ; 

He was persecuted by the tithe-farmer ; 

He was obliged to work on Catholic holidays, or pay 
a fine of two shillings ; 

He was forbidden sports on Sunday, on penalty of a 
shilling fine, or two hours in the stocks ; 

He was whipped and fined, if found with a switch cut 
from his own tree ; 

1762] THE PENAL LAWS 25 I 

"He was liable to night visitation by the police in search 
of arms ; 

Public whippings were always inflicted on market- 
days, when the victim was tied to a cart-tail, and dragged 
through the streets, receiving blows of the lash as he 

235. Secret societies. The peasants began to form 
secret societies, in hope of righting their wrongs. One 
of the most widespread, the " Whiteboys," was « Whlt0 _ 
organized in the south of Ireland, in 1762. It b °y s -" 
received its name from the fact that the men wore white 
shirts over their coats, for mutual recognition, when 
they went out at night, just as did the French secret 
society called "Camisards." Their raids were most fre- 
quent in Waterford, Cork, and Limerick, and were di- 
rected against individuals ; among their number were 
men of all churches, as all had grievances in common. 
They began by pulling down the fences illegally built 
around commons, from which they got the name of " lev- 
ellers " ; and digging up arable lands which had been 
forcibly turned into pastures. But they soon began to 
commit further acts of violence, so that a large force of 
soldiers was sent out to suppress them. 

Similar Protestant societies sprang up in Ulster, nota- 
bly two, called " Hearts of Oak," from the oak » Hearts 
leaves which they wore in their hats, and °fOak." 
" Hearts of Steel," to indicate their unbending resolution. 
These societies began with the resolve to seek general 
reforms, without . resorting to violence or plundering. 
But in almost every case they contained members of 
bad character, who indulged in such acts of lawlessness 
that soldiers were called out to suppress them. 

252 IRELAND'S STORY [1762 


During the years 1691-1782, Ireland suffered under an 
increasing number of tyrannous laws, which not only abso- 
lutely destroyed her religious freedom, but completely ruined 
her trade and commerce. Although the English Parliament 
was in the main responsible for this persecution, a great part 
of the blame may be laid on the Protestant Parliament of 
Ireland. There were three large instalments of the penal 
laws : those of 1695-97, those of 1703-04, which included 
the " Test Act," and those of 1728, when the Catholics were 
completely disfranchised. In 1698, the wool trade was com- 
pletely destroyed and all exportation of wool was prohibited. 
This was followed by the destruction of many minor trades. 
Middlemen and their "rack-rents" ruined the poor farmer. 
To oppose this unjust persecution, the peasants formed secret 
societies, such as the " Whiteboys," but nothing permanent 
was effected by them, owing to their lack of law and disci- 





English Sovereigns: 

William and Mary, 1688-1702 George II, 1727-1760 
Anne, 1702-17 14 George III, 1760-1820 

George I, 1714-1727 

236. The Irish Parliament in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. In the last chapter we traced the development of 
the penal laws and trade laws during the eighteenth 
century. We shall now consider especially the pro- 
gress of legislative affairs, and the status of the Parlia- 
ment at Dublin during those same years. It must be 
borne in mind that with this side of Irish life only the 
Protestant minority was concerned, the penal laws ex- 
cluding the Catholics from political activity. Entlrely 
It was the Protestant parliamentary party, seek- Protestant, 
ing liberty for Protestants only, which carried on the 
constitutional struggle against England. 

In the Dublin Parliament, opinion was divided. The 
majority, known as the Court party, was com- C(rart 
posed either entirely of Englishmen or of Irish- v***?- 
men who were strongly in sympathy with the English. 
From the highest government official down to the lowest, 
all favored an increase of English influence, and were 
prepared to employ corruption, bribery, unearned pen- 
sions, and similar means to secure a sufficient body of 

254 IRELAND'S STORY [1698 

faithful followers to carry out the wishes of the English 
Council. The other parliamentary party, known as the 
Patriotic Patriotic party, was composed of the small mi- 
party, nority of thoughtful Irish Protestants imbued 
with a feeling of patriotism, which grew stronger as time 
went on. They realized the injustices which their coun- 
try suffered at the hands of England, and especially 
those which, like the restrictions on trade, particularly 
affected themselves. They, therefore, had two main 
objects : first, to remove these restrictions, and, second, 
to make the Irish Parliament independent of the Eng- 
lish, in order that like restrictions might not be imposed 
in future. This party counted among its members such 
men as Molyneux and Grattan in parliament, and such 
champions as Swift and Lucas without. We shall now 
follow the course of the struggle between these two par- 
ties, the Court and the Patriotic party. 

237. Molyneux' book. As early as 1698, William 
Molyneux, member of parliament for Dublin University, 
published a book, " The Case of Ireland's Being Bound 
by Acts of Parliament in England Stated," in which he 
strongly condemned commercial injustice and the au- 
thority of the English Parliament in Ireland. This book 
was censured by the English House of Commons, burned 
by the common hangman, and followed by the most ruin- 
ous of all restrictions, that which destroyed the wool 
trade, as already described. (See section 230.) 

238. The Annesley case. In 17 19, a dispute arose 
over the Annesley estate, which ended disastrously for 
the Irish Parliament. This notable lawsuit was decided 
in favor of Annesley by the Dublin Court of Exchequer. 
His opponent appealed to the Irish House of Lords, 
which reversed the decision. Annesley now appealed 
to the English House of Lords, which confirmed the first 


decision, ordered the estate to be restored to Annesley, 
and fined the sheriff of Kildare because he had refused 
to put Annesley in possession of his rights. The sheriff 
stated his case, in a petition to the Irish House of Lords, 
which annulled the fine, on the ground that appeal to 
England was illegal, and even went so far as to arrest the 
three barons of the Court of Exchequer, who had given 
judgment in favor of Annesley. In reply, the English 
parliament passed an Act (known as the Sixth of George 
I) affirming the right of the English Parliament to pass 
laws for Ireland, and depriving the Irish House complete 
of Lords of the right to hear appeals. Poyn- SwchPar- 
ings' Law (see section 123) had gone far, but uament. 
this last Act was final. The legislative independence of 
the Irish Parliament was gone, and its authority was a 
mere name. 

239. Jonathan Swift. The party of the Patriots now 
had at its head Jonathan Swift, the famous writer and 
Dean of Saint Patrick's in Dublin, who has left Leader 

us full accounts of the distress of the times in jLJJJLj. 
his writings. In one of his essays, published in p^- 
1720, he urged the people of Ireland to retaliate on 
England, with the result that he was accused of trying 
to bring the Pretender to Ireland to lead a new Jacobite 
rebellion. He exhorted the Irish to oppose the trade 
restrictions by refusing to buy furniture and clothes 
made in England. An attempt was made to arrest and 
punish him, but it failed. 

240. Wood's halfpence. Swift won his greatest 
fame, however, by his action in the case of " Wood's 
halfpence." Copper money was very scarce in Ireland, 
and there was need for small coin, to the amount of 
about ;£ 1 5,000. Without consulting the Irish in any 
way, the king in 1723 granted to the Duchess of Kendal 

256 IRELAND'S STORY [1723 

a patent for coining ,£108,000 in base metal half-pence 
and farthings. This patent was sold to an English iron- 
merchant named Wood, who looked forward to making 
a large profit from the transaction. Swift and others re- 
garded this as an extreme injustice, and the former wrote 


very bitterly against it. Frequent appeals were made 
to the king to revoke the patent, but without success. 
Finally, Swift won the day by writing and publishing 
five letters, signed W. B. Drapier, explaining in simple 
"Drapier language, which could be understood even by 
Letters." the peasantry, all the harm which would result 
from such a system. The coins were of such base metal 
that twenty-four of them did not contain enough copper 
to make one good penny. These letters increased the 


excitement, which was already great ; and a reward of 
three hundred pounds was offered to any one who be- 
trayed the name of the author. No information, how- 
ever, was forthcoming, and so great was the popular 
outcry that the patent was withdrawn. This may be 
reckoned the first victory for the Patriotic party, and 
Swift became the popular hero with Protestants and 
Catholics alike. 

241. Famine and emigration. In 1727, George I was 
succeeded by his son. Sir Robert Walpole was prime 
minister in England, while Ireland, from 1724 to 1742 
was governed principally under the direction of Boulter, 
the Anglican archbishop of Dublin, who increased the 
influence of England by restricting still further the ex- 
tremely slight influence of Catholics in elections. (See 
section 224.) During 1728-29, Ireland suffered from 
a failure of crops which amounted to a famine, and re- 
sulted in a great tide of emigration to America. During 
the next few years, larger numbers than ever left the 
country, owing to restrictions of trade and commerce, 
and the injustice of exorbitant rents. (See section 233.) 

242. Chesterfield's administration. In 1745, the 
Earl of Chesterfield was appointed lord lieutenant. He 
was a man of high principle, and he accepted the posi- 
tion only on condition that he should be free from all 
restraint. He began by endeavoring to remove some 
of the worst grievances of the Catholics. He enrolled 
Irish soldiers to fight in the service of England, and 
encouraged the formation of bodies of volunteers, who 
were equipped and maintained at their own expense. 
He refused to buy votes. When he had a surplus, he 
used it in such useful works as the improvement of 
Cork harbor, instead of diverting it for personal pur- 
poses. But his useful administration was cut short by 

2 5 8 



his recall, and his successors soon undid most of the 
good he had accomplished. 

243. Charles Lucas. Charles Lucas, a druggist, who 
had come to Dublin from Cork, was a member of the 
Dublin Common Council. He began a campaign to re- 
cover the lost rights of that body, and wrote vigorously 
on its behalf. He then passed to the lost rights of the 
Irish Parliament, and at the same time became a parlia- 
mentary candidate for the city of Dublin. His writings 
caused intense popular excitement, but the Irish Parlia- 
ment, largely in the hands of partisans of England, had 
no desire to recover its lost rights, and attacked its own 
defender. Lucas was compelled to leave the country, 
but returned at a later date, and was elected to parlia- 
ment, where he continued to 
uphold the rights of Ireland. 

244. Formation of the 
"Catholic Committee." Ever 
since the treaty of Limerick, 
1691, the Catholics had been 
absolutely passive. Now they 
began to assert themselves, 
very timidly at first, under the 
leadership of Dr. Curry, a 
Dublin physician and historian 
of the Irish civil wars, Charles 
O'Connor, a distinguished an- 
tiquarian, and Mr. Wyse of 
Waterford. These men en- 
deavored to arouse the Catholic 
aristocracy and clergy, but both classes were too cowed 
to respond. Success attended their efforts, however, 
among the business communities of the larger cities, 
and they ended by forming the " Catholic Committee," 




in 1757, to take charge of Catholic interests. Meetings 
of this body were held in Dublin, and it became the 
nucleus of the movement 
which later grew to such 
formidable proportions un- 
der Daniel O'Connell. 

245. Flood and Grat- 
tan. Bribery and corrup- 
tion steadily increased 
within the circle of the 
Dublin government. The 
practice of illegal pen- 
sioning was courageously 
attacked by the patriot 
Henry Flood (1732-1791), 
who was seconded by the 
young, and later famous, 
Henry Grattan, one of the 
most eloquent orators and 
greatest patriots Ireland has ever known. Grattan was 
born in Dublin, 1746, entered parliament at the age of 
twenty-nine, and to the day of his death, in 1820, cham- 
pioned the Irish cause. 

246. The Octennial Bill. In England, parliament 
could only sit for seven years, when a new election must 
beheld. In Ireland, each parliament sat until dissolved 
by the king, which might be a period of thirty years, as 
happened during the reign of George II. In this way 
a party subservient to the English government could 
be kept in power indefinitely. Several bills to limit 
the duration of parliament to seven years had Limltspar . 
been submitted by the Patriots to the English liamentto 
Council with no result. In 1767, chiefly owing 

to the efforts of Charles Lucas, the Patriots amid great 

From a miniature painting 

2<5o IRELAND'S STORY [1767 

rejoicing succeeded in getting the Octennial Bill passed, 
which limited the Irish Parliament to eight years. 

247. Townshend and the parliament. The new par- 
liament called in 1767 was as corrupt as the old, and as 
subservient to the lord lieutenant, Lord Townshend, in 
D1 t all but one particular. It refused to pass bills 
over money granting money, unless these bills originated 
in Ireland. In 1769, such a bill was returned 
from England, where it had been sent by the Dublin 
Council, and was rejected by the Irish Parliament. 
Townshend refrained from active opposition, until he had 
the usual money supplies voted by the parliament. He 
then summoned the Irish Commons before the bar of 
the House of Lords, and read them a lecture as if they 
had been a class of disobedient schoolboys. He followed 
this by proroguing parliament for fourteen months. The 
Commons showed their independence, however, by refus- 
ing to enter the reproof of the lord lieutenant on the 
records of their House, an act which gave new courage 
and resolution to the Patriotic party. 

Townshend was forced to resign, in 1772, unable to 
withstand the incessant attacks published against him 
Townshend m Dublin. Although he was one of the most 
resigns. unscrupulous governors Ireland ever had, his 
administration did more to strengthen the Patriotic party 
than anything else. It was during his administration 
that the movement was begun in Ulster, which resulted 
in the formation of the secret societies " Hearts of Steel " 
and " Hearts of Oak " (see section 235) ; and an Act was 
finally passed by him which allowed a Catholic to obtain 
a long lease of fifty acres of bog, which must be at least 
four feet deep and a mile distant from any market town. 
The tenant was expected to reclaim this bog at his own 
expense, and, if it was too marshy to build on, he might 


also lease half an acre of dry ground for his house. This 
represents the limit of privilege granted to Catholics at 
this time. 

248. England and her American colonies. But before 
long, some slight relief was to come from an unexpected 
quarter. In 1775, war broke out between England and 
her American colonies, which had an immediate T h e E m . 
effect on Irish trade. England passed the Em- bargoAct. 
bargo Act, which forbade the exportation of salt meat and 

other provisions from ^ 

Ireland, in order to 
prevent supplies from 
reaching the Ameri- 
cans, and to cheapen 
food for the English 
army. This measure 
deprived Ireland of one 
of her best markets. 

The Irish Protest- 
ants sympathized with 
the American colo- 
nists who were fight- 
ing for the very points 
at issue in Ireland : 
freedom of trade, and 
"no taxation without 

representation." One of the greatest of Irishmen, Ed- 
mund Burke, came forward as the champion of Edmund 
the American colonists in the English Parlia- Burke - 
ment. His "Speech on Conciliation with America" is 
a lasting treasure of the literature of the world. Mean- 
while, the tide of fortune went against the English ar- 
mies in America. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 
and France declared for the independence of the United 


262 IRELAND'S STORY [1775 

States. England began to consider the necessity of con- 
ciliating Ireland, in order to strengthen herself against 

249. Slight concession to Catholics. The first con- 
cession was made to the Irish Catholics. The penal 
some of the laws > althou g h they had fallen into compara- 

penaiiaws tive disuse, could be, and were revived on occa- 

sion. In spite of considerable opposition, Luke 

Gardiner, afterwards Lord Mountjoy, presented a bill to 
the Irish Parliament in 1778, which repealed certain sec- 
tions of the penal laws : namely, those which prohibited 
the purchase of property by Irish Catholics ; which gave 
the entire estate of an Irish Catholic to his son, if the 
latter became a Protestant ; and which compelled a father 
to provide for the education of his son who became a 
Embargo Protestant. Catholics were to be allowed to 
repealed. lease land for 999 years, almost equivalent to 
purchase, and the Test Act was abolished. (See section 
224.) The embargo on the export of provisions was 
also removed. 

250. The Volunteers. George III had withdrawn 
so many Irish troops to fight for him in America that 

the island was almost defenceless, and liable to 


liable to invasion from France or Spain, or at least to 
serious attack from privateers like Paul Jones, 
in the service of the United States. Toward the close 
of 1778, some of the people of Belfast, realizing the situa- 
tion, began a movement to enroll volunteers. The 
richer landlords armed and drilled their tenants at their 
own expense. This example was followed in Down and 
Antrim, so that by May, 1779, four thousand volunteers 
came forward to take the place of the departed garri- 
sons. The authorities looked askance at this citizen 
army which they had had no hand in raising, and regarded 


it as a future menace, but they could do nothing to pre- 
vent it. Before the end of the year, the Volunteers 
numbered forty-two thousand, a formidable force under 
the leadership of such men as James Caulfield, earl of 
Charlemont, and Fitzgerald, duke of Leinster. Two 
things should be noticed : first, that the Volunteers were 
drawn from the class which suffered most under the 
trade laws, and who, while maintaining their allegiance 
to England, were Irish Patriots in sympathies ; and, 
secondly, that they included no Catholics at this time, 
though many joined later. 

251. Parliament and the Volunteers. The parlia- 
ment convened in October, 1779, had to face the Pa- 
triotic party supported by this formidable army. The 
famous Henry Grattan came to the front as leader of 
this party. As usual, the session of parliament was 
opened by the reading of the king's speech. Parliament 
replied in an Address to the king. Grattan made a 
motion to add to the Address the following words : " We 
beg leave, however, humbly to represent to your Majesty 
that it is not by temporary expedients, but by 

free trade alone, that this nation is to be saved amend- 
from impending ruin." Flood, Hutchinson, 
Ponsonby, and Gardiner, all holding government offices, 
supported him. Dublin was in a state of great excitement, 
and the Address to the throne, thus amended, was tri- 
umphantly carried through streets lined with Volunteers, 
from the House of Parliament to the Castle, to be signed 
by the lord lieutenant. 

252. Removal of trade restrictions. The action of 
the Irish Parliament and the Volunteers caused Lord 
North, the prime minister of England, to introduce three 
proposals in the English House of Commons, which pro- 
vided for the restoration of free trade to Ireland, Novem- 

264 IRELAND'S STORY [1779 

ber, 1779. The first was, to remit the export duty on 
Irish wool and woollen goods ; the second provided for 
the free export of Irish glassware; the third permitted 
free trade between Ireland and the British colonies in 
America, the West Indies, and Africa, subject to cer- 
tain restrictions to be imposed by the Irish Parliament. 
These three proposals became law without opposition. 

253. Volunteers demand legislative independence. 
The American war had done much for Ireland, but there 
was much still to be done. The Patriotic party took a 
firmer stand, and determined to free their parliament 

from such laws as Poynings' (see section 123), 

resoiu- and the Sixth of George I. (See section 238.) 

On April 19, 1780, Grattan made a famous 

speech in parliament in which he moved the following 

resolutions : — 

That no power on earth, save the King, Lords, and 
Commons of Ireland, had the right to make laws for 
Ireland ; 

That Great Britain and Ireland are inseparably united 
under one sovereign. 

A very exciting debate followed, but a vote was not 
then taken, as Grattan did not consider the time favorable. 

In return for the removal of trade restrictions, the 
House of Commons voted supplies for eighteen months 
longer, allowing increased taxation to be raised in Ire- 
land to the amount of ,£150,000 a year. 

254. The Mutiny Bill. The next dispute arose the 
same year over the Mutiny Bill, which provided for the 
support of the army. This Bill was passed by the Irish 
parliament as a temporary measure, and so sent to Eng- 
land, where the English Parliament changed it to a per- 
petual provision, and returned it to Ireland. Such an 
arrangement put a great deal of power in the king's 

1 782] 



hands, by supplying him with a standing army, and it 
was hotly opposed by the Irish Patriots. Nevertheless, 
by a series of renewed bribes, such as peerages, pen- 
sions, and promotions, the authorities succeeded Made 
in having the bill passed by the Irish Parlia- perpetual, 
ment as perpetual. The English failed to see that this 
only added to the growing discontent and excitement in 
Ireland, which were increased by the successful revolu- 
tion in America and the encouragement received from 
France. The Patriots were strongly in favor of com- 
plete legislative independence. The ranks of the Volun- 
teers daily increased, so that they now numbered a hun- 
dred thousand. Flood resigned from office to support 
the cause of the Patriots, and brilliant and influential 
men, like Hutchinson, Fitzgibbon, Burgh, and Yelverton, 
led the popular cause. It should be remembered that 
the Patriotic party expressed entire loyalty to the king. 
When the news of the defeat of Cornwallis reached 
Ireland, Yelverton withdrew a motion in favor of legisla- 
tive independence, in order to make way for a vote of 
loyalty to the king. 

255. Volunteer convention at Dungannon. In 
spite of their grow- 
ing strength, the 
ranks of the Pa- 
triots were under- 
mined by perpet- 
ual bribery and 
the distribution 
of titles, which 
brought their 
weaker members 

Over to the gov- PRESBYTERIAN meeting-house at dungannon 
emment Side, and Where the Volunteers met in February, 1782 

266 IRELAND'S STORY [1782 

diminished their numbers in parliament. Grattan deter- 
mined to take a new step. On February 15, 1782, a 
convention of two hundred and forty-two delegates from 
the Ulster Volunteers met at Dungannon, the old home 
of Hugh O'Neill, to deliberate on political conditions. 
Grattan, Flood, and Lord Charlemont were in charge of 
the proceedings. They passed thirteen resolutions, of 
which the following were the most important : — 

That the King, Lords, and Commons of Ireland alone 
itsresoiu- nac ^ the right to legislate for the country ; 
tions. That Poynings' Law was unconstitutional, 

and should be repealed ; 

That the ports of Ireland should be opened to all na- 
tions not at war with the king ; 

That the permanent Mutiny Bill was unconstitutional ; 

That "as men and Irishmen, as Christians and Pro- 
testants, we rejoice in the relaxation of the penal laws 
against our Roman Catholic fellow-subjects ; and we 
conceive the measure to be fraught with the happiest 
consequences to the union, and prosperity to the inhab- 
itants of Ireland." 

The last measure was ardently supported by Grattan 
and three Protestant clergymen who were delegates to 
the convention. No Catholic took part in the proceedings. 

256. Further repeal of the penal laws. The same 
day, February 1 5, Luke Gardiner introduced further mea- 
sures in parliament for the relief of the Catholics. The 
laws against buying and selling land were modified. The 
acts forbidding the celebration of mass, ordering the regis- 
tration of priests, and regulating the residence of bishops 
were repealed, and Catholics were permitted to live in 
the two great Gaelic centres, Limerick and Galway. 
Catholic schoolmasters could teach, and Catholics could 
be guardians of children. They were no longer presumed 


to be guilty of all robberies commited in the country. 
The ridiculous and unjust law providing that no Catho- 
lic might own a horse worth more than five pounds was 
also repealed. 

257. The Act of Repeal, May 27, 1782. 
At the next meeting of parliament, in 
April, 1782, Grattan moved and carried 
his amendment, which comprised the 
Dungannon resolutions, except the last 
referring to Catholics. He was extremely 
ill at the time, and so weak that he could 


hardly speak, yet his oration on this oc- down volun- 
casion won just fame. In May, the Eng- 
lish Parliament passed the Act of Repeal, which meant 
independence for the Irish Parliament. Poynings' Law 
was repealed (see section 123) and also the Sixth nish Par- 
of George I. (See section 238.) The right of ^ s e £ de _ 
the Irish House of Lords to hear appeals was pendence. 
restored. The joy created by this news in Dublin was in- 
describable. The Irish Parliament showed its gratitude 
by voting twenty thousand men and .£100,000 to the 
English navy. It was admitted that the repeal was a 
personal triumph for Grattan. He was voted a grant 
of £100,000, only half of which he finally consented to 

258. The Act of Renunciation. On January 22, in the 
following year, 1783, the Act of Renunciation was passed, 
which may be regarded as the charter of Irish legislative 
independence. By it England formally gave up the right 
to make laws for Ireland, which was to be henceforth sub- 
ject in everything only to the king and the Irish Parlia- 

Thus the parliamentary struggle which lasted from 
1698 to 1783 ended in favor of Ireland, and decided that 

268 IRELAND'S STORY [1783 

Ireland should be a nation, and not an English settle- 
ment. Thanks to the timely revolt of the American col- 
onies against just such grievances as those of Ireland, 
and to the efforts of men like Grattan, Flood, and their 
colleagues, Ireland had found the spirit of responsibility, 
and had come to a realization of her rights and powers. 
This movement was, it should be remembered, almost 
wholly Protestant, but many measures were passed which 
were intended to lighten the lot of the Catholics, and 
make them more equal with their Protestant rulers before 
the law. 


There were two distinct parties in parliament during the 
century 1698-1783 : the "Court party," who did everything 
to increase despotic English influence, and the " Patriotic 
party," a small minority who struggled for the independence 
and welfare of their country. The Patriots had as leaders in 
parliament and outside such men as Lucas, Swift, Flood, 
and Grattan. The act called the " Sixth of George I," 17 19, 
gave the death-blow to the authority of the Irish Parliament. 
In 1757, a Catholic Committee was formed to protect the 
interests of oppressed Catholics. In 1767, the Octennial Bill 
was passed, which limited the term of parliament to eight 
years. The Irish Commons refused to pass money-bills not 
originated by themselves. On the outbreak of the war with 
America the English Parliament passed the Embargo Act, 
1775, but ^ was repealed three years later, together with some 
of the penal laws against Catholics. Fearing invasion, the 
Irish Protestants formed a volunteer society which raised a 
large army and demanded reform from England. The Volun- 
teers met in convention at Dungannon in 1782, and drew up 
resolutions. The result was the further repeal of penal laws 
followed by the Act of Repeal, 1782, and the Act of Renun- 
ciation, January 22, 1783, which gave legislative freedom to 
Ireland. Trade restrictions were also removed. 




English Sovereign: George III, 1760-1820 

259. Need of parliamentary reform. During the 
last quarter of the eighteenth century, Ireland had legis- 
lative freedom, subject only to the veto of the English 
king, but the houses of parliament themselves were far 
from ideal. Of three hundred members in the House 
of Commons, not more than seventy or eighty were 
elected by a free vote of the people. Rotten boroughs 
were numerous, and seats sold as high as ten thousand 
pounds. The absolute exclusion of Catholics, who num- 
bered four fifths of the population of the coun- 

1 r , Unfair 

try, further prevented the Irish Parliament represonta- 
from being a truly representative body, genu- 
inely independent, and answering to the will of the na- 
tion instead of that of the representatives of England 
at Dublin. Reform was needed, and needed badly. 
Had it come at this time, the bloodshed of 1798 might 
have been averted. Let us see why reform was not 

260. Plans for a convention. Besides the need of 
parliamentary reform, the further regulation of free 
trade and the necessity of Catholic emancipation were 
recognized by the Patriots. The Volunteers took up the 
question of the reform of parliament, and held several 

270 IRELAND'S STORY [1783 

meetings, appointed committees, and chose delegates to 
represent them in a great convention to be held in Dub- 
lin on November 10, 1783. Meanwhile, in parliament, 
the two great leaders, Grattan and Flood, were 

Grattan & ' 

and Flood in disagreement over a measure to reduce 
quarre. expenses. Grattan advocated reducing the 
expenses of the government, while Flood thought that 
economy should be secured by reducing the army. The 
dispute was so bitter that it destroyed the friendship 
between them, thus greatly weakening the cause of the 

261. The convention, November 10, 1783. A hun- 
dred and sixty delegates of the Irish Volunteers met in the 
Rotunda at Dublin, on November 10, with the Earl of 
Charlemont, who commanded the whole of the Volunteer 
force, in the chair. Resolutions were passed, which 
provided that the franchise should remain practically 
unchanged in the counties, but that the right to vote 
should be extended in the boroughs. Flood presented a 
bill embodying this proposal to the parliament, which 
Reform bin met on November 28. After a hot debate the 
defeated. \y[\\ was rejected, and with it ended, for the 
time, the efforts of the Patriotic party to accomplish par- 
liamentary reforms. 

262. Result to the Volunteers. A death-blow was 
dealt to the Volunteer movement as a whole by this 
rejection, and the convention broke up, without any date 
being fixed for the next meeting. The numbers of the 
Volunteers continued to increase, but they became more 
revolutionary in spirit, and broke away from the restrain- 
„ , ing influence of men like Lord Charlemont, 

Revolu- b . ' 

tionary Curran, and Wolf Tone, who condemned their 
tendency to form secret clubs, which soon be- 
came secret revolutionary societies. The Volunteers 


now began to enroll Catholics as well as Protestants, 
which frightened the government, and caused an increase 
in the numbers of the militia. The people grew resent- 
ful and violent, and mob outbreaks were frequent, espe- 
cially in Dublin. 

263. Trade congress called. The second question 
at issue met with a similar check. There was still a 
high duty on Irish exports to England, while English 
goods entered Ireland practically duty free. During 
1784 and 1785 this question was uppermost in all minds, 
and, in order to solve it, a public meeting was called in 
Dublin, which arranged for the election of delegates to 
meet in a congress on October 25, 1785. This congress 
passed a series of resolutions in favor of free election 
and the extension of the franchise to Catholics. An 
address to the people was prepared, and a petition was 
sent to the king. The question of votes for Catholics 
proved such a stumbling-block that little was accom- 
plished by the congress, which dissolved after several 
futile meetings. 

264. Orde's Bill, 1785. In England, Pitt made an 

attempt to have a bill passed to remedy the trade evils, 

but the English manufacturers and merchants raised 

such an outcry at the idea of granting the Irish free 

ports that Pitt abandoned his plan. This bill, „ 4J M 
r T . Motion for 

which would have placed England and Ireland free trade 
on an equal footing in commerce, was known 
as Orde's Bill, as it was prepared by Orde, the Chief 
Secretary. Pitt then introduced a bill of his own, con- 
taining twenty propositions much less favorable to Ire- 
land, and including several severe restrictions. These 
propositions offered little more to Ireland than equality 
of taxes. The measure passed the English Parliament, 
but aroused much indignation in Ireland, where it was 

272 IRELAND'S STORY [1785 

opposed by Grattan and Flood, and practically defeated 
in the Irish Parliament, August, 1785. 

265. Other abuses. Besides parliamentary and trade 
reform, the country needed general reform. Terrible 
discontent and unrest were prevalent, especially among 
the peasantry, due chiefly to the extortion of the tithe- 
collectors, or " tithe-proctors." Every man who tilled 
Tithe- land was obliged to pay tithes to the Anglican 
proctors. church established in Ireland. The tithes were 
collected by men called proctors, whose methods were 
like those of the middlemen. (See section 233.) They 
received a percentage on collections, so that it was to 
their interest to make the tithes as large as possible. Be- 
sides, there was a tax for repairs to churches. Grazing 
lands were not subject to tithes, so that instead of fall- 
ing on the rich cattlemen, they weighed most heavily on 
the poorest peasants. 

266. Menacing signs of revolution. The peasants, 
driven to desperation by this state of affairs, began to 
secret form new secret societies. The Whiteboys 
societies. were revived under the name of " Right Boys," 
whose purpose was to harass the clergy of the estab- 
lished church. In the north, the " Peep-o'-day Boys " 
and "Wreckers" rose from the poorest class of the 
Protestants, and committed acts of violence on Catholics. 
The government was alarmed, and enrolled a number of 
constables to guard the city of Dublin. These were 

later incorporated as the Dublin police. A strin- 
Act gent Crimes Act was passed to counteract the 

secret societies, but without avail. Outrages 
increased continually. 

The people began to realize that no help could be ex- 
pected from parliament. Under the contagious influence 
of the French Revolution the anniversary of the fall of 

1 790 



the Bastile was celebrated with great enthusiasm in Bel- 
fast in 1 79 1, and there was a general outcry for the 
"rights of man," parliamentary representation, and Cath- 
olic emancipation. The old Volunteer leaders, including 
Charlemont, Curran, the Duke of Leinster, and yfomig 
Wolfe Tone, formed themselves into the Clubs - 
" Whig Club " in Dublin, and the " Northern Whig Club " 
in Belfast. There was nothing illegal in their action, but 
their tendency was distinctly revolutionary. 

267. The " United Irishmen." Theobald Wolfe Tone 
now becomes prominent, as the leader of a remarkable 
movement. Inspired by the highest ideals of national 
unity, toleration, and 
freedom, he was a won- 
derful organizer and a 
born leader. Already 
known through the Vol- 
unteer movement, he 
had great influence, 
and, though a Protest- 
ant, was appointed sec- 
retary to the Catholic 
Committee in Wolle 
Dublin, thus Tone - 
bringing the two parties 
together in his person. 
In October, 1791, he 
founded a new and more 
radical party in Belfast, 
called the " United 
Irishmen." Its first members were Presbyterians, and 
its objects were "a union of Irishmen of every religious 
persuasion, in order to obtain a complete reform of the 
legislature, founded on principles of civil, political, and 

1 763- 1 798 

274 IRELAND'S STORY [1792 

religious liberty." Furthermore, he aimed at the repeal 
of all remaining penal laws against the Catholics, in order 
that there might be absolute unity, as suggested by the 
name of his society. There was a branch of the United 
Irishmen in Dublin. 

268. "Back Lane Parliament," December 2, 1792. 
The Catholic Committee formed thirty years before 
(see section 244) had been steadily working to redress 
the Catholics' wrongs. There were two parties in the 
committee : the aristocratic, comprising the clergy and 
nobility, who were non-revolutionary and moderate ; and 
the democratic, which included the business men, led by 
John Keogh, who advocated bold and determined action. 
This latter party had the sympathy of the Catholic 
masses, and through its influence a meeting was held in 
December, 1792, in the Tailors' Hall in Back Lane, Dub- 
Cathoiic lin, whence it received the name of " Back Lane 
semttothe Parliament." Here a petition was drawn up, 
ttag- to be sent to the king without passing through 
the hands of the hostile Irish Parliament. This petition 
asked that constitutional rights be extended to Catholics. 

269. Catholic franchise restored, 1793. The king 
received the petition graciously, and in April, 1793, 
owing to the influence of the English ministers and 
Grattan's party, a bill was passed through the Irish 
Parliament granting the franchise to all Catholics who 
held a lease of land for life. Catholics were permitted 
to serve on juries, hold the office of justice of the peace, 
and send their sons to Trinity College, Dublin, which 
other na d hitherto been exclusively Protestant ; they 
privileges, might also open colleges in connection with 
Trinity College, provided that Protestants should not 
be excluded from these colleges. The oath of allegiance 
was enforced, but no other, and the higher classes were 


permitted to carry arms. These relief measures were 
really a great gain, but were to some extent counter- 
balanced by two acts passed at the same time, convention 
the Convention Act, directed against unlaw- Act 
ful assemblies like the Back Lane Parliament, and the 
Gunpowder Act, forbidding the importation Gunpowder 
of powder and arms, and giving magistrates the Act ' 
power to search for them at will. Further, England 
feared revolutionary tendencies, and by means of spies 
kept strict watch over every act of the Catholic Com- 
mittee and the United Irishmen alike. Arrests were 
made on slight pretexts, and heavy fines were imposed. 

270. Attempt at Catholic emancipation. In Jan- 
uary, 1795, Earl Fitzwilliam, a very honest and liberal- 
minded statesman, came over as lord lieutenant, with 
plans inspired by Pitt for the complete emancipation of 
the Catholics. He was enthusiastically received, and 
immediately set to work to remove from office all who 
did not share his views. In acknowledgment, the Pa- 
triots, on the motion of Grattan, voted large sums of 
money and supplies to be used in the war with France. 
The whole country was full of excitement, and people of 
every denomination sent in petitions in favor of the 
oppressed Catholics. On the 12th of February, Grattan 
presented a bill for the admission of Catholics to parlia- 
ment, and all seemed to be going well, when a storm- 
cloud appeared on the horizon. Fitzgibbon and a small 
opposition party took determined measures to defeat the 
bill. They aroused the king's fears by suggesting that 
Protestantism was in danger, and declared that the propo- 
sals of Fitzwilliam, in the king's name, were a violation 
of the coronation oath. The bill was opposed by the king, 
and the cause of the Catholics was temporarily lost. Nev- 
ertheless they gained one point during that year. Their 

276 IRELAND'S STORY [1795 

priests could at last prepare for their high calling with- 
out going abroad, for the English government feared the 
Foundingof continental influence which they brought back 
Maynooth. w j tn th em , especially from France, and founded 
the Catholic training college of Maynooth, endowed with 
eight thousand pounds a year. 

271. Discontent leads to insurrection. Amid general 
regret, Fitzwilliam resigned his place to a new lord lieu- 
tenant, who arrived in March, 1795, to find disturbances 
already breaking out. The mob raged in the streets of 
Dublin, and marauding bands swarmed over the country. 
The leaders had determined on a revolution, and foreign 
aid was expected. The United Irishmen, whose ranks 
were daily increased by numbers of Catholics, bound 
themselves by a secret oath, but the government was all 
the time made aware of their plans through spies. Among 
the peasantry Catholics and Protestants were bitterly 
opposed to each other, and such societies as the " Wreck- 
ers " (Protestant) and the " Defenders " (Catholic) fought 
very fiercely. The Protestants formed a new society 
called " Orangemen," after William of Orange, which, 

like all the secret societies of the time, com- 


"Orange- mitted serious outrages, driving many Catholic 
peasants from Ulster. This underground war- 
fare, carried on between the lower classes of the opposed 
churches, was severely censured by the better elements of 
both, and troops were sent out to arrest the raiders, and 
put a stop to the disorders. But their proceedings were 
often as lawless as those of the marauders themselves, 
and little good came of this intended remedy. 

272. Insurrection Act passed. In December, 1796, 
France sent a fleet of forty-three ships which was wrecked 
before it reached Ireland. In addition to this disappoint- 
ment, at the next session of parliament, in January, 1797, 


a severe Insurrection Act was passed, which was followed 
by the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, so that 
magistrates were free to arrest all persons whom they 
thought dangerous. Two committees of United Irish- 
men were arrested in Belfast, with whom important pa- 
pers were found. Arms were sought everywhere, and the 
prisons were filled with men unjustly arrested, but no 
conflicts which could be called battles were fought in 

1797, although many parts of the country were in rebel- 
lion. The leaders on both sides denounced the _ , , 


atrocities committed by the lawless soldiers, of the 

, , . Rebellion. 

and repeated assurances were given by trust- 
worthy people that parliamentary reform, Catholic eman- 
cipation, and a just regulation of tithes would restore 
peace and order. The best of the United Irishmen, as 
well as Grattan and others, were working to this end, 
but they were outnumbered by extremists at 

J . J Grattan re- 

every turn. Thoroughly disheartened, Grattan signs from 
and the leading members of his party resigned par amen ' 
from parliament. The defeat of a Dutch fleet sent to 
invade Ireland added further discouragement. 

273. Leaders of the Rebellion betrayed. The society 
of United Irishmen by this time covered the whole 
country, and had half a million members, a consider- 
able proportion of whom were Catholics. The leaders 
believed that the only course left for them was open re- 
bellion. They were far from realizing that they were 
constantly watched by government spies, who reported 
all their decisions to the Dublin authorities. These 
spies knew that the uprising had been fixed for May 23, 

1798. They now discovered that the Leinster delegates 
would hold a meeting on March 12, at the house of 
Oliver Bond, in Bridge Street, Dublin. Here they broke 
in upon the delegates in the act of planning measures 

278 IRELAND'S STORY [1798 

of rebellion, arrested them, seized their papers, and 
offered a reward of a thousand pounds for the capture 
of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, the prime mover in the in- 
surrection. Information was received that he was con- 
cealed in Dublin, at the house of a feather-merchant, 
and here he was surprised and captured, after a fierce 
struggle. He died of his wounds before the day fixed 
for his execution. 

274. Beginning of the Rebellion. The plan that the 
insurrection should break out in several places at once 
failed, owing to mismanagement, and to the work of the 
spies. On May 24, and the following days, Kildare, 
Wicklow, Wexford, Carlow, Queen's County, Meath, and 
Dublin set the example, but the city of Dublin, being 
under martial law and full of soldiers, did not take part 
in the outbreak. 

275. The Rebellion in Wexford. On May 26, an 
army of four thousand insurgents was completely de- 
feated on Tara Hill. The three principal rebel encamp- 
ments were on Vinegar Hill, near Enniscorthy ; on 
Carrickbyrne Hill, between New Ross and the town of 
Wexford ; and on Carrigroe Hill, near Ferns. Most 
of the fighting was desultory, and accompanied by a 
great deal of burning and pillaging. The conspicuous 
bravery and determination displayed by the rebels were 
Lack of usually more than counterbalanced by their 
among the ^ ac ^ °f discipline and order. First one side 
insurgents. was victorious, then the other, in a series of 
small encounters. The acts of cruelty which were 
committed on both sides were the work of their worst 
members, trained by a generation of secret societies and 

Wexford, which was the scene of a very bitter sec- 
tarian struggle, had risen independently of the United 


Irishmen. Under the leadership of several priests, the 
Catholic masses, driven to desperation by the atrocities 
of the militia, retaliated in a horrible manner on the Pro- 
testant population. Father John Murphy, a Catholic 
curate, was the principal leader in the fighting, but 
sternly discountenanced all outrages. He overcame the 
small force of cavalry sent against him, and some of his 
men set fire to the town of Wexford and murdered two 
clergymen. All the available militia were called „ „_ 

o- 7 Father 

out, and severe fighting followed at Oulart, on John 
May 27, where Murphy and his men were vie- urp 7 " 
torious. The rebels then took Enniscorthy, whose garri- 
son was forced to retreat to Wexford. 

On May 30, a body of insurgents sent out from Vine- 
gar Hill routed a small force of government troops at 
a place called Three Rocks, four miles from Wexford, 
and then proceeded against Wexford itself, which was 
garrisoned by the North Cork militia. This gar- DeS ertion 
rison, in a panic, deserted the town without re- 0l Wexford, 
sistance. They then traversed the surrounding country, 
burning and killing as they went, while the insurgents 
entered the town, and indulged in all the excesses of 
mediaeval pillage. 

On June 1, a large detachment from the Carrigroe en- 
campment attacked the town of Gorey and was severely 
defeated. But the insurgents avenged this defeat three 
days later, in a fight not far from Gorey, which left the 
town in their hands. From Vinegar Hill, on June 2, an 
attack was made on Newtownbarry, but the insurgents 
were repulsed. On June 5, three days later, Battleof 
they met with similar misfortune at New Ross. New Ross. 
So fierce was their first attack, that the militia, under 
Lord Mountj oy, formerly Luke Gardiner, was driven out 
of the town, but returned to win a decisive victory a few 

280 IRELAND'S STORY [1798 

hours later when the insurgents were dispersed through 
the streets, indulging in riotous drinking after their suc- 
cess. Between two and three thousand of the rebels 
were killed. 

276. Attack on Arklow. The insurgents now pre- 
pared to march on Dublin, but, in order to do this, were 
forced to pass through the lines of sixteen hundred gov- 
ernment troops at Arklow, on the Wicklow coast. On 
June 9, they made a fierce attack on Arklow, which 
would have turned out badly for the soldiers, had not the 
insurgent leader, Father Michael Murphy, been killed in 
the fight. This event so discouraged his followers that 
they gave up the idea of proceeding to Dublin. 

277. Battle of Vinegar Hill. General Lake, the 
government commander, now organized an attack for 
June 21, on Vinegar Hill, the chief rebel encampment. 
Twenty thousand men were to approach in several divi- 
insurgents si° ns > from different directions. As luck would 
defeated. have it, one of the divisions failed to arrive 
until the fighting was over. The insurgents were thus 
able to break through the uncompleted circle of their 
assailants, and retreat southward to Wexford, when the 
combined attack grew too strong to be resisted. 

This was the last stand of importance in the Wexford 
rebellion, for the insurgents were now forced to admit 
their inability to meet the trained troops of the govern- 
ment. They left Wexford, which was immediately occu- 
pied by General Lake, who court-martialed and 
leaders hanged every leader he could capture. Mat- 
thew Keogh and Father John Murphy were 
executed with the rest, though, like many other leaders, 
they had been active in preventing outrages. Acts of 
great cruelty were now committed by both sides. The 
soldiers made no distinction between guilty and inno- 


cent, but slew all alike, while bands of insurgents, roam- 
ing through the country, viciously retaliated. Within 
the short space of two years sixty-five Catholic chapels 
and one Protestant church were destroyed in Leinster 
alone, and countless dwellings met with a like fate. 

278. End of the Rebellion. The fact that the upris- 
ing did not occur simultaneously in different parts of 
the country gave the government a decided advantage, 
and, in the north, the rebels were easily suppressed. 
General Lake was superseded by Lord Cornwallis, who 
did his best to stop the outrages daily committed by the 
soldiers, and it is probable that, had he been in command 
from the outset, there would have been less bloodshed. 

On August 22, after the rebellion was ended, help was 
sent from France. General Humbert and a thousand 
men landed at Killala, in Mayo, but they soon surren- 
dered to Cornwallis, and were sent back to Keipfrom 
France. Two Irish leaders were taken at the Arrives 
same time and hanged. These were Matthew too late. 
Tone, brother of Wolfe Tone, and Bartholomew Teel- 
ing. A second expedition, in which Theobald Wolfe 
Tone took part, arrived in September, and was defeated 
at sea. Wolfe Tone was taken prisoner and sentenced 
to be hanged. He begged for a more honorable death, 
and committed suicide when this was refused. 


Although Ireland had gained legislative independence, its 
parliament was so corrupt that little benefit resulted. A con- 
vention met in November, 1783, and drew up a bill of reform, 
which was defeated in parliament. This defeat demoralized 
the Volunteer movement, which now became revolutionary in 
spirit and was deserted by its more moderate members. An 
attempt to remedy trade conditions was embodied in Orde's 

282 IRELAND'S STORY [1798 

Bill, 1785, and likewise defeated. The abuses of the tithe- 
proctors increased, as did the number of lawless secret soci- 
eties among the peasants. In 1791, Wolfe Tone founded the 
society of " United Irishmen," whose members were men of 
all denominations. At the " Back Lane Parliament," in 1792, 
a petition was drawn up praying for the removal of a number 
of penal laws against the Catholics, but in 1795 a bill for 
Catholic emancipation was defeated. 

Discontent grew, the country was full of paid spies, secta- 
rian riots were frequent, and finally a rebellion was planned. 
On March 12, 1798, the leaders of this movement were de- 
feated and captured. The main action of the rebellion took 
place in Wexford, where the insurgents were led by John 
Murphy, a priest. Help from France arrived too late, and 
the rebellion was presently put down, with great cruelty and 




English Sovereign : George III, 1 760-1 820 

279. William Pitt's scheme. In the summer of 
1798, the English Cabinet, of which William Pitt and the 
Duke of Portland were the most influential members, 

conceived _ 

To abollsb 
a plan for the Irish 
i_ 1 . v • Parliament. 

the Irish Parliament 
and uniting the legis- 
lative bodies of the 
two countries. This 
had long been a fa- 
vorite scheme of Pitt, 
and events in Ireland 
during the past few 
years convinced him 
that the time was 
favorable for carry- 
ing it out. This 
statesman is justly 
credited by histori- 
ans with having had 
very benevolent in- 
tentions toward Ire- 
land, including a plan to emancipate the Catholics and 

1 759-1806 

284 IRELAND'S STORY [1798 

establish a uniform system of laws over the whole of 
Great Britain and Ireland. His methods, however, were 
more than questionable. 

Every one in England admitted that the Irish Parlia- 
ment could not be abolished without its own consent. 
It was also admitted that this body, corrupt though it 
was, was not corrupt enough readily to accept Pitt's plans 
for its extinction. In 1798, the Marquis of Corn- 
corn- wallis was lord lieutenant, and Lord Castle- 

systemoi rea g n was Chief Secretary for Ireland, and to 
bribery. these two men Pitt intrusted the execution of 
his scheme. Though hating the part he was forced to 
play, Cornwallis lost no time. He sounded the Irish 
Cabinet and the Dublin barristers on the subject of 
Union, and dismissed those officials who opposed the 
idea. A grand system of corruption was organized, in 
order to insure a parliamentary majority, when the mat- 
ter came before the House. Bribes, pensions, and titles 
were openly given to those who promised to vote for the 
government's scheme. Cornwallis asked for and received 
from England thousands of pounds of ready money, 
which sums were later added to the national debt of Ire- 
land, so that the larger country did not suffer. These 
determined measures caused great alarm, for it was real- 
ized that if the Union became a fact, the three hundred 
members of parliament would be reduced to one third, 
and members were afraid of losing their seats and the 
opportunities of profit which these seats gave them. 
An outline of the scheme of Union was circulated 
among the people throughout the whole country, and 
the rebellion was allowed to smoulder on, in order to 
promote local and class differences, and thus to weaken 
possible opposition. 

The country was now thoroughly aroused, and riots 


broke out in several places. The people looked on the 
proposed loss of their parliament as an indignity Attltude | 
to the nation, and numerous petitions poured the people, 
in daily to parliament, condemning the contemplated 
Union in the strongest terms. It was feared by the au- 
thorities that the riots might once more extend, and 
become a rebellion, and English troops were landed to 
inspire fear. The men at the head of the Union move- 
ment were determined to carry their measure at all 

280. Union scheme presented to the Irish Parlia- 
ment. The eventful day, January 22, 1799, arrived, and 
Lord Cornwallis delivered the speech from the throne 
in the Irish House of Lords. He announced his hopes 
that both parliaments would unite, and consolidate as 
far as possible the resources of the realm. Excitement 
ran high, and Cornwallis was immediately answered by 
patriotic Irishmen, who condemned any such scheme 
in the strongest terms. During the debate in Exclted 
the House of Commons, which lasted all night deDat e- 
long, Ponsonby delivered an address in which he ap- 
pealed for support to national pride and independence. 
He closed with the words, " maintaining, however, the 
undoubted birthright of the people of Ireland to have 
a resident and independent legislature, such as it was 
recognized by the British legislature in 1782, and was 
finally settled at the adjustment of all differences be- 
tween the two countries." (See section 257.) Plunket, 
with eloquence almost equal to that of Grattan, de- 
nounced the " system of black corruption " carried on 
to undermine the constitution and influence votes. The 
country gentlemen spoke warmly against the measure, 
and the result was that, on the evening of January 24, 
a motion was made to strike out the clause concerning 

286 IRELAND'S STORY [1799 

the Union from the speech from the throne. When a 
union division was taken, the votes numbered 106 

measure for the government and 11 1 for the Irish con- 
stitution. The Speaker, John Foster, was car- 
ried home in triumph, and Dublin was illuminated by the 
enthusiastic people. But Sir John Parnell, the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, and Fitzgerald, the Prime Sergeant, 
who had opposed the Union, were summarily dismissed 
from office. 

281. More bribery. On January 31, 1799, Pitt 
brought forward the scheme of Union in the English 
House of Commons. In his speech he strove to prove 
that the settlement of 1782 (see section 257), when the 
Pitt and Act °f Repeal gave Ireland an independent 
Sheridan, parliament, was not final. Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan, the dramatist, and Foster, the Speaker of the 
Irish House, vehemently opposed him. 

Both parties now did their utmost to gain adherents 
for the struggle in the next Irish session. The govern- 
ment employed every possible means to corrupt the re- 
presentatives of the people, trying in all ways to bring 
round the most formidable leaders of the opposition, and 
spending freely the sum of ;£ 1,260,000, placed at its dis- 
posal, for purposes of bribery and corruption. The lord 
lieutenant made tours through different parts of the 
country to obtain declarations in favor of the Union. 
Eighty-four boroughs were bought outright. To secure 
a majority in the Irish House of Lords, twenty-eight 
new peers were created, and thirty-two received higher 

282. Attitude of the Catholics. The position of the 
Catholics during the struggle was well defined. The 
great majority of them opposed the Union altogether. 
There was, however, a small Catholic party which fa- 


vored the English connection, but they had no influence. 
The Catholics had nothing to gain from union with Eng- 
land, whose sovereign was opposed to them, and whose 
parliament excluded them. In Ireland, on the contrary, 
they had received the franchise, and the Irish Parliament 
had removed a good many of their burdens. In Hostileto 
the beginning, Cornwallis had counted on Cath- union, 
olic support, but as early as 1798 he was forced to change 
his opinion, as is shown by the following quotation from 
his letter to Major-General Ross : "The opposition to 
the Union increases daily, in and about Dublin, and I am 
afraid, from conversations which I have held with persons 
much connected with them, that I was too sanguine 
when I hoped for the good inclinations of the Catholics. 
Their disposition is so completely alienated from the 
British government that I believe they would be tempted 
to join with their bitterest enemies, the Protestants of 
Ireland, if they thought that measure would lead to a 
total separation of the two countries." This hostile atti- 
tude of the Catholics was confirmed at a great meeting 
held January 14, 1800, at which a new leader made his 
first speech. Daniel O'Connell said : " If emancipation 
be offered for our consent to the measure of Union — 
even if emancipation after the Union were a gain — we 
would reject it with prompt indignation." He went so 
far as to add that he would prefer a renewal of the penal 
laws, and "would rather confide in the justice of my 
brethren the Protestants of Ireland, who have already 
liberated me, than lay my country at the feet of for- 

283. Daniel O'Connell. Daniel O'Connell was a 
young patriot, who now began to come into prominence 
and popularity, and prepared to continue the work Grat- 
tan had begun. He was born in 1775, at Carhan, near 






From the portrait painted for the former Catholic Association of Ireland 

Cahersiveen, on one of the Kerry promontories that 
stretch far into the Atlantic. O'Connell came of one of 
the oldest Gaelic families, and represented the pure 
native stock. He had been educated partly in Ireland, 
partly in France, whither so many Irish Catholics went 
to seek opportunities of learning which they were denied 
in Ireland. He was called to the bar in the year of the 
Rebellion, and at once began to make a reputation as a 


brilliant lawyer, and an eloquent advocate, and later as 
spokesman of the Catholic party. A devout Catholic 
himself, and thoroughly Irish in every instinct and feel- 
ing, he was determined that the ancient church of his 
nation should no longer lie under the ban of the law. 
In his personal dealings he had gained a reputation for 
entire uprightness, and his fine legal training gave him 
an additional advantage. During the whole of the agita- 
tion which he led, he not only shunned all excesses, but 
even avoided the smallest irregularity, and thus gave his 
English opponents no opportunity to thwart his work by 
prosecution. His incessant watchfulness and legal keen- 
ness were wonderful. 

284. Act of Union passed, August 1, 1800. Mean- 
while, the government, ignoring every protest, was land- 
ing thousands of English soldiers, and increasing the 


practice of wholesale bribery and unfair dismissal from 
office. There was a call for more secret service money 
from England, early in 1800, and Cornwallis did not 
hesitate to tempt even the stanchest patriots. 

The Irish Parliament met for the last time on January 
15, 1800, with the newly purchased members in their 
seats. The viceroy avoided mentioning the Union in 
the speech from the throne, but Parsons, Plunket, Pon- 
sonby, Moore, and Bushe stated and upheld the case 
against the Union in succession. In the midst of the 

290 IRELAND'S STORY [1800 

discussion, Grattan entered. He had risen from a bed 
Lastses- of sickness to appear once more on behalf of 
irishPar- 6 n * s coun try, and, clad in the uniform of the 
liament. Volunteers, he addressed the House. With a 
return to his old eloquence and fire, he exhorted parlia- 
ment to uphold the constitution, so that, when the vote 
was taken, the government had a majority of only thirty- 
eight. In spite of all the efforts of the Patriotic party, 
the bill was finally passed, first through the Commons, 
and then through the Lords, where the government's 
majority numbered three to one. On August 1, 1800, 
King George signed the bill, and the Act of Union became 
law, coming into force on January 1, 1801, the first day 
of the nineteenth century. Its main provisions were as 
follows : — 

1. The two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to 
be one, under the title of " the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland." 

2. The Irish representation in the united Parliament 
was to be one hundred members in the House of Com- 
mons, and thirty-two in the House of Lords ; four of 
these peers were to be Protestant bishops, while the 
remaining twenty-eight were to be elected from the 
whole body of Irish peers. 

3. Regulations as to trade and commerce were to be 
the same for all subjects of the United Kingdom. 

4. The Irish Established Church was to be contin- 
ued forever, and to be united with the Church of 

5. Ireland was held responsible for two seventeenths 
of the expenditure of the United Kingdom for twenty 
years, at the end of which time a new arrangement 
would be considered. Each country was to retain its 
own national debt, but all future debts were to be in 


common, and to be borne by Great Britain and Ireland, 
in the ratio of seventeen to two. 

285. Results of the Union. So much for the Union, 
which was now an accomplished fact. Fox, in 1806, 
characterized it as " atrocious in its principles and abom- 
inable in its means." Gladstone, at a later day, con- 
demned it no less violently. " I know," he said, "no 
blacker or fouler transaction in the history of man than 
the making of the Union between England and Ire- 
land." Pitt, whatever his real views may have been, 
declared it in the House of Commons to be a Union 
"by free consent, and on just and equal terms." The 
Union was intended by its promoters to remedy three 
evils : religious divisions, unfair balance of legislative 
power, and commercial inequalities. For two genera- 
tions after 1800 the Catholics and Protestants were no 
closer friends ; the national debt of Ireland has risen 
abnormally, and she is admittedly overtaxed in compari- 
son with England, as she has less than two seventeenths 
of the population of the United Kingdom and is the 
poorest section besides. The new arrangement, to be 
made after twenty years, was never carried out. Free 
trade is in force, but all Irishmen do not admit its ad- 

But after the Union was a fact, even the stanchest 
patriots did not advocate its repeal, which would have 
meant rebellion and chaos. The attitude of these men 
during the twenty-nine years between the Union and 
Catholic emancipation, the goal towards which -most of 
them were working, is especially interesting. An echo 
of the Rebellion of 1798 was heard in Robert Emmet's 
insurrection in 1803, but this uprising came to nothing, 
and its leader was hanged. 

292 IRELAND'S STORY [1801 


William Pitt, the prime minister of England, had long had 
a plan to abolish the Irish Parliament and unite the two 
countries under one parliament in England. In 1798, he 
directed Cornwallis, the lord lieutenant, to carry out this 
scheme. The entire country was hostile to it, but by means 
of unlimited bribery, in spite of the strong opposition of 
Catholics and patriots, a parliament was finally assembled 
which voted to abolish itself, and the Act of Union was 
signed by George III on August 1, 1800, and came into force 
on January 1, 1801. 




English Sovereigns : 

George III, 1 760-1820 George IV, 1820-1830 

286. The combined parliament. On January 22, 
1 801, the new combined parliament met at Westminster, 
counting among its members one hundred from Ireland, 
who were too few to form a strong opposition. There 
had been vague promises about Catholic emancipation 
after the Union, but England practically ign ored Iris h 
interests altogether. Such laws as the Irish Insurrec- 
tion Act, the Suspension of the Habeas Cor- 

r . . More 

pus Act, the Martial Continuation Act, and oppressive 

a series of Coercion Acts, alJ__of an unjustly measurM - 
oppressive nature, were passed, and the misery and 
desolation of the country increased. England was ab- 
sorbed in the struggle against Napoleon, and had no 
time to undertake serious constructive measures in the 
new territory brought within the jurisdiction of her 
parliament by the Act of Union. Besides, the real con- 
dition of Ireland was unknown, and it was to no one's 
interest to find out the truth. It was generally granted 
that the emancipation of the Catholics from the various 
legal disabilities and penalties under which they had 
suffered since the days of Henry VIII was expedient, 
but the English ministry allowed itself to be overruled 

294 IRELAND'S STORY [1808 

by the ignorance, prejudice, and bigotry of George III, 
who was determined to treat Ireland as he had wished 
to treat America. 

287. New plan for appointment of bishops. Shortly 
after the Union, a small section of the Catholics, includ- 
ing several of the bishops, decided that, in return for 
emancipation, it might be well to concede to the English 
crown the right of veto in the appointment of Catholic 
bishops ; that is, after a bishop had been selected by the 
ecclesiastical authorities, his name should be submitted 
to the king, who might refuse to confirm the appoint- 
ment, when another choice would be made. The major- 
ity of the Catholics were unaware of this plan, and 

would never have consented to it. It was first 
Its failure. . . A . . . . „ n . 

brought to their notice in 1808, by a petition 

drawn up by Grattan and others. The greatest indigna- 
tion was aroused at the thought of buying emancipation 
by such a surrender of religious principle ; for this 
would have been equivalent to admitting the claim of the 
sovereign of England to be head of the Church within 
his dominions, the very question contested since the 
days of Henry VIII. But the scheme was doomed to 
failure in any case, for the English government refused 
to consider the proposal. 

288. Evils of the existing land system. Great as 
was the need for emancipation, it was as nothing com- 
pared to the distress and suffering caused by the de- 
plorable social and economic condition of the country. 
The relations between landlord and tenant were worse 
than at any past time, and every year brought new and 
heavier taxes, instead of lessening the burdens which 
the people already bore. Each man in the long series 
of middlemen, as well as the tenant and the landlord at 
the two ends of the series, had to gain a profit from the 


same acre of land, and no one was willing to spend 
money on improving the quality of the land. 
If it be asked why, the answer is simple. The to improve 
tenant held his land from year to year, at the eland - 
will of the landlord, and, if he made improvements, and 
so increased the value of the land, he would be called on 
to pay a greater rent, or leave his holding. The middle- 
men would not make improvements, because whoever 
stood next above them in the scale of extortion would 
immediately have demanded a greater payment. The 
landlord made no improvements, because «he was accus- 
tomed to think of himself as a man with rights and 
privileges, and never as a man with duties and obliga- 
tions. The result was, that a piece of land was allowed 
to go from bad to worse, and was finally rented, for an 
excessive sum, to a peasant so poor that he could not 
improve it in any way, and could barely make a starva- 
tion wage for himself and his family. 

In England, the landlord was the agricultural partner 
of his tenant, investing large sums of money in improve- 
ments, such as drains, fences, out-houses, and _ maMM 

9 Conditions 

so forth ; so that the value of the land steadily in England 
rose. But nothing of the kind existed in Ire- compare 
land. Frequently whole towns were owned by one man, 
who thus had it in his power to exact what rents he 
pleased. At the time of the Union, the population of 
Ireland amounted to about four and a half mil- subdivision 
lions. It now began to increase rapidly. The ofland< 
landlords permitted, and even encouraged, extreme sub- 
division of land, so that they might collect rents from 
as many tenants as possible. 

The peasants came to grow potatoes more and more 
exclusively, since this was the cheapest crop, and that 
which most easily sustained life without further outlay. 

296 IRELAND'S STORY [1808 

It is recorded that often during this time the poor pea- 
sant would plant his potatoes at the proper 
Potatoes the r r 

only food of season, and then go off to England to work 
peasants. £ Qr some English farmer, and so try to make 

a little money. Meanwhile, his family was left almost 
penniless, to beg or borrow. He would come back in 
time to dig his potato crop in the autumn, and in this 
way he could earn more than by growing corn and a 
variety of crops. Then we must not forget the innumer- 
able taxes he had to pay, and the repeated injustice he 
suffered at the hands of the middlemen and tax-gather- 
ers. It was nothing unusual for a peasant to be forced 
to pay rent twice over, to different middlemen, both 
claiming the same piece of ground, and to have his cattle 
sold before his eyes, if he resisted these demands. All 
this was known to parliament, or at least ought to have 
been known, since it had all been graphically described 
by Irish members. But no notice was taken of it. 

289. Financial condition of the country. Fur- 
thermore, all through the period of strife which had just 
ended, prices had steadily gone up, and, with them, the 
rent of land had increased. The Act of 1778 (see sec- 
tion 249), granting to Catholics the right " to take, hold, 
and dispose of lands in the same manner as Protestants," 
had greatly stimulated agriculture. With the freedom 
of the Irish Parliament, commerce and manufactures 
had begun to thrive. The Rebellion had only slightly 
checked this growing prosperity, while the Union, on 

the other hand, dealt a severe blow to Irish 
Union . ' 

destroys industries. A chief cause of this was the re- 
moval of the import duties which had pro- 
tected Irish manufactures. Commissions were appointed 
to investigate matters and suggest remedies, but they 
never did anything beyond holding formal and ineffect- 


ive meetings. The Poor Laws were not in existence 
at that time, and those places of refuge for the destitute 
and starving which are called poor-houses did not then 

The battle of Waterloo in June, 181 5, put an end to 
the long war between England and France. Peace was 
established, and with it came a general fall in the price 
of food, which meant serious loss to the farm- Qreat lall 
ers. The latter had been receiving high prices °*P rices - 
for their produce, which was bought by the contending 
governments for the armies in the field. With peace, 
and the disbanding of armies, the farmers lost their best 
customers, and had to sell at much lower prices, in order 
to find a buyer at all. Moreover, the returned soldiers 
greatly increased the number of applicants for work, and 
thus lowered the rate of wages which it was possible to 
obtain. These two causes directly affected Ireland. The 
farmers were unable to sell their produce for remunera- 
tive prices, and were compelled to pay the same rents as 

290. O'Connell and emancipation. Let us now turn 
again to the question of emancipation, which was upper- 
most in every patriot's mind. Daniel O'Connell had been 
for years working so quietly that his existence was hardly 
suspected by the opponents of Catholic emancipation in 
England. His watchwords were " Forward ! " and " To- 
gether ! " and he strove to remove the jealousies between 
different sections and localities which have always been 
a cause of weakness to Ireland, and to counteract the 
hunger for government positions and promotion which 
demoralized so many weak-kneed patriots. The national 
life of Ireland was always foremost in his thoughts, and 
he saw clearly that that life could never find its true 
development while the Catholics, who formed the great 




mass of the population, were kept down by legal disabil- 
ities, oppressed, and neglected. In this work he was 
ably seconded by Richard Lalor Sheil, almost as great 
an orator as himself. Grattan, now a very old man 
and worn out after his active life, died in London, 1820. 
In him Ireland lost the greatest and noblest Protestant 
upholder of Catholic rights. 

291. The Catholic Association of Ireland. In 1823, 
under the leadership of O'Connell, with the help of 

Sheil and a few 
others, a meeting 
was called in an old 
inn in the main 
thoroughfare of 
Dublin, then called 
Sackville Street, 
but since named 
after O'Connell. 
Here a new society 
was formed called 
the " Catholic As- 
sociation of Ire- 
land," which car- 
ried on the work 
of the old Catholic 
Committee. (See 
section 244.) In 
order to evade the 
Convention Act of 
1796 (see section 
269), it was decided not to make it a representative body 
to which delegates were sent, and not to limit its mem- 
bership to Catholics. The aim of the society was stated 
to be the adoption " of all such legal and constitutional 



measures as may be most useful to obtain Catholic 
emancipation." Before long the influence of Its 
the Catholic Association had spread all over Ire- influence, 
land. O'Connell and Sheil worked indefatigably. Many 
Protestants, who, like Grattan, favored emancipation, 
joined the new society, and its membership increased 
so rapidly that the English government and parliament 
soon took notice of it, and viewed its activities with 
suspicion and dislike. An act was passed in 1825 aimed 
at its destruction, but O'Connell had been so careful 
to avoid anything that savored of illegality that no pre- 
text was found for instituting prosecutions. Meanwhile, 
in Waterford and certain other cities, the Association had 
so far influenced public opinion that Protestants favoring 
emancipation were elected to the English Parliament. 
This result was chiefly due to the votes of the class 
called forty-shilling freeholders, that is, tenants who had 
a freehold lease for many years, or for life, of a holding 
worth forty shillings a year above the amount of the 
rent. These long leases made them independent of the 
landlords, who would otherwise have threatened them 
with eviction for voting in favor of a measure so distaste- 
ful to the landlord class. 

292. Catholics contest elections. At this time it was 
not illegal to elect Catholics to parliament, but the elec- 
tion was practically null and void, owing to the oath 
which a member was compelled to take before he could 
claim his seat in parliament. This oath contained 
a declaration that the chief doctrines of the Catholic 
Church were false, and, as no Catholic could consci- 
entiously take the oath, it was as effectual a bar as any 
statute of penal days. One of the patriots, Keogh's 
John Keogh by name, formed a plan for P lan - 
drawing attention to the absurdity of this regulation. 

300 IRELAND'S STORY [1828 

He suggested that a Catholic member should be elected 
for an Irish constituency, should present himself at the 
bar of the House and refuse to take the oath. An 
opportunity occurred in 1828. Mr. Vesey Fitzgerald, who 
represented Clare in parliament, accepted the office of 
president of the Board of Trade. It is the rule of the 
English Constitution that when a member of parliament 
accepts office, he must resign his seat, return to his 
constituents and seek reelection, as a sign that they 
approve his appointment to office. When Fitzgerald 
came to Clare to seek reelection, it was decided that 
O'Conneii Daniel O'Connell himself should oppose him, 
elected. anc j as Clare was in his native province and 
close to his birthplace he had little difficulty in gaining 
the support of the voters. The landlords strenuously 
opposed him, but the tenants took his part, and he 
was elected by an immense majority. His example was 
followed by prominent Catholics in other parts of the 
country, who, with the aid of the Catholic Association, 
prepared to contest a number of elections. 

293. Emancipation Act passed March 30, 1829. 
When it became evident that a number of Irish Cath- 
olics would be returned to parliament, the Duke of 
Wellington and Sir Robert Peel, then the dominant 
figures in English public life, were thoroughly alarmed. 
Wellington himself saw that the choice lay between 
emancipation and civil war, and expressed his view with 
his usual clearness and determination. Sir Robert Peel 
introduced a bill granting Catholic emancipation, which 
was carried on March 30, 1829, after a stormy discus- 
sion lasting for three days. A fortnight later King 
George IV affixed his signature to the bill, and the Act 
of Catholic Emancipation, the first step in the resurrec- 
tion of Ireland, became law. 


294. O'Connell and the parliament. The Eman- 
cipation Act made provisions for the admission to the 
House of Commons of Catholic members elected after 
April 13, the day on which the bill was signed by the 
king. O'Connell had been elected some time before this ; 
he was therefore not eligible under the new provision. 
Nevertheless, he presented himself at the bar of the 
House, and the oath in its old objectionable form 
was placed before him. He read it, declared that it 
contained statements which he knew to be false, and 
refused to take it. He was compelled in consequence 
to return to Clare and seek reelection, in order that he 
might be returned to parliament after the date of the 
signing of the act. O'Connell soon returned in triumph 
to Westminster, took the new oath provided by the 
Act of 1829, and, though a Catholic, became a lawful 
member of the English Parliament. 

295. Further concessions to Catholics. It was fur- 
ther provided that Catholics should be admitted equally 
with Protestants to all civil and military offices in the 
realm, with three exceptions. A Catholic could not be 
appointed regent, lord lieutenant of Ireland, or lord 
chancellor. It was provided, of course, by the English 
Act of Settlement that the sovereign must be a Pro- 
testant, and the English coronation oath still contains 
clauses very objectionable to Catholics. 

In order to diminish as far as possible the strength 
of the Irish Catholics, the English government decided 
to take away the votes of the forty-shilling freeholders 
who constituted the main support of the Catholic party. 
The franchise was therefore raised from forty shillings, 
or two pounds, to ten pounds in Ireland, though the lower 
rate was retained in England. 

302 • IRELAND'S STORY [1829 


As soon as England had accomplished the Union and 
destroyed the power of the Irish Parliament, she passed 
further oppressive measures. The social and economic 
conditions of Ireland were as bad as can be imagined, and 
the greatest suffering fell upon the peasantry on account 
of the evils of the land system. The Union had destroyed all 
industries, and now prices fell until the country was bankrupt. 

Grattan died in 1820 and was succeeded by Daniel O'Con- 
nell, a Catholic, as leader of the Patriotic Party. O'Connell 
bent all his energies towards securing emancipation, which 
was the first step toward remedying the evils of the time. He 
formed the "Catholic Association of Ire^nd" in 1823, 
whose influence grew until the English government became 
thoroughly alarmed. Catholics now took a bold stand and 
systematically contested elections, with the result that Eng- 
land was forced to grant the Act of Emancipation, March 30, 
1829. O'Connell and other Catholics became members of 
parliament. Catholics were further admitted to all but the 
highest offices. The franchise was raised from forty shil- 
lings to ten pounds. 




English Sovereigns : 

George IV, 1820-1830 William IV, 1830-1837 
Victoria, 1837-1901 

296. The National School System. As soon as 
the fight for emancipation was gained, and the Irish 
Catholics were represented in parliament, the leading 


men of Ireland turned their attention to securing other 
much needed reforms, first of which was suitable school 
training for the masses. For centuries the children of 

304 IRELAND'S STORY [1831 

Ireland had been deprived of proper education. It is true 
that the English government had established element- 
ary schools all over Ireland, but these schools were for 
Protestants alone, or for such Catholics as were willing to 
take part in "religious instruction," the purpose of which 
was to instil enmity against the Catholic Church. At the 
very close of the eighteenth century, some provision was 
made for the education of those Catholic youths who 
were destined for the priesthood, by the establishment 
of Maynooth College. (See section 270.) But the vast 
masses of Catholic children were still utterly neglected. 

Two years after emancipation, in 1831, the first step 
was taken to remedy this, by inaugurating the system 
of national schools, which is still in force. The two 
main provisions of this system were, that pupils of all 
religious denominations who attended the schools were 
to be taught together in the ordinary school course, and 
that there was to be no interference with the religious 
principles of any child, each denomination receiving sep- 
arate religious instruction from its own pastors. This 
new system was rapidly extended all over the country. 

297. The Whately Commission, 1835. We saw 
in the last chapter how extreme poverty increased with 
the growing population of Ireland. To remedy this, 
a royal commission was appointed in 1835, under the 
presidency of Archbishop Whately, to investigate 
the conditions of the poor in Ireland. In his report 
Archbishop Whately writes : " We cannot estimate the 
number of persons in Ireland out of work and in distress 
during thirty weeks of the year at less than 585,000, nor 
the number of persons depending upon them at less than 
1,800,000, making in the whole 2,385,000. A great 
portion of these are insufficiently provided at any time 
with commonest necessaries of life. Their habitations 


are wretched hovels ; several of the family sleep together 
upon straw, or upon the bare sod, sometimes with a 
blanket, sometimes even without so much to cover them ; 
their food commonly consists of dried potatoes, and with 
these they are sometimes so scantily supplied as to be 
obliged to stint themselves to one bare meal in the day. 
There are even instances of persons being driven by 
hunger to seek sustenance in wild herbs." 

298. The Poor Law Act, 1838. As a result of this 
report the Poor Law Act was passed in February, 1838. 
While this law did not go to the root of Irish poverty, 
nor remove any of its causes, it nevertheless provided, in 
the poor-houses which were built all over Ireland, a refuge 
and coarse food for the completely destitute. While 
the Irish peasantry have always been most unwilling to 
apply for help to the poor-houses, and have never done 
so without -a feeling of shame, these institutions have 
none the less been the means of saving hundreds of 
thousands from absolute starvation. 

299. The tithe struggle. The Catholics were still 
called upon to pay tithes, and the unjust manner in 
which these were levied, and the exactions of the tithe 
collectors, had always given rise to great discontent and 
frequent resistance and riot. The Protestant Episcopal 
Church was the church of the well-to-do minority, and 
its ministers and servants were supported very largely 
from tithes extorted from the already overburdened 
Catholics. Further, the tithes were collected Riches 01 
from the peasants directly, and not from the ?l E f tal) " 
landlord. In contrast to the Protestants, who church, 
had fine churches and well-to-do clergy, the Catholics, 
who were devoutly religious, were forced to worship in 
ruined and dilapidated buildings, and their hard-worked 
priests received a bare subsistence. 

306 IRELAND'S STORY [1838 

This state of things caused continual friction. Tithe 
collectors had to take the money for the Protestant 
mots in Church at the point of the sword, and soldiers 
Wexford. an d police were perpetually called upon to aid 
in collecting the tithes. At Newtownbarry in Wex- 
ford, in 1 83 1, thirteen peasants were killed by the yeo- 
manry in a tithe riot, and again in the next year eleven 
policemen and several peasants were killed in a similar 

While this tithe struggle was going on, Daniel O'Con- 
nell and Richard Lalor Sheil made repeated efforts in 
parliament to have the tithe system abolished entirely, 
or at least to have the burden of this tax lifted from the 
shoulders of the poorest peasants. Parliament absolutely 
refused to take any measures for the relief of this griev- 
ance, and met all remonstrance and resistance by coer- 
cion acts, the very name of which proclaimed that the 
foundation of the system they supported was force, not 
Tithes justice. Finally, the uprisings against the tithe 
transferred system grew so frequent and so fierce that par- 
tenant to liament was compelled to act. In 1838, the 
tithes were transferred from the tenants to the 
landlords, and were reduced to one fourth, to compensate 
for the great saving in collecting them in a single sum 
from one person. The result was, that the amount of the 
tithes was exacted in increased rent. But much of 
the irritation and injustice caused by the old method 
of collection was removed. 

300. Father Mathew's Crusade. The year 1838 also 
saw the beginning of the great temperance crusade under 
Father Mathew, a zealous young Capuchin friar, who had 
joined a temperance society founded in Cork by some 
members of the Quaker body. Father Mathew signed 
the pledge of total abstinence, and then began to preach 


temperance to others, gathering immense crowds of all 
denominations, who listened eagerly to his wise words. 
He won converts everywhere, and thus one of the causes 
of misery and poverty in Ireland was partially checked. 
Drunkenness greatly diminished, and for a longtime the 
influence of Father Mathew was wide and deep. 

301. Efforts toward repeal of the Act of Union. 
We now come to the two great events of this period : 
the agitation for the repeal of the Act of Union, and the 
famine. Ever since the day when the Act was passed, 
the desire for its repeal had been growing. Many had 
dreams of an independent Ireland, while many others 
confined their wishes to the reestablishment of a national 
parliament. During the first twenty-nine years of the 
nineteenth century, the patriots of Ireland had been too 
absorbed with the question of Catholic emancipation to 
give time or thought to the question of repeal. Now, 
however, O'Connell came forward as the champion of 
this cause. 

The condition of Ireland had grown steadily worse 
since the Act of Union. In 1840, O'Connell, supported 
by others, who believed that legislative independence 
would lessen the distress of Ireland, founded the Repeal 
Association in Dublin. The movement spread The Repeal 
with the greatest rapidity, for it appealed Association - 
strongly to men of different classes ; and before long 
O'Connell found himself addressing vast gatherings, to 
which the people flocked to hear his eloquent words. 
At one of the " monster meetings," as they were called, 
which was held on the Hill of Tara, it is estimated that 
quarter of a million people were present, and thirty such 
meetings were held in 1843. Meanwhile, riots and out- 
breaks of lawlessness were constantly occurring, so that 
the government became alarmed. 

308 IRELAND'S STORY [1843 

302. Failure to secure repeal. O'Connell had a sober 
people to deal with, thanks to the zeal of Father Mathew. 
He had no desire to lead a revolution. On the contrary, 
he always opposed all extreme measures. This modera- 
tion, which made it so difficult to attack him, increased 
the government's alarm, and for a time it seemed certain 
that his agitation would be crowned with success, and 
that the Union would be dissolved. But the English 
government at last took action. The advocates of repeal 
arranged for a great meeting to be held on October 8, 
at Clontarf, on the seashore north of Dublin. This 
meeting was prohibited by the government. The gov- 
ernment further determined to use force, and brought 
Arrest 01 soldiers to the scene of the meeting, compell- 
O'Conneii. m g O'Connell to withdraw. He and several 
of his associates were soon after arrested, tried, and 
convicted. For three months they were kept in prison, 
until released by a decision of the House of Lords, 
which declared that the sentence had been illegal. 
O'Connell's arrest virtually ended the repeal agitation. 

303. The Young Ireland Party. O'Connell had 
always been leader of the "Old Ireland Party" formed 
of the Catholic clergy and the great bulk of the people. 
During his imprisonment, a new party was formed by a 
number of young men, who, tired of the fruitless efforts 
for a pacific settlement between Ireland and England, 
decided to try more radical measures. This new party, 
called the "Young Ireland Party," largely consisted of 
highly educated and literary men, both Catholic and 
Protestant, and one of their aims was to unite the whole 
of the Irish people in one great organization. They 
used "The Nation," a newspaper which had been 
founded in 1842 by two Catholics, Charles Gavan Duffy 
and John Blake Dillon, and a Protestant, Thomas Davis, 


Free press. 

as their organ, and their articles often had a revolu- 
tionary tendency. Other papers were founded 
about this time, which represent the beginning 
of a free press in Ireland. Among the advocates of 
open rebellion, John 
Mitchel, an Ulster 
Unitarian, stood first, 
advocating total sepa- 
ration from England. 
The formation of 
this new party was a 
great blow to O'Con- 
nell, as it was founded 
on principles which 
he could not possibly 
approve. He pre- 
dicted that Revival 01 
this society learning. 

of rather wild and 
sanguine young men 
was certain in the 
end to bring trouble 
on its members and 
on the country. Nev- 
ertheless, the " Young Ireland Party " accomplished much 
lasting benefit. They revived Irish national literature 
and gave it new life. They also spurred the people on 
to a study of Irish history, music, and tradition. 

But they saddened the last days of the great states- 
man and " Liberator," whose watchwords had always 
been moderation and legality. Worn out with anxiety 
and disappointment, full of anguish at the De athoi 
thought of the suffering already threatened by O'Conneii. 
the famine, O'Conneii, in obedience to the orders of his 



physician, set out on a journey to Rome to seek re- 
newed health. He died before reaching his destination, 
however, passing away at Genoa on May 15, 1847. I n 
accordance with his express wish, his heart was taken to 
Rome, while his body was carried to Ireland, where it 
was buried in the great cemetery at Glasnevin, his mon- 
ument being modelled after one of the round towers of 
Ireland, surmounted by a cross. 

304. The Great Famine, 1845-47. O'Connell thus es- 
caped the misery of beholding the awful tragedy through 
which Ireland was to pass in the next few years. Fail- 
ures of the potato crop had happened before on several 
occasions, and, as the masses of the poorest population 
lived chiefly on potatoes, they experienced periodical 
suffering. But in 1845 an d 1846, the entire crop failed, 
and the misery of the country was complete. The worst 
famine and pestilence known to modern European history 
raged through Ireland during the next few years. One 
quarter of the population, which was at that time more 

than eight millions, died of starvation. No west- 

The " Black 

Forty- ern country has ever suffered a calamity equal 

seven." to that f the „ gj^^ Forty-Seven," as the year 

after the famine was called. ^ngla^iddid_some thing to 
relieve the suffering of the people by sending large sums 
of money and quantities of food ; but these contributions 
were quite inadequate when divided among the starving 

305. Emigration to America. Before the famine, 
the population of Ireland was nearly nine millions ; to-day, 
it is less than half that total, having diminished every 
Decrease of Y ear m tne ^ ast na ^ century, something that 
population. h as happened in no other European country, 
and probably in no other country in the world. Statis- 
tics show that Ireland has the fewest marriages and 


the smallest families in Europe, a fact accounted for by 
the widespread misery of its inhabitants. 

But the small families alone were not the cause of 
the startling diminution of population. A more powerful 
cause lay in another direction. The people of Ireland, 
after a century and a half of suffering and oppression in 
their own land, had at last found a way of escape. Tens 
and hundreds of thousands fled across the ocean to 
America, where they could hope to escape starvation, 
find fair opportunities, and receive protection from the 
laws. The immigration returns of the United States 
show in a remarkable way the suddenness and extent of 
this new flood of life from Ireland. In 1824, only seven 
thousand people of foreign birth entered the _ 

r r ° Great num- 

United States. The numbers then began to fcers leave 
rise steadily, and in ten years reached about 
60,000 or 70,000 yearly, a figure which was maintained 
until about 1844, on the eve of the Irish famine. By 
1854, the number of immigrants to the United States 
had risen to more than 425,000 yearly. Almost all of 
these came from Ireland. Taking the same question 
from the other side, we find that in fifty years after the 
f amine I4, 000,000 emigrants left Ireland, the vast major- 
ity of them for the United States. 

Of this movement, T. W. Russell, M. P., who held office 
in Lord Salisbury's last ministry, has written : " These 
exiles became American citizens. They nursed the 
Fenian rebellion, which threw England into a panic ; 
they financed the Land League, and changed the very 
basis of that feudal land system which so long cursed 
the country ; they hatched dynamite conspiracies, and 
paid England back, at least in part, for the sufferings of 
their fathers and their friends. But they have done far 
more, — they prevented in the past, and they prevent 

312 IRELAND'S STORY [1848 

to-day (1903), any understanding between England and 
the United States — such an understanding as Mr. 
Chamberlain thinks would dominate and control the 
world. Yes, beyond all doubt, England has paid dearly 
for the luxury of Irish landlordism — for this is what it 
all means — and she will continue to pay until she rids 
herself of the incubus." 


The first step in the resurrection of Ireland after many 
centuries of increasing misery was Catholic emancipation 
in 1829. The introduction of the National School System 
followed in 183 1. The Whately Commission was appointed 
to investigate the conditions of extreme poverty caused by 
the enormous increase of population during the last half cen- 
tury, and by the legal destruction of trade and industry. As 
a result, the first Poor Law Act was passed in 1838. The 
same year, a struggle over the injustice of the tithe system 
brought about a transfer of the tithes from tenant to landlord. 
The movement for the repeal of the Act of Union, headed by 
O'Connell, ended in failure, in 1843. The " Young Ireland 
Party," revolutionary in character, was then formed. O'Con- 
nell died during the " Black Forty-Seven," the year of the 
famine. The famine was followed by a great and steady tide 
of emigration to America. Between 1850 and 1900, upwards 
of 4,000,000 emigrants left Ireland, mostly for America. 




English Sovereign: Victoria, 1837-1901 

306. Free trade. The lesson taught by the famine 
made a strong impression on the English government. 
Sir Robert Peel was at this time prime minister, and he 
immediately changed 
England's policy to- 
ward Ireland by open- 
ing the latter to free 
trade through the 
repeal of the Corn 
Laws, which removed 
the import duty on 
wheat. The result 
was that wheat could 

be imported Corn Laws 

into Ireland repeale(L 
free of duty from any 
country on the conti- 
nent, or from Amer- 
ica, thus lowering the 
price of bread for the 
poor inhabitants of Ireland. On the other hand, the 
repeal of the Corn Laws was a blow to the Irish farmer 
because he had formerly been able to send his wheat and 


314 IRELAND'S STORY [1849 

oats to England free of duty, while all other countries 
were compelled to pay a heavy import duty on wheat. 
As Ireland is so largely agricultural, it is probable that 
the permanent loss more than counterbalanced the tem- 
porary gain. 

307. Condition of the Irish landlords. The evils 
of the famine fell very heavily on the landlord class. 
The farmers whose crops failed, and the laborers who 
could find no employment, were able to seek new for- 
Reduced tunes in America, but no such opportunity was 
to poverty. p en t the landlords, who were reduced to 
bankruptcy by the complete inability of their tenants 
to pay rent for several years in succession. They were 
unfitted by training and tradition for the hard work of 
an emigrant's life, which would have meant sickness and 
misery to their wives and daughters. They were, per- 
haps, more to be pitied than any other class in Ireland, 
although the system of things which they represented 
and supported was the cause of most of the suffering of 
the people, and of the famine itself. 

308. Encumbered Estates Court Act, 1849. The 
British government saw that the poverty of the land- 
lords affected the whole country very unfavorably, be- 
cause, lacking money, they were unable to introduce 
Need of proper improvements on their estates, to re- 
capitai. claim new land, or to fertilize the old. Eng- 
lish statesmen devised a plan which they hoped would 
introduce capital. This plan was embodied in the En- 
cumbered Estates Court Act, a law passed July 28, 
1849, w hich provided for the establishment of a court 
empowered to examine the affairs of heavily indebted 
Irish landlords whose estates were encumbered by mort- 
gages and loans, which consumed all the money that 
might have gone for improvements. The courts were 


empowered to order the sale of such estates to the value 
of ^20,000,000. It was hoped that the Irish estates thus 
sold would be bought by wealthy Englishmen, who would 
introduce into Ireland the scientific farming and system- 
atic improvements practised on English estates, and 
thus enrich the whole country, but these hopes were 
not realized. The estates sold under the Encumbered 
Estates Act were bought by Irishmen who had made 
money in trade. In general they paid prices too low 
to cover the debts and mortgages, and considered their 
new land merely as an investment, trying to extract the 
greatest possible profit from it. Thus the farmers were 
really worse off than before. 

309. Increase of rents. The new owners gained the 
idea that rents might profitably be increased, and, in 
renewing the yearly leases, they in many cases demanded 
twice or three times as much rent as before. The new 
landlords further believed themselves entitled to claim 
the ownership of all improvements previously made by 
the tenants, and to exact a higher rent on account of 
these improvements. Tenants who were not willing to 
pay these exactions were mercilessly turned out of the 
homes which they themselves had made, to beg or 

As in former days, this injustice was met by the for- 
mation of secret societies which soon drifted into crime. 
The new movement was called " Ribbonism," and its 
adherents were called " Ribbonmen." They « R n,i, on _ 
held secret meetings, where cases of extreme ism -" 
injustice were discussed, and where summary punishment 
was decreed against the perpetrators. Landlords and 
their agents were murdered in solitary places, and a sys- 
tem of organized terrorism was created. The English 
Parliament, instead of going to the root of the evil, which 

316 IRELAND'S STORY [1850 

lay in the unjust land laws and the insecurity of the 
tenant, merely tried to destroy the symptoms by passing 
a new Coercion Act, which gave the magistrates special 
power to act against the secret societies. Parliament, in 
fact, took the side of the landlords, as was only to be 
expected when it is remembered that both houses of 
parliament were largely drawn from the landlord class. 
The English people as a whole knew nothing about Ire- 
land and her condition, and it was only after their atten- 
tion had been drawn to Ireland by years of agitation and 
crime, that they finally awakened to the truth and real- 
ized that reparation must be made. The responsibility 
for the condition of Ireland during most of the nine- 
teenth century rests with the English landlords in par- 
liament, rather than with the English people. 

310. The "Tenants' League," 1850. In 1850, a more 
concerted movement to remedy the evils of the land 
system began with the formation of the Tenants' League, 
which spread from north to south and included Catholics 
it s and Protestants alike. Its object was to obtain 

demands. a re d ress f grievances for the tenants by law- 
ful means. This league drew up a very moderate pro- 
gramme of demands, which included the following 
points : — 

1. A fair valuation of the rent to be paid by the tenant 
to the landlord. 

2. Security from eviction so long as rent was regularly 


3. The right of a tenant to sell his interest in the land, 

representing the value of the improvements he had made, 
to the highest bidder. 

4. An arrangement of the question of arrears of rent. 
The Tenants' League, however, was not destined to 

accomplish the reforms at which it aimed. Dissensions 


between the followers of different churches was one of 
the main causes of weakness, and the league presently 
passed out of existence, leaving nothing tangible behind 
it. Thirty years more were to elapse before its aims were 

311. England's attitude towards Catholicism. It 
was still the general opinion in England that most of the 
evils of Ireland could be traced to the Catholic Church, 
and there was more proselytizing by the various Protest- 
ant bodies than at any former time. They declared that 
Catholicism was only a habit, the result of mental igno- 
rance and indolence, and that Ireland could soon be con- 
verted. It is easy to imagine the indignation aroused 
among sincere Catholics by this attitude, and the general 
resentment which was felt toward the new converts. 
The result was that Ireland became more truly and pro- 
foundly Catholic than before. 

312. Demand for church reform. The question of 
the disestablishment of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in Ireland now began to be agitated. It will be remem- 
bered that, owing to the church policy of Henry VIII, 
Edward VI, and Queen Elizabeth, a Protestant Church 
had been imposed on Ireland as a State Church, with 
the sovereign of England as its head, and supported 
by tithes drawn from the whole people, although hardly 
a fifth of the nation ever belonged to this church. Fail- 
ure to attend its services was for a long period punished 
by fines, and membership in it was indispensable to the 
holding of any state office. At first the popular demand 
in Ireland was limited to the repeal of the Ecclesiastical 
Titles Act, and the appropriation of the extensive re- 
venues of the State Church in Ireland to useful national 
purposes. But neither of these demands was obtained 
until after some years England was thoroughly awakened 

3 18 IRELAND'S STORY [1858 

to a realization of the state of affairs in Ireland by the 
Fenian Rebellion. 

313. The Fenians. The first step toward the forma- 
tion of the Fenian movement was taken in 1858, when 
societies Stephens and O'Mahony, its two principal lead- 
i°n g Amer- d ers > De 8' an organized agitation among the secret 
tea. societies of Ireland and America. It is inter- 
esting to remember that the name Fenian was adopted 
from the National Militia, or Fiana Eirean, of the days 
of Find, son of Cumal, father of Ossin. (See section 
38.) The stronghold of the organization was in the 
United States among the tens of thousands of Irishmen 
who had keenly felt the injustice suffered by Ireland, and 
in whose memories the horrors of the " Black Forty- 
Seven " still loomed large. Then came the Civil War 
in America, from 1861 to 1865, in which many Irishmen 
fought, and which strengthened in them the instinct of 
liberty. The Fenian body soon became formidable. Its 
treasury contained not less than $400,000. 

314. Opposition of the Catholic Church. In Ire- 
land, the Catholic Church, adhering to its traditions of 
civil order, strongly opposed the Fenian movement, as it 
had, in times past, opposed so many of the secret socie- 
ties. In Dr. Cullen, leader of the Catholic party, Ste- 
phens met a determined opponent. The Fenian Society 
was condemned by the Church, and the Sacrament was 
Country refused to its members. For a time, what Ste- 
versus phens called " the struggle between Country 

Cullenism. r , _ .. . ,, , • 1 • . 

and Cullenism was very bitter, and neither 
side gained the advantage. But in 1 861, an event took 
place which turned the balance of popular feeling in the 
direction of Fenianism. McManus, one of the leaders of 
the Young Ireland Society of 1848, died at San Fran- 
cisco, and it was decided to bring his body to Ireland, 


and bury it at Glasnevin. This was just what Stephens 
needed to arouse popular feeling — the body of a dead 
rebel receiving the honors of a national funeral. Great 
preparations had been made for the ceremony, when 
Cardinal Cullen brought matters to a climax by forbid- 
ding the religious offices for the dead man. Stephens 
retaliated by carrying out the funeral on a great scale 
without the sanction of the Church, and his cause gained 
many adherents and much popularity. 

315. Tendency toward rebellion. The government 
was kept informed of what was going on by spies, who 
were numerous in the Fenian ranks, as in the days of 
Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen. (See section 
267.) The gravity of the movement was not realized, 
however, and might have been misunderstood for some 
time longer, but for three incidents of special character. 
(1) During 1861 and 1862, there had been insignificant 
outbreaks in the south of Ireland, and many schemes 
had been discussed in America, though no concerted 
military action had been taken ; (2) O'Mahony held a 
large convention in Chicago, in 1863, to plan a more ex- 
tensive agitation in Ireland ; and (3) in the same month, 
Stephens started a newspaper in Dublin, called The "Irish 
the " Irish People." It attacked the constitu- People -" 
tional methods of " The Nation " (see section 303), and 
openly counselled rebellion. 

316. Arrest of Conspirators. The government did 
nothing, however, until 1865, when a letter from Ste- 
phens was discovered, which contained definite plans of 
rebellion, drawn up by the leaders. A descent was imme- 
diately made on the office of the " Irish People," and 
the leaders there arrested. For two months step iiens 
Stephens managed to elude the police, though escapes, 
all the time in a house near Dublin. He was finally 

320 IRELAND'S STORY [1865 

captured and imprisoned in Richmond jail, from which 
he escaped ten days later, through the help of some of 
the warders, who were Fenians. He went to France, and 
later to America. The other prisoners, of whom John 
O'Leary and O'Donovan were the ablest, were harshly 
treated, and most of them were convicted and condemned 
to penal servitude. 

317. End of the Fenian movement. Great joy was 
manifested at the escape of Stephens, and universal 
indignation was felt over the severe treatment of his 
associates. The government, already alarmed by the 
tone of popular feeling, was further startled at the rescue 
of two Fenian prisoners, by an armed body of twenty 
men. This was followed by the attempt of other mem- 
bers of the Fenian body to blow up Clerkenwell jail, 
where one of the conspirators was imprisoned. The ex- 
plosion killed twelve, and injured a hundred and twenty. 
England England was stricken by a panic, and a cry for 
alarmed. vengeance against this dangerous spirit went 
forth. So far as war measures and armed uprisings were 
concerned, the Fenians altogether failed, owing to the 
lack of thorough organization and skilled leadership. But 
these wild outbursts of passion showed the depth of 
national feeling from which they sprung, and roused the 
English government to the realization of the fact that 
it was face to face with a serious danger. By 1868, the 
violent phase of Fenianism was over, but the hatred of 
oppression and injustice remained. 

318. The awakening of England. A change had 
come over the parliament of England since the begin- 
ning of the century. Its English members had ceased 
to be representative only of the landlord class. The 
extension of the franchise to the artisans and farm 
laborers had made it far more truly a national body. 


William Ewart Gladstone was in the ascendant, and was 
infusing into English policy the principles of Gladst01l e 
humanity and justice. An added moral element and Bri s M - 
was given to his ministry by the great Quaker, John 
Bright, who struck the key-note of a new policy toward 
Ireland, in a speech at Limerick, in 1867. " Come," he 
said, " let us to-night make a new treaty. On England's 
part let it stand for justice ; on the part of Ireland let 
there be forgiveness." Gladstone had not at this time 
turned his mind to the consideration of Irish problems, 


Begun by John Comyn, archbishop of Dublin, in 1190. The square tower was built in 

1370 and the spire in 1740 

but he was forced to do this by the Clerkenwell explo- 
sion, which resounded in the ears of the English Parlia- 
ment. At last the genius of this great statesman was 
aroused, and he began the splendid policy of reparation 
and reconciliation, which has been emulated by successive 
English governments up to the present day. At no 

322 IRELAND'S STORY [1869 

time, however, did Gladstone or his successors fully sym- 
pathize with the character or understand the needs of 
Ireland, and their constructive policy was interrupted by 
Crimes Acts and Coercion Acts. But the statesmen of 
England recognized the fact that Ireland had real griev- 
ances, and that they must be redressed. 

319. Disestablishment of the Irish Church, 1869. 
Gladstone saw that the position of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church in Ireland was one of extreme injustice 
toward the whole nation, and, on the eve of the general 
election of 1868, declared his intention to disestablish 
and disendow this church. He was returned to power 
at the head of a strong and united Liberal party, and 
introduced his bill dealing with the Irish Church. The 
fight over the bill was long and fierce, but Gladstone 
finally won, and the " Act for the Disestablishment of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in Ireland " was tri- 
umphantly passed in 1869. 

It was provided by this Act that the disestablished 
church should retain all ecclesiastical buildings in its 
possession, including Saint Patrick's Cathedral and 
Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin. The financial inter- 
TheSusten- ests °f tne clergy were protected, and a Susten- 
tationFund. tation Fund was established to provide the in- 
come which had hitherto been drawn from tithes. This 
fund was a sum equal to fourteen times the yearly income 
of the Church of Ireland. A representative body, called 
the Synod of the Church of Ireland, was established to 
govern the Protestant Episcopal Church. At the same 
time, the Regium Donum, a grant to the Presbyterians 
of Ireland, and the allowance to the Catholic Training 
College at Maynooth, were placed on a similar founda- 
tion to the Irish Church Sustentation Fund. 



Free trade was granted to Ireland, in the year following 
the famine, by the gradual repeal of the Corn Laws. The 
Encumbered Estates Court Act, which was passed in 1849 to 
provide for the compulsory sale of the property of bankrupt 
landlords, and so bring capital into the country, failed in its 
aim. Rents increased and " Ribbonism " sprang up. The 
Tenants' League, formed in 1850, would doubtless have se- 
cured reform had its influence not been weakened by sec- 
tarian dissension. Discontent developed into the Fenian 
uprising of 1865-68, which was ended by the imprisonment 
of its leaders. The Fenian rebellion served to awaken Eng- 
land to an active consideration of Ireland's wrongs, and Mr. 
Gladstone took his first step towards redressing these wrongs 
by passing the " Act for the Disestablishment of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church in Ireland," in 1869. 



English Sovereigns: 

Victoria, 1837-1901 Edward VII, 1901 

320. Principle of Land Purchase. We have now 
come to a consideration of the last two acts of reparation 
to Ireland : the restoration of the land to the people, as 
the result of the agrarian revolution, and the first steps 
toward legislative independence. It will be remembered 
that in the beginning, under the rule of the tribal chiefs, 
Land. the land belonged to the people, and was 
ownecfiry safeguarded for them. When Norman influ- 
tne people, ence increased, this tribal system was slowly 
but completely changed, and by means of confiscations, 
the land gradually became the absolute property of the 
landlord, while the tribal rights of the people were 

With the passage of the Church Disestablishment Act, 
1869 (see section 319), a new principle was introduced, 
which was to prove the salvation of the peasantry of Ire- 
land. This was the principle of Land Purchase under 
which the estate of an unsuccessful or bankrupt landlord 

Peasants was s0 ^> no ^ *° a new landlord, but to the ten- 
buy back ants of the estate. The English government 
advanced the full price to the landlord, and 
the tenants gradually repaid the English government by 
instalments spread over a number of years. Thus the 


Irish people were given the first opportunity to buy 
back the land of which they had been deprived, by force 
or fraud in former centuries, though in most cases the 
instalments were spread out over so long a period that 
they could hope for entire freedom only for their grand- 
children. But more than six 
thousand tenants purchased 
their farms under the Act of 

321. The Land League, 
1879. It must not be sup- 
posed that the land question 
was voluntarily settled by the 
English government without 
any pressure from Ireland. 
Exactly the contrary is the 
truth. The people of Ire- 
land were encouraged by 
the Church Disestablishment 
Act, which righted one of 
their wrongs, to seek redress 

for another. The question of the land was now the 
gravest which remained to be solved. It involved the 
right to work, the right to earn food for one's family, 
the right to possess a home. A ferment of agitation 
gradually spread through the country which culminated 
in the formation of the Land League in 1879. The in- 
spirer of this movement was Michael Davitt, but it owed 
much of its success to the commanding genius Charles 
of Charles Stewart Parnell. The Land League Stewart 
meant the organizing of a nation in defence of 
its rights, and was far more effective than any armed 
rebellion. Its three immediate objects were Fair Rent, 
Fixed Hold, and Free Sale. 


326 IRELAND'S STORY [1879 

By Fair Rent, it was meant that the rent to be paid 

by a tenant should not be fixed arbitrarily by a grasping 

landlord, but should be justly decided by a 
Fair Rent. . J 

court, after examining the land and judging 

of its extent and fertility. Fixed Hold meant that the 

tenant should be entitled to hold his farm in 
Fixed Hold. ... r r . . 

security without fear of eviction or extortion, 

so long as he paid the fair rent decided on by the court. 

Free Sale meant that the tenant was entitled to sell 

his interest in his farm to a new tenant, that 
Free Sale. 

interest representing the capital he had invested 

in improving the farm, in fencing, draining, clearing, 

and building. 

The Land League represented the organized demand 
for these things ; and every detail of the question was 
made thoroughly clear to the peasants of every part of 
Ireland, at great public meetings, addressed by Parnell 
and his lieutenants. At first, Parnell had greatly doubted 
whether the Irish people would take up the land ques- 
tion in a serious way. " Do you think," he asked one of 
the older patriots, "that the Irish people will take part 
in an agitation for land reform ? " " I think," replied 
the patriot, " that to settle the land question, the Irish 
people would go to the gates of hell." 

From Ireland, the agitation spread to the United 
States. An extensive organization was there formed, 
which set itself the task of providing the " sinews of 
war." A parliamentary fund was collected, and Parnell 
was soon in a position to provide for his army 
Parliament- of parliamentary followers, who were thus able 
to leave their other occupations and devote 
themselves wholly to the work of reform. Parnell com- 
manded a parliamentary party of eighty-six members, and 
never was a party so well led and so finely disciplined. 


Following the example set by Joseph Biggar, of making 
long speeches and raising technical obstacles, Parnell 
perfected the system of parliamentary obstruction. He 
made it impossible for the English Parliament to carry 
on its work before it had done justice to Ireland. 

322. Gladstone's Land Bill, 1881. Meanwhile, the 
political situation was rapidly changing in England. 
The Conservative government fell, and Gladstone was 
returned to power, in 1880, as the head of a strong Lib- 
eral government. The Land League agitation had pene- 
trated to every part of Ireland, and had aroused such 
strong feelings against extortion and injustice that acts 
of violence and outrage were frequent. Glad- 
stone proclaimed the Land League an unlawful League! 
body, and its leaders, including Parnell, were 
arrested and thrown into prison. Gladstone determined, 
however, to settle the 
question of the land as he 
had settled the question 
of the church in 1869. 
He therefore drew up 
the famous Land Bill of 
1 88 1 , which secured to the 
Irish people the three ob- 
jects that had been agi- 
tated for thirty Land Court 
years: Fair Rent, estaWlsned - 
Fixed Hold, and Free Sale. 
A Land Court was estab- 
lished, with power to hold 
sessions in every part of 
Ireland, to fix fair rents, which were thenceforth called 
judicial rents, and to decide on the value of improve- 
ments made by a tenant on his farm, in order to secure 

1809- 1 898 

328 IRELAND'S STORY [1881 

him in the enjoyment of these improvements. This 
was a splendid measure, and the good it has done is 

But many evils had survived from the past, and were 
destined long to survive. A series of crops, almost as 
bad as in the famine years, had reduced the tenants to 
dire poverty, and often to starvation. Yet the landlords 
insisted on exacting the full arrears of rent, which they 
had arbitrarily imposed before the days of the Land 
Court. The consequence was that acts of violence in- 
creased, carried on chiefly by secret societies, such as the 
"Moon-Lighters" and the " Invincibles." Gladstone 
grew disgusted with the attempt to rule Ireland by force 
and coercion, and came to an agreement with Parnell, 
then in Kilmainham jail, under which he was to receive 
Parnell's support in parliament, in return for measures 
beneficial to Ireland. 

323. The Phoenix Park murders, 1882. Earl Spen- 
cer came to Ireland as lord lieutenant, bringing Lord 
Frederick Cavendish, son of the Duke of Devonshire, as 
his Chief Secretary. On May 6, 1882, the day of Lord 
Spencer's state entry into Dublin, Lord Frederick was 
walking in Phcenix Park with Thomas Burke, the per- 
manent Under Secretary for Irish affairs. Burke was 
intensely unpopular, as representing the worst elements 
of the tyrannous system which centred at Dublin Castle. 
He and Lord Frederick were surrounded by a band of 
the " Invincibles," attacked, and silently stabbed to 
death, and their assassins immediately disappeared. The 
United Kingdom was horror-struck at the news, and 
coercion took the place of conciliation. But Lord Spen- 
cer and Mr. Gladstone were soon converted to Home 
Rule for Ireland, that is, the reestablishment of an inde- 
pendent Irish Parliament. 


324. The first Land Purchase Act, 1885. Glad, 
stone's ministry fell from power in 1885, and Lord Salis- 
bury and the Conservatives returned to office. Their 
policy was marked by two principles : first, steady oppo- 
sition to the agitation of the Land League and „ 

. ° Conserva- 

tive lawlessness which followed in its wake; tiveprin- 

and second, an organized, methodical, and en- c p es * 
lightened attempt to remove the causes of Irish poverty 
and misery, one by one. They passed the first Land 
Purchase Act in 1885, a measure to enable the tenants 
to buy their farms from the landlords, and so to be rid 
of the exactions and the extortions of rent, once and 
forever. The English government placed a sum of 
$25,000,000 in cash at the disposal of the Irish farmers, 
who could borrow as much as they required to buy their 
farms at once. They were to repay the government by 
instalments spread out over forty-nine years, at the end 
of which time they would be absolute owners of the soil. 
Several thousand more tenants became owners, and 
reduced the amount they had to pay yearly by about 
one third. This measure has worked admirably, as we 
shall presently see, and the sense of security gained by 
the farmers has already begun to call forth the qualities 
of thrift, industry, and providence, which the former con- 
ditions of land tenure in Ireland had done everything to 

The Conservative ministry at the same time seriously 
considered the advisability of giving Ireland Home Rule 
and restoring the National Parliament, and the question 
was discussed with Parnell. Lord Salisbury's govern- 
ment fell, however, and a new general election brought 
Gladstone back to power. 

325. Failure of Gladstone's Home Rule Bill, 1886. 
When parliament reassembled, the Liberal party had 

33° IRELAND'S STORY [1886 

only a small majority over the Conservatives. Parnell 
had his strong party of eighty-six Irish Nationalists, and 
thus held the balance of power. By joining forces with 
the Conservatives and voting against Gladstone, he could 
bring about the fall of his ministry. Gladstone faced the 
situation and decided to bring in the Home Rule Bill, 
forming a parliamentary alliance, for the purpose, with 
_. . . Parnell. This brought about the famous split 

Division in & r 

the Liberal in the Liberal party, and the formation of the 
par 7 * independent party called the Liberal Unionists, 

who, though Liberals, opposed Gladstone's policy, and 
voted to maintain the Union between England and Ire- 
land. The division on the Home Rule Bill was taken in 
June, 1886, and Mr. Gladstone's measure was lost by 
thirty votes. The Liberal ministry fell, and Lord Salis- 
bury returned to power. 

326. Balfour's Irish policy. Arthur James Balfour 
became Chief. Secretary for Ireland in 1887. In this post 
he played two widely different roles : first, as the oppo- 
nent of the Irish party in the House of Commons, he was 
cool, polite, satirical, and very determined ; second, in 
Ireland itself, he sincerely and effectively studied the 
wants of the Irish people and set himself to devise reme- 
second dies to meet them. The second Land Purchase 
Purchase ^ill was P asse d m 1 888, by which a second 
Bin, 1888. sum of $25,000,000 was put at the disposal of 
Irish tenants who wished to purchase their farms. Mr. 
Balfour also turned his attention to what are called the 
congested " congested districts " in the west of Ireland, 
districts. The condition in these districts has been well 
described by T. W. Russell, one of the most gifted of the 
Liberal Unionists : " A great part of the crowded popu- 
lation of the western seaboard live subject to the most 
shocking conditions. The land is in many places hardly 


worth cultivating. The riches of the sea are not for 
these poor people ; they have no boats, no capital. The 
skill of the fisherman has ceased to be developed ; and 
even were the fish caught, the market does not exist, 


i. e. there are no means of transit thereto. Struggling 
for a wretched existence upon these arid patches of soil, 
growing potatoes and little else, feeding a pig and 
rearing a scarecrow of a calf — this is the method by 
which thousands of human beings drag out a miserable 

Balfour set himself to remedy this by extending a 

332 IRELAND'S STORY [1891 

system of railways through the " congested districts," 

obtaining a grant of seven million dollars from parliament 

M- . for that purpose. In 1891, Balfour went very 
Third Land r , . J 

purchase much further. He had been convinced by this 

Bill 1891 • • 

time, and had convinced his party, that in land 
purchase lay the solution of the Irish question. He 
obtained a new advance from parliament, this time for 
$170,000,000, to be applied to the purchase of farms by 
the farmers. He also formed the " Congested Districts 
Board," which was " charged with the duty of purchas- 
ing land under the Purchase Acts for the purpose of 
enlarging and consolidating farms, of improving the 
breed of horses, cattle, and poultry, aiding the fishing 
industry by erecting piers and boat-slips, by the supply 
of boats and fish-curing stations, and of developing agri- 
culture and other industry." Thus a constructive period 
gradually replaced the work of confiscation which England 
had carried on in Ireland during centuries. 

327. Failure of the Second Home Rule Bill, 1893. 
The next few years saw the division of the Irish party, 
the death of Parnell, and the introduction of Gladstone's 
Second Home Rule Bill. In one respect it differed 
widely from the former bill. Gladstone had previously 
proposed to reestablish the National Parliament in Ire- 
land, and to withdraw the Irish members from the Eng- 
lish Parliament. He now proposed to retain eighty 
of the Irish members in the English Parliament, after 
founding a separate National Parliament in Dublin. It 
was objected that under this arrangement the people of 
Ireland would not only govern themselves, but would 
also have a right to interfere in the affairs of England and 
Scotland, and on these grounds the measure was rejected 
by the House of Lords. Gladstone retired from public 
life, and the Conservatives soon returned to power. 


328. Local government for Ireland, 1898. In the 
new Conservative government the work so well begun 
by Balfour was carried on by his brother, Gerald Balfour, 
the new Chief Secretary. A supplementary Land Pur- 
chase Act was passed, very important and valuable in 
itself, but completely overshadowed by the " Local Gov- 
ernment Act," which was the great achievement of Gerald 
Balfour's administration. The result of this act County 
was practically to establish a local parliament Councils, 
for every county in Ireland, thirty-two in all, with the 
title of County Councils. These local parliaments had 
power to raise taxes for the building of roads and 
bridges, the support of schools and hospitals, and the 
protection of the poor under the Poor Laws. Of the 
thirty-two local parliaments, all but five were strongly 
Nationalist in constitution. This amounted practically to 
the reestablishment of tribal government, and was one 
step more in the restoration of ancient Ireland. This 
great measure was passed in 1898, practically closing the 
work of the nineteenth century, which will always be 
remembered as that in which the regeneration of Ireland 
was begun. The dawn of the twentieth century was 
marked by the reunion of the Irish Parliamentary Party 
after a decade of division. 

The cultivators of Ireland have for over a generation 
had an opportunity of buying back their lands by in- 
stalments. More than six thousand tenants purchased 
their farms under the Irish Church Act of 1869. The 
Land Acts of 1870 and 1881 each turned nearly a thou- 
sand tenants into proprietors. The Land Purchase Act 
of 1885 extended the same privilege to two thousand 
more. The Land Purchase Acts of 1891 and 1896 turned 
into owners of the soil no less than thirty-seven thou- 
sand former tenants. 

334 IRELAND'S STORY [1903 

329. Wyndham's Land Purchase Act, 1903. Ar- 
thur James Balfour became prime minister in 1902, 
Wyndham with George Wyndham, a descendant of Lord 
CM°e? eS Edward Fitzgerald, as Chief Secretary for 
secretary. Ireland. He decided to settle the Irish land 
question once for all, and as far as possible to sweep 
the Irish landlords out of existence. Parnell had said : 
"When the Irish landlords are as anxious to go as we 
are to get rid of them, the land question will be prac- 
tically solved." Wyndham saw that the time was rapidly 
approaching when this would be true. Through the 
operation of Gladstone's Land Courts the rents had 
selling- been twice lowered all over Ireland. A third 
value of settlement of these rents was approaching:. It 

land de- . rx ^ & 

pendent has long been the custom in Ireland to make 
uponren. ^ g se n m g_ va i ue f the land depend upon the 

rent. In general, land is sold for a sum of money equal 
to the rent for twenty years ; thus, if the rent of a farm 
were a hundred dollars a year, its selling- value would be 
two thousand dollars. In Ireland this is expressed by 
saying that the land is sold at " twenty years' purchase." 
If the Land Court reduced the rent to seventy-five dol- 
lars a year, the selling-value of the farm would fall to 
fifteen hundred dollars, so much sheer loss to the land- 

The Irish landlords had now seen the value of their 
property shrink twice under the operation of the Land 
Courts. A third shrinkage was rapidly approaching. 
This gave Wyndham his opportunity. His new Land 
Purchase Bill included two propositions : first, to put at 
the disposal of the Irish tenants a sum of English money 
so large that practically every tenant in Ireland could 
take advantage of it ; and, second, to induce the land- 
lords to part with their farms by offering them a bonus 


equal to about one eighth of the selling-price of the land. 
Thus the tenant was able to buy cheap, while the land- 
lord sold dear, both parties being in an extremely satis- 
factory position. Wyndham made it possible for the 
whole nation to buy back the land, and for the first time 
in history a whole people undertook the work of national 
redemption on the instalment plan. Wyndham's Bill 
became law, and came into operation on November 1, 

330. The success of Land Purchase. A govern- 
ment report recently printed sheds a flood of light on 
the working of Land Purchase during the thirty-four 
years preceding Wyndham's Act. It is found that, though 
the land has always been the first care of the purchasing 
tenants, the houses, both dwelling and farm buildings, 
have been very materially improved since they became 
owners of the soil. In all the four provinces, this is the 
general testimony. New buildings have sprung up, old 
ones have been repaired. On some estates, where the 
condition of purchased and non-purchased holdings can 
be contrasted, it is found that, while the houses on the 
former have been much improved, on the latter they are 
in a very neglected state. The middleman has been 
done away with. Subletting and subdivision are prac- 
tically extinct. Tenants will no longer sell part of their 
farms. " I could well perceive," says one of the English 
land inspectors, " the love that these people have for their 
little homes, and how desperate must be their position 
before parting with them ; and purchase seems to make 
them cling to them even more than before." Not less 
favorable is the verdict as to the credit and solvency of 
the new purchasers. It has increased all around, as is 
testified to by local bankers and shop-keepers, who are 
in a position to know best. A very good symptom is the 

336 IRELAND'S STORY [1903 

fact that these new land-owners are chary of getting 
into debt, and think twice before they borrow money, 
even when their credit is good. 

We can well see that a great moral change must 
accompany this steady material regeneration. A feeling 
of safety is everywhere springing up, in place of the 
" paralyzing insecurity and doubt that prevailed for gen- 
erations." A group of tenant-purchasers in Roscommon 
declare that " since they have got a hold of the land," 
they have not spared themselves in making improve- 
ments, which will be their own for all time. A parish 
Benefits of priest in Cavan says that " purchase has brought 
purchase, peace. The people are more industrious, more 
sober, and more hopeful as to their future prospects." 
The police say that, before purchase, they found the 
people troublesome and unruly, but now all is changed, 
and quietness and order reign instead. The tenant-pur- 
chasers are full of supreme contentment at their altered 
situation. A priest in Fermanagh says the people in 
his parish are more industrious now, while the consump- 
tion of whiskey has diminished by a third. The evidence 
of these two ecclesiastics vividly recalls the words put in 
the mouth of the Irish by Sir R. Kane in 1844 : " We were 
reckless, ignorant, improvident, drunken, and idle ; we 
were idle, for we had nothing to do ; we were reckless, 
for we had no hope ; we were ignorant, for learning was 
denied us ; we were improvident, for we had no future ; 
we were drunken, for we sought to forget our misery." 

331. The Department of Agriculture. The people, 
thus gradually restored to possession of their ancestral 
land, are helped at all points to make good use of their 
opportunities. Efficient aid is given by the Department 
of Agriculture, presided over by Sir Horace Plunket, 
who has been its inspiring genius from the outset. This 


board seeks to make the best knowledge and experience 
available for the cultivators of land in every part of Ire- 
land. It works through a council, which is practically 
a parliament of agriculture, drawn from every county, by 
election of members from the County Councils. The 
board has a million dollars a year to spend on the work 
of amelioration, and is doing good work year after year. 
It is supplemented by a Board of Technical Instruction, 
which has a sum of nearly a million dollars a year at 
its disposal ; and the two boards are doing all that 
is possible to make the demoralizing influence of the 
old system of unjust land laws a thing of the past, 
something to be pardoned and forgotten. 


In the beginning the land of Ireland was owned by the 
people. As the unjust landlord system grew out of confisca- 
tion and plantation, the peasantry were gradually reduced to 
misery and starvation. They were finally saved and enabled 
to regain their land by the principle of Land Purchase, which 
meant that the English government advanced money to the 
tenants to buy their farms, and the latter repaid the money to 
the government on the instalment plan. The Land League, 
formed in 1879, took up the land question, demanding Fair 
Rent, Fixed Hold, and Free Sale, but the agitation it pro- 
duced was so violent that the league was opposed as unlaw- 
ful by the government, and its leaders arrested. To Charles 
Stewart Parnell, at the head of his Irish Nationalist Party in 
parliament, is due much of the credit of solving the land ques- 
tion. Gladstone passed a bill in 188 1 granting the "Three 
F's " — Fair Rent, Fixed Hold, and Free Sale — to the Irish, 
and everything tended toward conciliation when the Phcenix 
Park murders in May, 1882, caused a reaction. The first 
Land Purchase Act was passed in 1885, while Lord Salisbury 

33^ IRELAND'S STORY [1903 

was prime minister. Gladstone introduced a Home Rule 
Bill in 1886, which was defeated by the Lords. Arthur James 
Balfour became chief secretary for Ireland in 1887 and secured 
the second Land Purchase Act in 1888, and the third in 
189 1. He also passed measures to remedy the evils of the 
11 Congested Districts." A bill granting a system of local 
government to Ireland through thirty-two County Councils 
was passed in 1898. Wyndham's Land Purchase Act of 1903 
finally settled the land question by providing a sum of money 
large enough to permit every peasant to buy his farm, so that 
the soil of Ireland is once more passing into the possession 
of the Irish people. 



332. Irish troops in European armies. Toward the 
end of the seventeenth century, when the penal laws 
were instituted, many Irish Catholics left their country 
and sought a measure of freedom on the continent. 
Numbers of men of great energy and ability began to 
enter the service of foreign kings as officers and soldiers, 
winning distinction and fame. As years went on, and 
oppression increased in Ireland, the numbers of Irish 
soldiers on the continent grew larger, so that we can 
scarcely name a battle of any importance in which 
they did not figure in a conspicuous manner. And it is 
worthy of note that the Irish regiment was always 
found with its face to the foe in the thick of the fight. 
Macaulay, in writing of the effect of the penal laws, tells 
how Irish Catholics rose to important military and civil 
positions in France, Italy, and Spain, in the armies of 
Frederick the Great and of Maria Theresa ; Irish Cath- 
olics, who, if they had remained at home, would have 
been looked down upon by all " the ignorant and worth- 
less squireens who had signed the declaration against 
transubstantiation. In his palace at Madrid he [Wall, 
minister of Ferdinand the Sixth] had the pleasure of 
being assiduously courted by the ambassador of George 
the Second, and of bidding defiance in high terms to the 
ambassador of George the Third. Scattered all over 
Europe were to be found Irish counts, Irish barons, 


Irish Knights of Saint Louis and of Saint Leopold, of 
the White Eagle and of the Golden Fleece, who, if they 
had remained in the house of bondage, could not have 
been ensigns of marching regiments or freemen of petty 

333. The Irish in France. Greater numbers of Irish- 
men have fought in the armies of France, long England's 
bitterest enemy, than under the flag of any other nation 

on the continent. After the siege and sur- 
After sur- .... 

render of render of Limerick, in 1691, almost the entire 
merc ' garrison embarked for France, on the advice 
of Sarsfield, and under the command of Lieutenant- 
General Sheldon, and there formed the famous Second 
Brigade. What was known as the First Brigade con- 
sisted of the three regiments sent the year before to 
Louis XIV, in exchange for help from France in the 
cause of James II. But in this exchange the French 
did not keep faith, for they sent over several very infe- 
rior regiments composed of young and inexperienced 
men, while the soldiers returned from Ireland were 
picked regiments of old and disciplined men under 
Mountcashel, Daniel O'Brien, eldest son of Lord Clare, 
and Arthur Dillon. This brigade served with Catinat 
in Italy, where they distinguished themselves in many 
fights on the old battle-fields of the world. 

The Second Brigade, under the command of Sarsfield, 
took part in the siege of Namur, which surrendered 

after seven days. Sarsfield, at its head, publicly 
Sarsfield. . J > r j 

received the thanks of the French for the 
great service rendered them, and in the following March 
was made a field-marshal. But he was not destined to 
enjoy his honors long, for in July of the same year, 1693, 
he met his death at the battle of Landen, fighting in 
the cause of a petty tyrant who refused to tolerate the 


Huguenots. Sarsfield's death was made all the more sad 
and bitter by the realization that he had not sacrificed it 
in the service of his own country, nor even for a great 
ideal. As he lay mortally wounded on the battle-field, 
he is said to have raised his hand wet with his own blood, 
and to have cried, " Oh, that this had been for Ireland." 

During the War of the Spanish Succession, which 
broke out in 1701, the Irish Brigade held an important 
position in all the great battles, and rendered in the war 
invaluable service to France. The successful g pan J sll 
defence of Cremona when surprised by Prince succession. 
Eugene was due to the valiant stand of a small company 
of Irishmen who held the Po gate of the city against 
greatly superior numbers. The bravery of the Irish 
troops was conspicuous at the famous battles of Blen- 
heim (1704), Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709), 
and Irishmen fought under Berwick at the battle of 
Almanza. Mahony won victories for the French in 
Sicily, while at the battle of Fontenoy, in 1745, the 
greatest victory of France over England since the battle 
of Hastings, in 1066, the Irish acquitted themselves 
in such a manner that the English king is said to have 
exclaimed, " Cursed be the laws which deprive me of 
such subjects ! " 

After the French Revolution, during the Consulate 
and the Empire, the war records of the Irish in France 
were no less remarkable. Napoleon found two Irlsn ^^ 
generals and five colonels, to say nothing of Napoleon, 
numerous troops, among the exiles who poured into 
France after the Irish rebellion of 1798. After the Re- 
storation most of these men remained true to the fallen 
Napoleon, but a new line of French-Irish descendants of 
the men of the Brigade rose into prominence. An Irish 
count was the last to draw sword for the Bourbons in 



1 79 1, while an Irish general stood by them to the end in 

Among the most distinguished Irish families in France 
during the middle of the last century were the Mac- 
TheMac- Mahons. They were Irish Catholics who main- 
Mahons. tained their allegiance to the Stuarts, and thus 
came to settle in France. The most conspicuous mem- 
ber of this family, the famous Marshal MacMahon, was 


I 808- 1 893 

born at Sully (Saone et Loire) in 1808. His father 
had been made a peer by Charles X, whose personal 
friend he was. The boy was educated at St. Cyr, and 
then entered the army and went to Algeria, where he 


saw hard service for several years. He had risen to the 
rank of brigadier-general when the revolution of 1848 
broke out, and after that date he was promoted in swift 
succession : he became general of division in 1852, and 
was made Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor in the 
following year ; he was in command of infantry under 
Bosquet in the Crimea, was made Grand Cross of the 
Legion and senator for his part in the assault of the 
Malakoff, and finally commander-in-chief of the forces in 
Algeria. He won his greatest military honor, however, 
when in command of the second army corps of the Alps, 
in 1859, at tne battle of Magenta. After the battle he 
was made Duke of Magenta and marshal of France, by 
the Emperor Napoleon III. Two years later, in 1861, he 
represented the emperor at the coronation of William 
III of Prussia, and in 1864 he became governor-general 
of Algeria. In 1870, he commanded the army from 
Chalons to Sedan, and was wounded just in time to be 
free from the responsibility of the surrender. After the 
fall of M. Thiers in the spring of 1873, this great Irish- 
man was elected President of the French, a position which 
he filled with dignity, force, and tact until June, 1879. 

The following extract from a lecture by Sir C. G. 
Duffy, in Melbourne, gives an idea of the position of the 
Irishmen in France during the presidency of Marshal 
MacMahon : " In the drawing room of the Irishln 
President of the French Republic, who is the the French 
natural head of the exiled families, I met de- 
scendants of Irish chiefs who took refuge on the conti- 
nent at the time of the Plantation of Ulster by the first 
Stuart ; descendants of Irish soldiers who sailed from 
Limerick with Sarsfield, or a little later with the 'Wild 
Geese ' [Jacobites] ; of Irish soldiers who shared the 
fortunes of Charles Edward [the 'Young Pretender']; 


of Irish peers and gentlemen to whom life in Ireland 
without a career became intolerable in the dark era 
between the fall of Limerick and the rise of Henry 
Grattan ; and kinsmen of soldiers of a later date, who 
began life as United Irishmen, and ended as staff offi- 
cers of Napoleon. Who can measure what was lost to 
Ireland and the [British] Empire by driving these men 
and their descendants into the armies and diplomacy 
of France? All of them except the men of '98 have 
become so French that they scarce speak any other lan- 
guage. There is a Saint Patrick's Day dinner in Paris 
every 17th of March, where the company consists chiefly 
of military and civil officers of Irish descent, who com- 
memorate the national apostle, but where the language 
of the speeches is French, because no other would be 
generally understood. I reproached a gallant young 
soldier of this class, whom I met in Paris, with having 
relinquished the link of a common language with the 
native soil of his race. 'Monsieur,' he replied proudly, 
'when my ancestors left Ireland they would have scorned 
to accept the language any more than the laws of Eng- 
land ; they spoke the native Gaelic' " 

334. Irish soldiers in Spain and Austria. In 1585, 
Queen Elizabeth raised a forced levy of 1 500 Irish troops 
to fight against the Spaniards in the Lowlands. As might 
be expected, these troops, which were led by Sir Edward 
Stanley, an English Catholic, took the first opportunity 
Stanley's to exchange the service of Queen Elizabeth for 
corps. tliat f the Catholic king of Spain. Stanley's 

corps distinguished itself in many battles, and " though 
young troops, displayed the steadiness of veterans and 
a spirit of gallantry not surpassed even in that military 


In 1598, the Irish were at the capture of Orsoy and 


the siege of Rhinberg. In 1599, they fought under 
Cardinal Andrew of Austria, governor of the intiiei7tii 
Netherlands. They continued to serve in the centur y- 
Netherlands until the peace of 1609 between the States 
and the Archduke Albert, sharing in the capture of 
Ostend and Grave, and everywhere fighting with ex- 
treme bravery. When Charles II of England was an 
exile on the continent, there were several Irish regiments 
in the service of Spain and France. One of these was 
commanded by Richard Grace of Gracefield in Queen's 
County. Justin McCarthy, Lord Muskerry, afterwards 
Lord Mountcashel, commanded another regiment. Sir 
John Darcy led a third. 

Three times during the eighteenth century, men of 
Irish race were ambassadors of Spain at the English 
court. Alexander O'Reilly, afterwards Span- _ ,_ ,_. 

J ' m r In the 18th 

ish ambassador at the court of Louis XVI, was century and 

lof AT 

governor of Cadiz. "It is strange," said Napo- 
leon, on his second entry into Vienna in 1809, "that on 
each occasion on arriving in the Austrian capital I should 
find myself in treaty with Count O'Reilly." The dra- 
goon regiment led by the same Count O'Reilly saved 
the remnant of the Austrians at Austerlitz. The Blakes, 
O'Donnells, and Sarsfields were equally famous in Spain. 
O'Donnell, Duke of Tetuan, was a dominant figure in 
Spanish politics during the middle of the nineteenth 

335. Irishmen in Portugal. The O'Neill, Count de 
Tyrone, recently writing of the Irish in Portugal, says : 
" Here also the Irish blood is in great favor since more 
than two centuries. Among dukes and barons, minis- 
ters, judges, lawyers, high-reputed officers in the army 
and navy, everywhere, old Irish names are to be met 
with and the names of O'Donell, O'Neill, O'Daly, de la 


Poer, Kelly, FitzGerald, O'Meagher, Sarsfield, O'Farrell 
and many others are repeatedly met with in our history. 
An O'Neill, Count Santa Monica, was the tutor of the 
present king, Don Carlos, and the family enjoys a high 
position at court. The Duchess of Saldanha is a Fitz- 
Gerald, in fact this little country is a great example of 
the worth of Irish blood." 

336. Other distinguished Irishmen on the conti- 
nent. A recent writer says : " Within a century, the 
great Leinster house of Kavanagh counted in Europe an 
aulic councillor, a governor of Prague, a field-marshal at 
Vienna, a field-marshal in Poland, a grand chamber- 
lain in Saxony, a count of the Holy Roman Empire, 
a French Conventionist of 1793, Godefroy Cavaignac, 
co-editor with Armand Carrell and Eugene Cavaignac, 
sometime dictator in France, and Edward Kavanagh, 
minister of Portugal. Russia found among the exiles a 
governor-general of Livonia. Count Thomond was com- 
mander at Languedoc. Lally was governor at Pondi- 
cherry. O'Dwyer was commander of Belgrade ; Lacy, of 
Riga ; Lawless, governor of Majorca." 

Count Taafe is another of the Irish rulers of nations. 
Descended from a distinguished Sligo family, he was for 
years a commanding figure in Austro-Hungarian politics. 
Count Taafe was also a Knight of the Golden Fleece, 
a Knight of Malta, and a Knight of St. John. Baron 
O'Carroll is a rising light of the Austrian diplomatic 
service. In the Austrian army there are also a Baron 
O'Brien, a Baron Brady, a Baron McGuire and a Count 
O'Kelly, as well as many other distinguished officers of 
Celtic descent. 

Many Irishmen are counts of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire. Among these are Count O'Gorman, Count Rus- 
sell, Count Moore, and Count Cecil-Kearney. In Russia, 


the family of General Obrutscheff is descended from the 
Irish O'Bryans, just as the Odontscheffs are descended 
from the O'Donnells. 

It is an interesting subject of speculation, though a 
melancholy one, to consider what the history of Ireland 
might have been, had all these men of force and genius 
been free to use their great powers for the betterment of 
their native land, instead of spending their lives as exiles 
among foreign peoples. 


337. Colonists before the Revolution. About the 

time of the flight of the earls, 1607 (see section 151), 

North America began to receive colonists from Europe. 

It thus happened that at the time of the next great Irish 

exodus, after the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian 

invasion, a new field was opened for the Irish who were 

driven from their native land. They first came 
Brought as . J 

slaves to as slaves. The merchants of Bristol made ar- 

America. . i <■ -r-. i • ■, 

rangements with the English government to 
send Irish men, women, and girls to the sugar plan- 
tations in the West Indies and to New England. The 
commissioners of Ireland under the Commonwealth gave 
these merchants orders directed to the governors of 
Irish garrisons, who were to deliver to them the prison- 
ers of war in their keeping. The destitute who were of 
an age to labor, or, if women, were of marriageable age, 
were also handed over to them, and further directions 
were given to all in authority to seize those who had no 
visible means and deliver them to the agents of the 
British merchants. On September 14, 1653, Captain 
John Vernon contracted to supply two hundred and fifty 
women of the Irish nation above twelve years and under 
forty-five, also three hundred men above twelve years 
and under fifty, from the south of Ireland, and to trans- 
port them into New England. This is only one instance 
out of many. It is calculated that in four years the 
English firms of slave-dealers shipped 6400 Irish men 


and women, boys and maidens, to the British colonies 
of North America. 

The stream of immigration from Ireland, thus begun 
in slavery, continued under more or less voluntary con- 
ditions in the years that followed. Large num- . , 

y ° Voluntary 

bers of Irish Catholics came to Maryland, immigra- 
where there was more religious liberty than in 
England. We even find the Protestant inhabitants trying 
to check this immigration by passing an act in 1708 
imposing a fine of twenty shillings per head on Irish 
servants, " to prevent the importing of too great a num- 
ber of Irish Papists into the province." This tax was 
evidently insufficient, for Maryland passed another act 
in 1717, with even more stringent provisions against 
" Irish Papists." 

Details for the rest of the pre-Revolutionary period are 
incomplete, but we have certain significant facts which 

indicate the truth. In the years 1 771 and 1772 „ fc 

J ' ' " Number 

the number of emigrants from Ireland to Amer- of immi- 
ica amounted to 17,350. Within the first fort- grants ." 
night of August, 1773, no less than 3500 emigrants from 
Ireland arrived at Philadelphia. From the beginning of 
the century the proportion of Irish to all other immi- 
grants had been very great. In one year, of which we 
have the record, the numbers were as follows : Irish, 
,5655; English and Welsh, 267; German, 243; Scotch, 
43. Numbers of Irish emigrants also went to the Caro- 
linas and Georgia, and it is probable that the proportions 
were about the same as in Pennsylvania. Very many of 
them were doubtless disguised by the fact that they had 
been compelled by law to drop their Celtic family 
names and to take names like Black and Brown, Smith 
and Butler, which gave them a Saxon air, though they 
were of Celtic race. 





338. The Irish in the Revolutionary War. It is in- 
teresting to remember that the first action in the War 
of the Revolution was led by an Irishman. On 
December 14, 1774, four months before the 
fight at Concord, a body of armed men, led by 
Major John Sullivan, stormed the English stronghold of 
Fort William and Mary at Newcastle, near Portsmouth, 
N. H. The garrison was captured, the munitions of war 
taken, and the British flag hauled down. Six months 

later, the powder captured at 
Newcastle was used at Bun- 
ker Hill. Major John Sullivan 
was the grandson of Major 
Philip O'Sullivan, one of the 
defenders of Limerick, who 
went to France with Sarsfield 
after the treaty. Three of 
Major Sullivan's brothers were 
likewise officers in the. Con- 
tinental army, and later on 
two of them became governors 
of Massachusetts and New 

It is estimated that about 
one fourth of the American 
officers in the Revolutionary War were Irish by birth or 
descent. Among the most famous was Major-General 
Major- Anthony Wayne, known as Mad Anthony on 

Anthony account of his reckless valor. Born of Irish 
Wayne. parents, he entered the army at the age of 
twenty-nine, and fought in Canada, arid at the battles of 
Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. He led the 
assault in the desperate attack on Stony Point. General 
Walter Stewart came to America from Londonderry. 



He entered the army when very young, and so great 
was his military ability that he was a colonel other 
at twenty-one, being promoted over the heads irishmen, 
of many native American officers several years his 
senior. General William Thompson was also a native 
of the north of Ireland. He accompanied Montgomery 
in his expedition to Quebec, and commanded the Amer- 
ican forces at the battle of Trois Rivieres in Canada, in 
June, 1776. Major-General Knox was of Irish parentage, 
and served with great distinction as an artillery officer 
during the whole of the Revolutionary War. He was 
Secretary of War and of the Navy under Washington 
until 1794. General William Irvine was born in the 
north of Ireland. He raised, commanded, and equipped 
a regiment of the Pennsylvania line, and was intrusted 
with the defence of the northwestern frontier. Later 
on he entered Congress. General Edward Hand, Wash- 
ington's adjutant-general, was also of Irish descent. 
Brigadier-General Stephen Moylan, a native of the south 
of Ireland and brother of the Catholic Bishop of Cork, 
was one of Washington's most distinguished cavalry 
officers. General Richard Montgomery, the first com- 
mander of the Continental army to fall in battle, was 
born in County Donegal at Conroy Castle near Raphoe. 
After Montgomery's death at Quebec, John Sullivan 
became general of the northern division of the Conti- 
nental army, and served with great distinction during 
the rest of the campaign. General John Stark, whose 
"Irish brogue" Daniel Webster loved to imitate, came 
from one of the older Irish families of New Hampshire. 
He fought at Bunker Hill, Trenton, Princeton, and Ben- 
nington, where he gained great renown. Colonel Richard 
Butler, who afterwards rose to the rank of major-general, 
was descended from the Leinster Ormonds. He and 


two brothers greatly distinguished themselves at Stony 
Point and Saratoga. John Barry, the first commodore of 
the American navy, was born in County Wexford. 

Besides these distinguished men, there were many 
soldiers of Irish birth or descent in the forces of the 
Their iniiu- French allies, as for example, Count Arthur 
American" Dillon, wno nac * brought with him his own Irish 
Revolution, regiment which he had commanded in France. 
The Irish element in the rank and file of the American 
army was even stronger. In the English Parliamentary 
Commission which was appointed to investigate the 
numerous failures of the British generals in America, 
Edmund Burke raised the question of the nationality of 
the American troops. He was told that General Lee had 
declared that, " half the rebel Continental army were 
from Ireland." Luke Gardiner gave similar evidence 
in the Dublin Parliament. Speaking in April, 1784, on 
Irish commerce, he is reported to have said : " America 
was lost by Irish emigrants. I am assured, from the 
best authority, the major part of the American army 
was composed of Irish, and that the Irish language was 
as commonly spoken in the American ranks as English. 
I am also informed it was their valor that determined 
the contest, so that England had America detached from 
her by force of Irish emigrants." 

339. The Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick. Some 
years before the outbreak of the war, the Irish settlers 
in America formed " The Society of the Friendly Sons 
of Saint Patrick," in which all differences of religion 
and politics were forgotten. The society met at Philadel- 
phia, then the chief city of the Thirteen Colonies, and 
consisted of men distinguished in the social and political 
life of the times. This society naturally held very de- 
cided views on the struggle for American independence. 


Washington spoke of it as " distinguished for the firm 
adherence of its members to the glorious cause mu . 

# Tnelr work 

in which we are involved." Many of its mem- for inde- 

bers helped to form the first troop of Penn- pen ence * 
sylvania cavalry, to which Washington paid a warm 
tribute for its noble example of discipline and subordi- 
nation, its spirit and its bravery. To this society belonged 
most of the distinguished generals whose names have 
been enumerated. Brigadier-General Stephen Moylan 
was the first president of the " Friendly Sons." When 
the Bank of Pennsylvania was founded to supply funds 
for the support of the American army, nearly one third 
of the subscribers, and more than one third of the 
capital, were supplied by the " Friendly Sons of Saint 
Patrick," who contributed $517,500, out of a total of 
$1,500,000. After the war was over, the society met 
on December 17, 1781, and " His Excellency, General 
Washington, was unanimously adopted a member of the 
society." To this famous society many of the most 
distinguished Irish- Americans have since belonged, and 
belong to-day. 

340. Emigration before the famine. The Napoleonic 
wars only checked emigration to America. After the 
battle of Waterloo, the tide began to flow again. It is 
hard to get correct figures at first, since great numbers 
of Irish men and women were recorded simply as having 
come from the British Isles, and their Irish origin was 
thus obscured. It is estimated that in the decade begin- 
ning with 1820, more than 27,000 Irish emigrants came 
to the United States ; in the following decade the num- 
bers were about 30,000. Between 1840 and 1850, the 
number rose to 162,000, the great increase being due to 
the migration caused by the famine. From 1847 to 1854 
inclusive, the arrivals from Ireland averaged 150,000 


a year, and up to 1872, the total of Irish emigrants to 
the United States exceeded 3,000,000. It is probable 
that there are from 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 people of 
Irish birth or descent in the United States to-day. 

341. After the famine. The Irish men and women 
who escaped from their famine-stricken country after the 
" Black Forty-Seven" were, for the most part, at the end 
of their resources. So long as they had any money 
they had clung to their old homes, and they had finally 
reached the shores of America by a supreme effort which 
left them without means to obtain favorable conditions 
in their new home. As a consequence, they remained 
largely in the eastern cities, unable to penetrate into 
the west, or to obtain farms and form settlements in the 
country. The effect of city life, in crowded tenements, 
has been extremely disadvantageous, and is felt in a 
marked degree to the present day. 

342. Irish in the Civil War. When the Civil War 
between the North and South broke out, in April, 
1861, the Irish in America, with the bitterness of their 
forced exile still in their hearts, were considering the 
possibility of a new armed insurrection against England. 
They saw in the war an opportunity for military train- 
ing, and numbers of them joined the armies of the North 
with this aim in view. It is computed that not less than 
170,000 Irishmen were enrolled in the Northern army; 
and they fought in Virginia, in Georgia, and the Caro- 
linas with the same valor and fire that the Irish of the 
Revolutionary period had shown on the battle-fields of 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. A single 
instance from an English historian must suffice to illus- 
trate this valor. The Hon. Francis Lawley writes : 
"To the Irish division commanded by General Meagher 
was principally committed the desperate task of bursting 


out of the town of Fredericksburg, and forming under 
the withering fire of the Confederate batteries, AtFreder . 
toattack Marye's Heights, lowering immediately icksburg. 
in their front. Never at Fontenoy, at Albuera, or at 
Waterloo, was more undoubted courage displayed by 
the sons of Erin than during those six frantic dashes 
which they directed against the almost impregnable 
position of their foe. . . . The bodies, which lie in dense 
masses within forty yards of the muzzles of Colonel 
Walton's guns are the best evidence of what manner of 
men they were who pressed on to death with the daunt- 
lessness of a race which has gained glory on a thousand 

General Thomas Francis Meagher, the organizer of the 
Irish Brigade, was born in Waterford, in 1823. He took 
part in Smith O'Brien's rising, and was arrested Q eneral 
and condemned to death. His sentence was Meagher, 
commuted to transportation to Van Dieman's Land, 
whence he escaped in 1852, and came to America. Gen- 
eral Meagher was only one among many of the distin- 
guished Irishmen in the ranks of the Federal army. 

343. The Fenian movement and its aftermath. Im- 
mediately after the close of the War of the Rebellion 
came the Fenian rising in Ireland. Many of its agents 
were Americans, who had learned military science in the 
war. The movement failed as a political enterprise, but 
left very important literary results, not only in Ireland, 
but also in America. Several of the leaders who were 
arrested were sent as convicts to Australia, as the men 
of '48, like John Mitchel and Meagher, had been before 

The most noteworthy of these political exiles was John 
Boyle O'Reilly, who was only twenty-two at the time 
of the Fenian rising. He escaped from Australia in 


February, 1869, and after many perilous and dramatic 
joim Boyie adventures, came to America, where he won 
O'Reilly. a reputation as an orator and writer of great 
distinction. Among his verses is a poem on Western 
Australia, which records the impression made on him 
by the land of his exile : — 

" Nation of sun and sin, 
Thy flowers and crimes are red, 
And thy heart is sore within 
While the glory crowns thy head. 
Land of the songless birds, 
What was thine ancient crime, 
Burning through lapse of time 
Like a prophet's cursing words ? " 

For many years O'Reilly was connected with the " Bos- 
ton Pilot," which, with the "Irish World," represented the 
most influential and best written section of the Irish- 
American press. As many of the writers in these papers 
were recent political exiles, it is only natural that their 
tone was militant. His place on the " Boston Pilot " 
has been taken by another distinguished man of letters, 
James Jeffrey Roche, who has written an excellent life 
of O'Reilly. The spirit of O'Reilly's work in both prose 
and verse is well represented by the following lines 
addressed to his native land : — 

" Ah, we call thee Mother Erin ! Mother thou in right of years ; 
Mother in the large fruition ; mother in the joys and tears. 
All thy life has been a symbol ; we can only read a part : 
God will flood thee yet with sunshine for the woes that drench thy 

" Island of Destiny ! Innisfail ! for thy faith is the payment near; 
The mine of the future is opened, and the golden veins appear. 
Thy hands are white and thy page unstained. Reach out for the 

glorious years, 
And take them from God as his recompense for thy fortitude and 




While O'Reilly's best verses related to Ireland, he 
also made considerable contri- 
bution to the literature of his 
adopted country on themes 
strictly American. When this 
gifted writer died in August, 
1890, being then only forty-six 
years old, the general verdict 
on his character and work was 
eloquently expressed by Cardi- 
nal Gibbons, who bore witness 
in these words to the virtues of 
his fellow countryman : "The 
country of his adoption vies 
with the land of his birth in tes- 
tifying to the uprightness of his 

life, the usefulness of his career and his example, the 
gentleness of his character, the nobleness of his soul." 

The system of organization, which had failed to bring 
the Fenian movement to success, was revived in the 
days of the Land League, by men like Judge Morgan 
Morgan J. O'Brien, with the happiest results. J- O'Brien. 
To the funds subscribed in America was largely due the 
success of the land agitation in parliament, and conse- 
quently the passing of the successive Land Bills, which 
are giving back the land to the people. 

344. Archbishop Ireland's settlements. A distin- 
guished Irishman of great genius and courage formed 
a plan for transferring the overcrowded Irish population 
of the cities to the open lands of the West. In 1876, 
Dr. Ireland planted his first colony in Swift County, 
Minnesota. He selected a tract of land several thousand 
acres in extent, which he obtained on very favorable 
terms from one of the great railroad companies. He 


then formed a bureau, with a secretary, who supplied full 
details of the character, price, and condition of the land 
to Catholic families who desired to secure homes in the 
great West. A church, a post-office, and a large general 
store were established, but no public-houses were allowed 
to be opened. Total abstinence from intoxicants was 
inculcated as one of the conditions of success in life on 
the prairies." Town sites were laid out, and lumber for 
building was brought by the railroad. Intending set- 
tlers could have twenty acres of their farms ploughed up 
the summer before their arrival. The example set by 
Archbishop Ireland and the St. Paul Catholic Coloniza- 
tion Bureau has been largely imitated through the West, 
and the benefit to the Irish inhabitants of the Eastern 
cities and to newcomers from Ireland has been immense. 

345. The Catholic Church in America. It is in- 
structive to consider the position of the Catholic Church 
in Ireland, persecuted and proscribed for centuries, and 
reduced at one time to a few hundred thousands, on the 
head of whose priests a price was set equal to that paid 
for the destruction of a wolf ; and to compare it with the 
situation of the same church in the United 
States, with ten million adherents, presided over 
by a hierarchy of seventeen archbishops and eighty-one 
bishops, all but a small percentage of whom are de- 
scended from the original Irish race. No more striking 
contrast could well be conceived. 

The Catholic Church in America seems destined to 
accomplish certain great ends. All through history 
the Irish race has held firmly to spiritual ideals. The 
political troubles which overtook Ireland during three 
centuries were largely the result of the firm spiritu- 
adherence of the Irish race to their church, aUt y- 
and the primal spirituality of Ireland was strengthened 


and purified in the fires of persecution. The same spir- 
ituality remains, though largely undeveloped and not yet 
fully conscious, in the Irish race in America. It is 
easy to see how great a part this spirituality may play in 
tempering the materialism of a hard and self-seeking age. 
This is one part of the church's mission in America. 

The Catholic Church stands for law and discipline as 
well as for spirituality. One of the great dangers in 
American civilization is a disregard of law, or Lawand 
what is much worse, a misuse of the machinery discipline, 
of law for personal and selfish ends. The spirit of 
reverence for the law is obscured, and the whole state 
is thus brought into danger. Here again, the Catholic 
Church, with its spirit of discipline and obedience, has 
a great mission to fulfil. 

The Ancient Order of Hibernians. This most note- 
worthy organization of Catholics of Irish race covers 
practically every state and territory in the Union, with 
branches in Canada and Mexico. Its divisions conform 
to the civil framework of the United States, also follow- 
ing the lines of the Catholic Church. Thus, as always, 
the Irish national and religious ideals are closely related. 
Many leaders of the Catholic Church are within its ranks, 
and a high prelate fills the office of National Chaplain. 
The Order seeks to promote Christian charity, to care for 
the sick and needy among its members, to forward the 
cause of practical religion. It also seeks to foster na- 
tional pride, to advance the cause of Irish nationality and 
to preserve the language, literature, traditions and ideals 
of Ireland. It has already contributed fifty thousand 
dollars for a chair of Gaelic Literature in the Catholic 
University of America. 


346. The Irish in India. One of the most distin- 
guished Irish families in the history of the British Em- 
pire, was that of Garrett Wellesley, Earl of Mornington 
The (i 720-1 781), whose birthplace was in County 

weiiesieys. Meath. He was equally famous as a states- 
man and a musician, and was especially interested in the 
traditional music of Ireland. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Music from Trinity College, Dublin, a degree 
which is very rarely given, and only in recognition of 
the highest merit. His fame, however, is eclipsed by 
that of his two distinguished sons. The eldest of these 
was Richard, afterwards Marquis of Wellesley, born in 
Dublin, in 1760. He sat in the Irish House of Lords 
some time before the Union. Later, he entered the 
English Parliament, and was nominated one of the Lords 
of the Treasury. In 1797, he was appointed governor- 
general of India, and proceeding to that wonderful coun- 
try, he displayed high administrative talent, promptness 
of action, and strength of will in the work of government. 
He defeated Tippu Sahib, annexed his territories, and 
also won victories over the Mahrattas at Assaye and 
Lassawari. The Marquis of Wellesley resigned the gov- 
ernor-generalship of India in 1805, an d was appointed 
ambassador to the court of Madrid. He was later secre- 
tary of state for foreign affairs and lord lieutenant of 


Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, 
third son of the Earl of Mornington, and Duke of 
younger brother of the Marquis of Wellesley, Wellington, 
was born either at Dangan Castle, in Meath, or in Dub- 
lin, in 1769. He entered the army in 1787, and six 
years later represented Trim in the Dublin Parliament. 
In 1797, he went to India with the rank of colonel, arriv- 
ing a few months before his elder brother. In 1799, 
he was made governor of Mysore, recently annexed to 
the British domin- 
ions. Returning 
to Europe, he was 
appointed chief 
secretary for Ire- 
land in 1807, but 
events on the 
continent soon 
brought a change 
in his life, and his 
great opportunity 
for fame. In 1808, 
he was made lieu- 
tenant-general and 
chief of the forces 
in the Peninsula. 
From that time 
until his final vic- 
tory over Napo- 
leon at Waterloo, 

in 181 5, his life is a part of European history. He was 
prime minister of England for.the three years following 
1827, and therefore at the time when Catholic emanci- 
pation was finally gained for Ireland. He died in 1852. 



Sir Francis Rawdon-Hastings, second Earl of Moira, 
in County Down, was born in 1754. Entering the army 
Earl of m 1 77 l > ne rose to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
Moira. era | m tne American revolutionary war. In 
1794, he was sent with ten thousand men to join the 
Duke of York's ill-fated expedition to Holland. In 
1 813, he was appointed governor-general of India, where 
he carried on successful wars against the Nepalese and 
Pindaris. He was head of the government in India for 
ten years, and was then appointed governor of Malta. 
He was created Marquis of Hastings, and died shortly 
after on board the Revenge in Baia Bay, near Naples. 

Richard Southwell Bourke, Earl of Mayo, was born in 
1822. He was descended from William de Burgo, who 
succeeded Strongbow as lord lieutenant of Ireland in 
Earl of ll 77- The Earl of Mayo, who had served for 
May0, some time as chief secretary for Ireland, was 

appointed governor-general of India in 1868. After four 
years in this high office, he was assassinated while on 
a tour of inspection through the penal settlement in 
the Andaman Islands. He was buried at Johnstown in 
County Kildare. 

Frederick Temple Hamilton Blackwood, afterwards 
Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, a title which links County 
__ Down with the kingdom of Burma, was born in 

Marquis of ° ' 

Dufferin 1 826. He first distinguished himself as Brit- 
ish commissioner in Syria, in i860. Twelve 
years later he became governor-general of Canada, where 
he served for six years. He was ambassador at St. 
Petersburg and Constantinople, and in 1884 was ap- 
pointed governor-general of India, where he served until 
1888, adding the kingdom- of Burma to the British crown. 
In the century which followed the appointment of 
the Marquis of Wellesley, India was governed for more 



than twenty-six years by four distinguished Irishmen. 
During the same period, the armies in India were under 
the supreme command of a number of remarkable Irish 
soldiers. The Earl of 
Moira was the first of 
these, holding the posi- 
tion of commander-in- 
chief, as well as that of 

General Sir Hugh 
Gough, born at Limer- 
ick in 1779, aided in the 
capture of the Cape of 
Good Hope, and fought 
under the Duke of 
Wellington in the Pe- 
ninsular war. Gen- 
eral Gough afterward 
served in India and 
China, and in 1842 
was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the 
British forces in India. 
He commanded in the 
last Mahratta war. He defeated the Sikhs at Sobraon, 
and later at Gujarat. He was raised to the peerage as Vis- 
count Gough and made field-marshal. He died in 1869. 

Frederick, Lord Roberts, descended from an old 
Waterford family, was born in 1831. He fought through 
the Indian Mutiny of 1857, and took part in Lor a 
the relief of Lucknow. He served in the Abys- Rol)erts - 
sinian campaign of 1868, and marched to Cabul in 1879, 
gaining the title of Lord Roberts of Kandahar for his 
services in the Afghan war. He was commander-in- 



chief of the Indian army from 1885 to 1893, and after- 
wards commander-in-chief of the British army, and field- 
marshal. It may be questioned whether his services in 
South Africa added greatly to his fame, though they 
gained him an earldom. 

General Sir George White was born at Whitehall, 
County Antrim, in 1855. He served through the Indian 
sir George Mutiny and the Afghan war, and also in the 
wwte. expeditions to the Soudan and Burma. He 
was commander-in-chief of the Indian army from 1893 
to 1897, in succession to Lord Roberts. Later, Sir 
George White became widely known as the defender of 

Sir Garnet, afterwards Viscount Wolseley, was born 
in Dublin, in 1833. He entered the army in 1852, and 
viscount served in Burma, in the Crimea, and in the 
wolseley. Indian Mutiny. He gained high distinction 
in the Ashantee war of 1873, and showed that he 
possessed the highest military qualities in the Egyptian 
campaign of 1882. He was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the British army in 1895, and held this posi- 
tion for five years. 

These are a few only of the distinguished Irishmen 
who helped to build up the British Empire. Number- 
less others filled posts less conspicuous than 
Other , , . . . 

famous those of viceroy of India, or commander-in- 

irishmen. cn j e f f the British army. Many more were 
and are eminent in the diplomatic service. Others, like 
Lord Russell of Killowen, lord chief justice of England, 
rose to the highest rank in the profession of law. Some, 
like Sir Arthur Sullivan, gained world-wide distinction 
for musical culture and inspiration. But to enumerate 
even the names of these would be impossible here. We 
have, however, brought forward names enough to show 


that, while Ireland is, in size and population, one of the 
smallest of nations, her sons hold a position of eminence 
in every field of human endeavor, quite out of propor- 
tion to the size of their country and the numbers of its 
population. This is exceptionally evident in the great 
Indian Empire, to which province after province has 
been added by Irish valor, to be ruled by Irish genius. 

347. The Irish in Canada. By no means all the Irish 
who emigrated to the New World found homes in the 
United States. Mexico, Central America, and South 
America received their share of the exiles as well. But 
a far greater number of Irishmen came to Canada, where 
we find them recorded among the earliest pioneers of 
the country. While most of the great northern region 
was in the hands of the French, the Irish were among the 
first to penetrate the wilderness, and clear the land for 
farming. But after the victory of Wolfe over Montcalm, 
in 1763, when the English became masters of the whole 
country, the Irish settlers did more towards laying the 
firm foundation of the present Canada, forming her 
constitution, and building up for her a state of prosper- 
ity, than did the settlers of all other nationalities com- 
bined. Were we to attempt to tell adequately the story 
of the Irishman in Canada, we should have to write a 
book as large, if not larger than the present volume. It 
must suffice if we mention several of the most famous 
names in each stage of the country's development. 

Colonel Guy Carleton may be regarded as the founder 

and savior of Canada. He was a native of County 

Tyrone, had served some time under the Eng- „ 
3 ' & Colonel 

lish flag on the continent, was with Wolfe at Guy 
the siege of Montreal, and in 1767 was re- areon - 
warded for distinguished services by being made lieuten- 
ant-governor of Quebec. Carleton's policy was one of 


conciliation towards the French Canadians, who were 
far more numerous than the English settlers. He did 
all in his power to redress their grievances, not only 
because he loved right for right's sake, but because he 
was wise enough to secure their sympathy for England 
in view of the approaching troubles with the American 
colonies. Later, in 1787, Carleton, who had been made 
Lord Dorchester, became the first Irish governor-gen- 
eral of Canada. 

Colonel the Hon. Thomas Talbot, founder of the fa- 
mous Talbot Settlement, was born in County Dublin, in 
colonel I 77 1 - After several years of military service 
Talbot. on both continents, this aristocratic pioneer 
determined to found a colony in Canada, and with that 
end in view landed on May 21, 1803, in the midst of the 
wilderness, at a place later called Port Talbot. He had 
made an arrangement with the government that for 
every settler placed on fifty acres of land, he was enti- 
tled to two hundred acres, until five thousand acres were 
reached. This colony grew rapidly. For over fifty 
years Colonel Talbot superintended its development 
himself. A census taken by him in 1831 reports the 
population of his settlement to have been upwards of 
40,000 people inhabiting 518,000 acres of land, compris- 
ing a district now covered by twenty-nine townships. 
In his group of rough log buildings known as the Castle 
of Malahide, at Port Talbot, the colonel used to enter- 
tain the most distinguished men, not only of Canada, 
but of the whole of Europe. 

The Irish were among the first to settle in Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. In the war 
of 18 1 2, between England and the United States, we 
must mention for their bravery and great services, Colonel 
Brock and Lieutenant Fitzgibbon. During the Irish im- 


migration from 181 5 to 1837, and in the years following 
we find the Blakes in London, Ontario, and in the vicinity 
of Toronto; in Montreal, "Tom" White, the owner of 
several newspapers and an upright politician, other Irish 
as was also Mr. Sidney Robert Bellingham. Canadians. 
In Victoria County, the McHughs head a long list of 
prominent Irish names ; in Kingston, the O'Reillys. 
Every county in Canada boasts several famous Irish 
families, too many to enumerate here. During the 
struggle for responsible representative government, 
which was gained in the first parliament of United 
Canada in 1841, we find the names of Gourlay, Macken- 
zie, the Baldwins, Robert Baldwin Sullivan, and Sir 
Francis Hincks, all prominent. The years from 1825 
to 1854 are known in Canadian politics as the Irish 
period, for during that time there was scarcely a states- 
man of any prominence who was not of Irish birth or 
extraction. With the fall of Hincks this period came 
to a close, but the force and influence of the Irishmen 
continued, and still continue to be felt in religious and 
educational matters, and in every line of occupation. 

Although the Irish political period in Canada closed 
in 1854, all Irishmen did not retire from politics. Im- 
mediately after, in 1856, Mr. John A. MacDonald was real 
premier under the administration of M. Tache, and John 
Sheridan Hogan and Thomas D'Arcy McGee were pro- 
minent members of parliament. McGee died a martyr to 
Canada, for whose good he had striven ; he was shot by 
a fellow countryman. In a speech delivered in the House 
of Commons, Sir John A. MacDonald said of him : " He 
who last night, nay, this morning, was with us, whose 
voice is still ringing in our ears, who charmed us with 
his marvellous eloquence, elevated us by his large states- 
manship, and instructed us by his wisdom, his patriotism, 


is no more — is foully murdered. If ever a soldier who 
fell on the field of battle deserved well of his country, 
Thomas D'Arcy McGee deserved well of Canada and its 

Lord Monck was governor from 1861 to 1868, and 
four years later, in 1872, Canada received its greatest 
governor since the time of Carleton, namely the Earl of 
Dufferin, later the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, a native 
of County Down. (See p. 362.) 

348. The Irish in Australia. Among the Irishmen 
who emigrated to Australia, or were prominent in the 
government there, two names stand out above all the 
rest : Charles Gavan Duffy, who has since been knighted, 
and Sir Redmond Barry. Duffy was one of the leaders 
of the Irish revolutionary movement of 1848, which 
ended in failure, and afterwards accepted an appoint- 
ment from the crown in Australia, where he was for 
some years prime minister of Victoria. Sir Redmond 
Barry, famous as a lawyer and statesman, was solicitor- 
general for the colony of Victoria prior to 185 1, when he 
became a judge of the Supreme Court. He was a native 
of County Cork, was educated at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, and was looked upon as a man of great learning 
and broad-minded views. He is also well known for the 
interest he took in educational matters, and has left 
some famous inaugural addresses delivered when he was 
chancellor of the New University of Melbourne. The 
Earl of Belmore, formerly governor and commander-in- 
chief of New South Wales, belongs to a distinguished 
Fermanagh family. Names like O' Sullivan, O'Connor, 
O'Connell, Leahy, and Madden are conspicuous in the 
government of Australia to-day. 

349. Other representative Irishmen of the British 
Empire. The Beresfords of Waterford are prominent in 


the British navy. Sir Cornelius Moloney was recently 
governor and commander-in-chief of British Honduras. 
Sir Jacob Barry was judge-president in Cape Colony. 
Sir George O'Rorke of Gal way was for a generation 
eminent in the government of New Zealand. John 
Tyndall, the great physicist, was born in Carlow. Lord 
Kelvin, formerly Sir William Thomson, the famous elec- 
trical specialist, belongs to the north of Ireland. Sir 
William McCormac, one of the greatest modern sur- 
geons, was born in Belfast. 



350. Irish writers in the eighteenth century. We 
have already spoken of the part played in Irish politics 
by Jonathan Swift (1667-1745). Swift was 
born in Dublin, and it is very probable that we 
can trace the influences which surrounded him in child- 
hood in his most famous work, " Gulliver's Travels." 
Among the entertainments of the Irish bards, voyages 
to wonderful undiscovered countries, inhabited by strange 
people, have been popular since the days of Ossin, and 
even centuries before Ossin journeyed to the " Land 
of the Young." It is very probable that Swift may have 
heard some of these stories in his early years, and that 
the captivity of Gulliver among the Lilliputians may 
have been suggested by the capture of the son of Find 
and his detention in the cavern near Killarney. There 
is certainly a genuine Irish spirit in the mirth and wit 
and humor which have given "Gulliver's Travels" a 
place in universal literature. 

Laurence Sterne (17 13-1768) undoubtedly owed much 

of the color and a good deal of the whimsical humor of 

his works to his life in Ireland. Born at Clon- 


mel, the son of a soldier, the first years of his 
life were spent in wanderings from one garrison town to 
another, and in these wanderings he gathered the mate- 
rial for characters like Uncle Toby and Corporal Trim. 
Oliver Goldsmith (1 728-1 774) was born in County 


Longford. One of his teachers was an old quartermaster, 
who, besides reading, writing, and arithmetic, 

. , , f . Goldsmith. 

gave the boy a complete course of instruction 
concerning ghosts, banshees, and fairies. This teacher 
spoke Irish, and even extemporized Irish verse. Gold- 
smith also devoted himself to the study of Irish music, 
and was a passionate admirer of Carolan, the harper, one 


of the last great bards. Hence it comes that there is far 
more real Irish tenderness and sentiment in 'his works 
than in those of the two writers just noticed. There is 
a genuinely Irish note of lament and feeling for nature in 
" The Deserted Village " : — 

" No more thy glassy brook reflects the day, 
But, chok'd with sedges, works its weedy way ; 


Along thy glades, a solitary guest, 
The hollow-sounding bittern guards its nest ; 
Amidst thy desert-walks the lapwing flies, 
And tires their echoes with unvaried cries. 
Sunk are thy bowers in shapeless ruin all, 
And the long grass o'ertops the mouldering wall ; 
And, trembling, shrinking from the spoiler's hand, 
Far, far away thy children leave the land." 

There is a note of humor of which Goldsmith himself 
was hardly conscious, in his description of America, 
whither these exiled children were bound : — 

" Where at each step the stranger fears to wake 
The rattling terrors of the vengeful snake ; 
Where crouching tigers wait their hapless prey, 
And savage men more murderous still than they ; 
While oft in whirls the mad tornado flies, 
Mingling the ravag'd landscape with the skies." 

Edmund Burke (i 729-1 797) has a deeper and more 
universal value than any of these writers, and is one of 
the greatest names in modern literature. He 
is one of the few writers who invariably bring 
every subject back to universal principles, and this is 
nowhere more evident than in his " Speech on Concili- 
ation with the American Colonies," when he came for- 
ms plea for ward on March 22, 1775, to speak in the Eng- 
America. y ls fo House of Commons on behalf of American 
liberty : " The proposition is peace. Not peace through 
the medium of war ; not peace to be hunted through the 
labyrinth of intricate and endless negotiations ; not 
peace to arise out of universal discord fomented, from 
principle, in all parts of the empire ; not peace to de- 
pend on the juridical determination of perplexing ques- 
tions, or the precise marking the shadowy boundaries 
of a complex government. It is simple peace, sought in 
its natural course, and in its ordinary haunts. It is peace 


sought in the spirit of peace, and laid in principles purely 

In contrast with Oliver Goldsmith's somewhat fan- 
ciful picture of America as haunted by tigers and wild 
men, is Burke's sound and accurate knowledge of the 
American colonies, their history, and constitutions, and 
his clear vision of their mighty future : " If you drive 
the people from one place, they will carry on their an- 
nual tillage and remove with their flocks and herds to 
another. Many of the people in the back settlements are 
already little attached to particular situations. Already 
they have topped the Appalachian Mountains. From 
thence they behold before them an immense plain — one 
vast rich level meadow, a square of five hundred miles. 
Over this they would wander without possibility of re- 
straint ; they would change their manners with the 
habits of their life ; would soon forget a government by 
which they were disowned ; would become hordes of 
English Tartars, and, pouring down upon your unforti- 
fied frontiers a fierce and irresistible cavalry, become 
masters of your governors and your counsellors, your 
collectors and your comptrollers, and all of the slaves 
that adhered to them." This great Irishman was the 
first man in Europe to foresee the marvellous future 
growth and power of the United States. 

Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1 751-18 16) was another 
Irishman who won a high place in English literature. 
His two greatest achievements were an elo- 
quent speech in favor of the impeachment 
of Warren Hastings for misgovernment in India, and 
a series of comedies of which "The Rivals" and "The 
School for Scandal" are the best known. It is worth 
remembering that the plays of two Irishmen, Goldsmith 
and Sheridan, were the only dramas of high literary 



value written, during nearly a century and a half, for the 
English stage : not merely good acting plays, but fine 
pieces of literature. 

351. Nineteenth century authors. Thomas Moore 
(1779-1852) was the first writer who consciously sought 

inspiration in the 
history, traditions, 
and romance of Ire- 
land. It may almost 
be said of him that 
he alone of all those 
who have been men- 
tioned was con- 
sciously an Irish- 
man. He is, there- 
fore, the morning 
star of the Irish lit- 
erary revival. Moore 
chose as the subject 
of his most famous 
" Irish Melodies " 
historical events like 
the battle of Clon- 
tarf, the life of Saint 
Senanus, the tradi- 
tions of Conn of the 
Hundred Battles, the achievements of the Red Branch 
Knights, the Hermitage of St. Kevin, and the Revenge 
for the Death of Deirdre. The quality of Moore's verse 
is well represented in the " Song of Fionnuala " : — 

" Silent, O Moyle, be the roar of thy water, 
Break not, ye breezes, your chain of repose, 
While, murmuring mournfully, Lir's lonely daughter 
Tells to the night star her tale of woes." 




Moore was not only a writer of musical verse, but also 
a musician whose memory was filled with the traditional 
melodies of the Irish harpers and bards. To these 
melodies he adapted his songs, and sang them himself 
with eloquence and power. He was a favorite figure in 
London society, and it may be said of him that he was 
the first to make the Irish spirit and the Irish tempera- 
ment in any way intelligible to the English mind. 

Sir Samuel Ferguson (i 810-1886) is the most con- 
siderable figure in the period which divides Moore from 
the living Irish poets. His knowledge was far 
more profound and universal than Moore's. He 
was thoroughly familiar with the Gaelic traditions from 
the Book of Leinster down to modern times. His verse 
is more full of vigor, and he has taken more substantial 
themes. Among the best of these is "The Tain Quest." 
He tells how — 

" Great Cuchullin's name and glory filled the land from north to 
Deirdrd's and Clan Usnach's story rife I found in every mouth ; 
Yea, and where the whitening surges spread below the Herds- 
man's Hill 
Echoes of the shout of Fergus haunted all Glen Etive still." 

The poet tells us how the most famous tradition of 
all, the Tain Quest, was lost, and how the antique bard 
finally recovered the story of the Tain by evoking the 
spirit of Fergus, who had taken part in the quest. An 
impressive stanza tells how the spirit of the great dead 
warrior entered the banquet hall : — 

" Heard ye not the tramp of armies ? Hark ! amid the sudden gloom 
'T was the stroke of Conall's war-mace sounded through the 

startled room; 
And, while still the hall grew darker, King and courtier chilled 

with dread, 
Heard the rattling of the war-car of Cuchullin overhead." 


Just as the ancient bard evoked the spirit of Fergus, 
son of Roeg, so Sir Samuel Ferguson evoked the historic 
traditions of Ireland and made them live again in force- 
ful and virile verse. 

William Butler Yeats (1866) is the most widely known 

writer of the Irish literary revival, and the writer whose 

style has reached the highest level of excellence 

Yeats . 

and distinction. If Sir Samuel Ferguson's 
work, in its heroic vigor and force, resembles the rugged 
traditions of the Red Branch of Concobar and Cuculaind, 
then we may say that the work of W. B. Yeats revives 
the fineness and distinction, the magic and music of Ossin, 
the son of Find ; and there was a certain fitness in his 
choice of the warrior poet as the theme of his first con- 
siderable work of Irish inspiration, the " Wanderings of 
Oisin." He makes the warrior poet speak thus : — 

" Caolte, and Conan, and Finn were there, 
When we followed a deer with our baying hounds, 
With Bran, Sgeolan, and Lomair, 
And passing the Firbolgs' burial mounds, 
Came to the cairn-heaped grassy hill 
Where passionate Maive is stony still ; 
And found on the dove-gray edge of the sea 
A pearl-pale, high-born lady, who rode 
On a horse with bridle of findrinny ; 
And like a sunset were her lips, 
A stormy sunset on doomed ships ; 
A citron colour gloomed in her hair, 
But down to her feet white vesture flowed, 
And with the glimmering crimson glowed 
Of many a figured embroidery ; 
And it was bound with a pearl-pale shell 
That wavered like the summer streams, 
As her soft bosom rose and fell." 

There is a finer and more subtle music here than in 
the verse of Sir Samuel Ferguson, or the melodies of 


Thomas Moore. There is, perhaps, less of ruggedness 
and heroic force than in the verses, " The Tain Quest. ,; 
The distinctive quality of the work of Yeats seems to 
be this : he has carried on and perfected the modern 
sense of the music of words, which was first introduced 
into English poetry by Shelley, and after Shelley was 
developed by Rossetti and Swinburne. There is much 
that reminds us of all these poets in the work of Yeats, 
who is, in a sense, their heir. From them also he has 
inherited a certain unworldly, ghost-like, or mystical 
atmosphere which, to be perfectly strict, is rather pre- 
Raphaelite than Ossianic. This ghost-like atmosphere 
is well exemplified in the following lines from " The 
Land of Heart's Desire." 

" The wind blows out of the gates of the day, 

The wind blows over the lonely of heart, 
And the lonely of heart is withered away, 

While the faeries dance in a place apart, 
Shaking their milk-white feet in a ring, 

Tossing their milk-white arms in the air ; 
For they hear the wind laugh and murmur and sing 

Of a land where even the old are fair, 
And even the wise are merry of tongue ; 

But I heard a reed of Coolaney say, 
When the wind has laughed and murmured and sung, 
' The lonely of heart must wither away/ " 

George Russell (1867) reaches a higher and more 
spiritual inspiration than any other poet of the Irish lit- 
erary revival. He sees the world only as a 
manifestation of spirit, and everything he 
writes is full of this sense of revelation. He uses pure 
and transparent colors like the colors of gems, and never 
paints nature from mere delight in sensuous beauty. It 
was the same impersonal sense which led him to conceal 
the authorship of his " Homeward, Songs by the Way," 


under the initial JE } which is for him the symbol of an 
y£on, or creative breath. In all the poems in this book 
he regards life as a path, by which the soul finds its way 
homeward : — 

" Blind and dense with revelation every moment flies, 
And unto the Mighty Mother, gay, eternal, rise 
All the hopes we hold, the gladness, dreams of things to be. 
One of all thy generations, Mother, hails to thee ! 
Hail ! and hail ! and hail forever : though I turn again 
From thy joy unto the human vestiture of pain. 
I, thy child, who went forth radiant in the golden prime 
Find thee still the mother-hearted through my night in time ; 
Find in thee the old enchantment, there behind the veil 
Where the Gods my brothers linger, Hail ! forever, Hail ! " 

It is giving honor where honor is due, to record the 
fact that the two eloquent writers last mentioned owe 
John much of the Irish inspiration in their verse to 

O'Leary. ^he i n fl uence f John O'Leary, who was the 
central figure in the literary society of Dublin when they 
began to write. To the same circle belonged a number 
of other writers of sterling worth, like Katherine Tynan, 
Rosa Mulholland, Dora Sigerson, T. W. Rolleston, and 
George Sigerson. These writers taken together form 
a school of verse which is one of the chief glories of 
the Irish literary revival. 

352. The revival of Gaelic. Perhaps even more sig- 
nificant than this rich harvest in contemporary verse is 
the study of Gaelic, which has resulted in the produc- 
tion of many admirable texts and translations, and in a 
considerable extension of Gaelic as a spoken tongue. 
The most remarkable single work so far produced is 
O'Donovan's splendid edition and translation of the 
"Annals of the Four Masters." Next come facsimiles 
of ancient texts like "The Book of Leinster," edited for 
the Royal Irish Academy by Dr. Atkinson. Due recog- 


nition should be given to the work of continental schol- 
ars like Zeuss, Zimmer, and D'Arbois de Jubainville. 
Among contemporary scholars special credit is due to 
Drs. Whitley Stokes, Joyce, and Douglas Hyde. Douglas 
Besides his more learned works, Douglas Hyde Hyde - 
has written much musical verse. He is at his best in the 
translations from Saint Columba : — 

"Alas for the voyage, O high King of Heaven 

Enjoined upon me, 
For that I on the red plain of bloody Cooldrevin 

Was present to see. 
How happy the son is of Dima ; no sorrow 

For him is designed, 
He is having, this hour, round his own hill in Durrow, 

The wish of his mind. 
The sounds of the winds in the elms, like the strings of 

A harp being played, 
The note of the blackbird that claps with the wings of 

Delight in the glade." 

Side by side with this literary and linguistic revival 
has come an awakening interest in every department of 
Irish tradition, art, and archaeology, the details of which 
are far too numerous to be mentioned here. This is only 
the beginning of a complete revelation to the world of 
the spirit of the Irish race. 



353. The rise of Sinn Fein. The period which fol- 
lowed the events recorded in Chapter XXX opened with 
good omens. In the summer of 1907, King Edward VII 
and Queen Alexandra visited Dublin, where they were 
received with enthusiasm by all parties. The National- 
ists prof essed to be acquainted with the King's sympathies 
and they saw in his arrival an implied promise of a meas- 
ure of Home Rule. His Majesty, by both speech and 
demeanor, seemed to entertain high hopes. Yet nothing 
came of the Royal visit, and English statesmen omitted to 
draw any moral from the demonstrations of loyalty with 
which the King and Queen were greeted. On the con- 
trary, the King was rebuked in some quarters on his re- 
turn to England for having tended to exceed the limita- 
tions imposed upon a constitutional monarch. 

Meanwhile a new portent appeared. The Sinn Fein 
movement, which was started in 1904 and was inspired by 
the Hungarian example of 1867, began to make headway, 
although it was still regarded with political contempt, 
even by the Nationalist Party whose debacle it was ulti- 
mately to produce at the polls. The time was opportune 
for an active propaganda. Disappointment and distrust 
were once more rankling in the hearts of the people in two 
thirds of Ireland. The operation of the Land Purchase 
Acts was hampered by financial difficulties, and discontent 
led to an increase in emigration. People who wearied 
with eating the air, promise-crammed, turned with ardor 
to Sinn Fein, though' its policy was still tentative, dififu- 


sive, and it was without the semblance of a practical pro- 
354. The Home Rule Bill of 19 12 and Ulster opposition. 

Edward VII died in May, 1910. His death was felt to be 
a loss to Ireland, for both there and in the United States 
he was known to be a broad-minded, tactful sovereign 
who might in time have influenced the fate of a people to 
whom he had made himself gracious. John Redmond 
publicly deplored the death of Edward, whom he described 
as "a frank, manly, and friendly sovereign." That ex- 
pression of bereavement and the remembrance of His 
Majesty's reception in Ireland may have suggested the 
visit of George V with the Queen, the Prince of Wales, 
and the Princess Mary a little more than twelve months 
afterwards. The Royal Party attended the horse-races 
in Phoenix Park and at Leopardstown, and, it was thought, 
afterwards gave the coup de grace to a dying bigotry on 
the other side of the Channel, by visiting Maynooth 
College, where they were received by the Cardinal Pri- 
mate and the Archbishop of Dublin. However, regal 
good- will and popular gratitude — to a large extent a 
sense of favors to come — -were but "the torrent's 
smoothness ere it dash below." England felt herself 
forced again to consider a settlement of the Irish ques- 

In 191 2 a Home Rule Bill was introduced in the House 
of Commons, and Orange Ulster threatened that if it ever 
became law its operation would be resisted by violent 
means. A National Convention was summoned in Dub- 
lin, and, contrary to English prophecies, it accepted the 
measure. The refusal of fiscal autonomy in the Bill was 
keenly resented by the masses of the Nationalists, not- 
withstanding the official attitude of acquiescence on the 
part of their leaders, who it is probable would not have 


succeeded long in keeping their followers together. From 
the outset the Unionists offered an uncompromising op- 
position, which resulted in the signing of the " Ulster 
Covenant" by 218,000 persons amid menacing scenes 
of Orange enthusiasm. The signatories to that document 
swore to "rely on God" and at the same time to use "all 
means which may be found necessary to defeat the present 
conspiracy." By September, 1913, Sir Edward Carson 
had been permitted to defy the law by raising in Ulster an 
army of volunteers which it was boasted was four times 
the size of that which in another September, more than 
two centuries and a half earlier, Oliver Cromwell had at 
his disposal after the battle of Worcester. This was, no 
doubt, an exaggeration, but it is certain that as the months 
passed the armed volunteers numbered 85,000. The 
British Government made no move to uphold the law, 
though it was known that 4000 rifles and 20,000 revolvers 
or pistols had been sent to Ireland from Birmingham and 
from Germany. A general staff and an advisory board 
were appointed with headquarters in Belfast. A com- 
mander-in-chief was chosen — General Sir George Rich- 
ardson, who had seen active service in the British Army. 
Impunity begat courage and even audacity in the Orange 
ranks, and on March 13, 1914, Sir Edward Carson an- 
nounced that preparations were being made to land fur- 
ther supplies of arms. Ere this announcement had been 
made, a Norwegian vessel, the Fanny, with two members 
of the Ulster Council on board, had left a Scottish port. By 
the close of the month the Fanny was reported from Berlin 
to be shipping rifles from a lighter which had been towed 
from Hamburg to the Danish coast. It was put abroad 
that these arms were destined for Mexico and Venezuela. 
On the night of April 24th a vessel, which bore the name 
of Mountidy, but which was believed to be the Fanny, 


landed 35,000 rifles and 3,000,000 pounds of ammunition 
at Larne. These were distributed throughout Unionist 
Ulster in motor-cars. The same ship transferred to an- 
other vessel about 10,000 rifles with ammunition, which 
were put ashore on the coast of Down. 

355. The Irish Volunteers in armed resistance. The 
counter-move to these incidents was the raising of a 
volunteer force by the other side, for it was naturally said 
that, if one political party was suffered by the British 
Government to break the law in Ireland, an equal im- 
punity should be allowed to their antagonists. In this 
way the Irish Volunteers came into being under the com- 
mand of Captain White, D.S.O., and Sir Roger Casement. 
" Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill." 
The pusillanimity which either countenanced or ignored 
unlawfulness in the North gave rise to a serious situation. 
General Gough, commanding the Third Cavalry Brigade 
at the Curragh, suddenly declared that he and his men 
would refuse to obey the orders of the British Government 
if they were ordered to serve against Ulster. It was clear 
that matters had gone so far that at any moment the 
Administration might feel bound to retrieve its mistake 
and, in doing so, to call upon the military to vindicate the 
law and to repress treason in the Northern Province. A 
so-called conspiracy in the Cabinet for the coercion of 
Ulster was exploited to the uttermost. There were wild 
stories that there was a plot to destroy the organized 
opposition to constitutional government which had been 
built up by Sir Edward Carson and his Orange col- 
leagues. In the House of Commons, Colonel Seely, then 
Minister of War, tried to explain that the military meas- 
ures contemplated were designed merely to counteract 
any efforts which might be made by hot-headed persons 
to make raids for arms, thereby insinuating that the con- 


duct of the Orangemen was more than likely to provoke 
retaliatory action. General Gough was summoned to 
London, and it was announced soon afterwards that he 
would obey all "lawful" commands. In this the Nation- 
alists saw a quibble, and their followers, against whom 
British troops had often been used without demur, 
became furious. 

On Sunday morning, July 26, about 1000 National Vol- 
unteers assembled on the road from Dublin to Howth 
and set out upon what was believed to be a route march. 
They reached Howth at midday and marched to the pier, 
where a white yacht had just come alongside. From this 
yacht 2500 rifles and 125,000 pounds of ammunition were 
unloaded and distributed. The Volunteers were met on 
their way back to Dublin by British troops, and a scuffle 
ensued. Some of the Volunteers were disarmed, but 
many more got off with their rifles and cartridges. Later, 
the troops were stoned in Bachelors' Walk, Dublin, and 
some of them fired on the crowd without orders, killing 
three persons. On the following day the incident was 
mentioned in the House of Commons, and Mr. Devlin 
elicited the reply that on the previous Saturday 5000 men 
with some machine guns had marched through the streets 
of Belfast without interference. 

356. The World War and Sir Roger Casement's 
execution for treason. At this moment the war storm 
was gathering in Europe, and, as the situation became 
critical, the Home Rule Act Amending Bill was postponed. 
That measure made provision for the exclusion for six 
years from the operation of the Home Rule Act of 191 4 
of as many Ulster counties as should declare by a ballot 
majority for partition. Then the great conflict of nations 
broke out, and, as a part of a political truce, an Act was 
passed to suspend the operation of the Home Rule Act. 


That step, although agreed to by the Nationalist mem- 
bers, farmed the flame of distrust in the greater part of 
Ireland, and served, no doubt, to weaken the effort which 
was made by the Nationalists to persuade their followers 
to join the colors in order to help Great Britain in her 
avowed struggle for the protection of small nations. 
Enlistment was vehemently opposed by the Sinn Feiners, 
by some of the original promoters of the Volunteer move- 
ment, and by the Irish Labor Party. Meanwhile, Sir 
Roger Casement, who had been knighted for the exposure 
of the Putamayo atrocities, had gone to Berlin by way of 
the United States, after having attempted to dissuade 
Irishmen from entering the British Army. Enlistment in 
Ireland was further discouraged by the refusal of the War 
Ofhce to allow the presentation of colors worked in silk 
by Irish women to southern Irish regiments. 

In the early part of 191 6 the Sinn Fein movement showed 
signs of bettering the revolutionary example of Ulster. 
The Sinn Fein Volunteers were busy recruiting for their 
forces, and they succeeded in drawing numbers away 
from the National Volunteers, who had received the 
political blessing of the Nationalist Party. An attempt 
was made on Good Friday, April 23d, to land arms on 
the west coast of Ireland from a vessel which was ac- 
companied by a German submarine. The vessel was 
sunk, and Sir Roger Casement, who had landed in a col- 
lapsible boat, was arrested, and, after a "full dress" trial 
for high treason in London, was sentenced to death and 
executed. The Crown was represented at the trial by the 
Attorney-General, Sir F. E. Smith, who had arrested Sir 
Edward Carson in his anti-Home Rule campaign in 
Ulster and who afterwards became Lord Chancellor of 
England with the title of Lord Birkenhead. 

357. The Easter Rebellion of 1916. The arrest of 


Casement precipitated the military plans of the Sinn 
Fein Volunteers. They had organized Easter maneuvers, 
but these were cancelled on April 24th. A republic was 
proclaimed on Easter Monday, and when British troops 
were hurriedly brought to Dublin from the Curragh, the 
rebels were found to be in possession of the Post-Office, 
the Four Courts, a part of Stephen's Green, a large factory 
on the quays, and several houses in Sackville Street. The 
military authorities at once declared martial law. A 
gunboat was brought up the Liffey, and shells were tired 
into the strongholds of the rebels. The Post-Office was 
set on fire, and 180 buildings in the city were reduced to 
ruins. By April 26th Liberty Hall, the headquarters of 
the citizen forces, had been partly demolished and was oc- 
cupied by the British troops. The value of the buildings 
destroyed was about £2,000,000. There had been a good 
deal of street fighting, but on May 2d the leaders of the 
rebellion were brought to surrender, and the signatories 
of the Proclamation of a republic, including P. H. Pearse, 
Provisional President; James Connolly, Commandant 
General in the Dublin Area; T. J. Clarke; Thomas Mac- 
Donagh, the poet, and others — fourteen in all — were 
tried by court martial and were shot. The disorders were 
not confined to the capital. About 3000 persons were 
arrested in the South and West of Ireland and were de- 
ported to England for internment. During the whole 
rising the casualties on the Government side were 421, 
including 124 killed. 

The immediate political result was the resignation of 
the Chief Secretary, Mr. Birrell; the Under-Secretary, 
Sir Matthew Nathan, and, eventually, the Viceroy, Lord 
Wimborne. The acts done under martial law aroused 
resentment among the Nationalists, and, after the shoot- 
ing of Mr. Sheehey Skeffington, a Dublin journalist, who 


was in no way associated with the rebellion, by order of an 
officer who was afterwards found to be insane, the British 
Government resolved upon an inquiry. The vacancies 
in the Irish Executive were not filled. Mr. Asquith, the 
Prime Minister, himself visited Ireland and returned 
with the verdict that "castle government had entirely 
broken down." Mr. Lloyd George was then commis- 
sioned to see whether some form of settlement could be 
reached. On July ioth Mr. Asquith announced the 
proposals of the Government in the House of Commons. 
They were designed to make changes in the Home Rule 
Act on the basis of the partition of Ireland, with the 
reservation to the Imperial Parliament of full powers 
over the Army and the Judicature. These proposals were 
branded by Mr. Redmond as "an insult" and they were 

358. A Constitutional Convention. In May, 191 7, 
when Mr. Lloyd George had become Prime Minister, it 
was stated that the Government had resolved at once to 
summon a convention of representative Irishmen to con- 
sider a suitable constitution for Ireland. All parties were 
invited to take part in the deliberations of the convention. 
The proposal was favorably received, and the Govern- 
ment, seeking to create a pacific atmosphere, declared a 
general and unreserved amnesty of all those who were 
incarcerated for association with the Easter Rebellion. 
The released prisoners were received in Ireland with great 
rejoicings which led to some violence, and it became 
clear that, after further conflicts with the military, the 
Sinn Fein Party would reject an invitation to send dele- 
gates to the convention. 

While the arrangements for the constitution of the 
secretariat and the procedure of the convention were still 
under discussion, Mr. De Valera, a Sinn Fein candidate, 


won the East Clare election by a great majority, and then, 
for the first time, those who were not fanatical in the 
Nationalist Party realized that their political doom had 
been pronounced. The Irish Convention, under the 
presidency of Sir Horace Plunkett, met on July 25th in 
the Regent House, Trinity College, which had been lent 
by the Provost (Dr. Mahaffy). In spite of the recusant 
attitude of Sinn Fein, hopes of a settlement ran high and, 
indeed, appeared to be justifiable beyond any precedent 
in Irish history. After long and amicable sessions the 
convention was thought to be on the brink of success. But 
once again, the words of Edmund Spenser came true: 
" Marry, there have been divers good plots devised and 
wise counsels cast already, about the reformation of that 
realm; but they say it is the fatal destiny of that land 
that no purposes whatsoever which are meant for her 
good will prosper and take good effect." 

Provisional agreement was reached on every vital 
issue, with the exception of the old stumbling-block — 
the fiscal powers to be exercised by the Irish Parliament. 
The members consented to the creation of an Irish Senate 
and an Irish House of Commons. John Redmond stated 
that he looked upon the results arrived at by October as 
equivalent to a final settlement. But at that bright 
hour a shadow fell upon the scene. It was announced 
that two of the Ulster delegates, Lord Londonderry and 
Mr. Barrie, had not been given unreservedly the au- 
thority to exercise their own judgment and discretion. 
Accordingly they returned to Belfast to lay the terms 
of the agreement before the Ulster Advisory Council — ■ 
a body which was removed from the sympathies which 
had grown up in the convention itself. Under the pretext 
that the principle of the nomination of Ulster members 
to the Lower House was undemocratic, they wrecked 


the entire scheme. Further efforts to achieve a settle- 
ment were predoomed to failure, especially when John 
Redmond and many others protested that, had they fore- 
seen that the proposals made were to be submitted to 
men who had not taken part in the convention, they 
would never have consented to enter it at all. 

Although the convention reported by a majority, the 
Government did not think that the result represented a 
11 substantial agreement," and the Cabinet was left to 
frame proposals, with such guidance as could be obtained 
from the deliberations in Dublin. 

The scheme of self-government which met with the ap- 
proval of the majority of the convention provided for the 
establishment of an Irish Parliament and Executive with 
full powers over internal legislation and over direct taxa- 
tion. Forty-two Irish members were to be retained in 
the Imperial Parliament. The Irish House of Commons 
was to comprise two hundred members with a guaranteed 
forty per cent of Unionists, some of them nominated. 
A Senate of sixty-four members was to be created by al- 
lotting representatives to different interests. The con- 
trol of the customs and excise was to remain as an out- 
standing issue. 

359. Threat of conscription produces indignation. 
At this time the heavy casualties of the Allied arms in 
France and Flanders made it incumbent on the British 
Government to apply conscription in England with ex- 
tended age-limits, and the measure made it possible to 
extend the law to Ireland by Order of the King in Council. 
This produced intense indignation in the greater part of 
the population of Ireland, and all discussion of self-govern- 
ment schemes was abandoned. As Mr. Asquith pre- 
dicted in the House of Commons, the feeling aroused by 
the threat of compulsory military service in the British 


Army added strength to the Sinn Fein movement. No 
Order in Council was ever made. 

360. Death of John Redmond and growth of Sinn 
Fein. The death of John Redmond in March, 1918, was a 
blow to the Nationalists, who had stood forth throughout 
the sittings of the convention for a conciliatory policy, and 
who, it might be said, had entirely failed to understand 
the strength of the influences which were opposing them 
in Ireland. In May, Lord French, who had succeeded 
Lord Wimborne as Viceroy, published a proclamation that 
the Government of Ireland had discovered that certain 
sections of the Irish people had entered into treasonable 
communications with Germany. At the same time he 
made an appeal for the voluntary enlistment of Irishmen 
in His Majesty's forces. A considerable number of Sinn 
Feiners were arrested and were deported to England, 
though no charge was made against them and no evidence 
was produced to support the existence of the German plot. 
Soon afterwards the proposals for an Irish settlement 
were allowed to drop. In June it was definitely stated by 
Lord Curzon in the House of Commons that there was no 
intention to proceed with the Home Rule Bill. 

The general election in December, 1918, brought about 
the overthrow of the Nationalist Party. Sinn Fein, stand- 
ing for the independence of Ireland, won seventy-three 
seats, leaving the Nationalists, who had held seventy- 
seven, with only seven. Henceforth the sway of Sinn 
Fein became powerful. In spite of a policy of repression 
carried out by Lord French with "tanks," machine guns, 
bombing aeroplanes, barbed wire, and all the other im- 
plements of war which had been used in the struggle on 
the Continent, the guerrilla warfare conducted by Sinn 
Feiners was staged. The constabulary were provided 
with hand grenades in addition to their rifles and revol- 


vers, and the police barracks were fortified. Even after 
the World War had ceased, the Defense of the Realm 
Acts and Regulations remained in force, and all the 
cherished liberties of the individual for which the English 
themselves had fought for centuries were deprived of the 
protection of the courts of law. Hundreds of men were 
cast into prison without being charged with any offense. 
Others were taken in warships to English jails because, 
so far as they knew, they were merely suspected of being 
Sinn Feiners or because they were elected under the 
British system of constitutional representation to be mem- 
bers either of the Imperial Parliament or of the municipal 
bodies in their own country. A campaign of assassination 
followed. Policemen were shot in all parts of the country 
and an attempt was made on the life of the Viceroy. 

361. The Dail Eireann and the Cabinet committee. 
During this period Irish-American delegates visited the 
country and attended a meeting of the Irish Parliament 
self -constituted, under the name of the Dail Eireann. 
The delegates made a report on the condition of the coun- 
try which, unhappily for them and for Ireland as a whole, 
was not marked by any ability to digest evidence with a 
judicial mind. Nevertheless, their report elicited a reply 
from the Irish Executives which had the same failings. 
In July, 1919, Sir Edward Carson again went to Belfast 
and again made threatening speeches which contained 
fresh warnings of armed resistance. In the autumn the 
English Administration took fright, and a Cabinet com- 
mittee was appointed to draft a scheme of settlement. 
Throughout its sittings there could hardly be said to be 
anything but an inefficient military occupation of Ireland. 
The Sinn Feiners, who were at one time willing to accept 
Dominion self-government, naturally revolted against 
the constitution of the committee, composed as it was of 


Mr. Walter Long, a former Unionist Chief Secretary; 
Lord Birkenhead, who had already come to the aid of Sir 
Edward Carson in his gun-running campaign; Mr. Fisher, 
President of the Board of Education; the Chief Secretary; 
Mr. Ian Macpherson, a young Scotsman who had never 
been to Ireland before; the Minister for Labor; and the 
Viceroy (Lord French), who was conducting coercive 
operations and proclaiming Sinn Fein as a conspiracy. 
In these circumstances the year closed with less prospect 
of a settlement of the Irish question than ever. 

362. Enactment of the Home Rule Bill. Nor did 1920 
bring rosier prospects. The Home Rule Bill^ the pro- 
visions of which Lloyd George had explained late in 
December of the previous year, was utterly unsatisfac- 
tory to all groups of the Irish people. In substance the 
measure provided for two single-chambered Parliaments, 
one for Northern and one for Southern Ireland. It also 
provided for a Council, composed of the King and twenty 
members of each Parliament, chosen as each might deter- 
mine and empowered to bring about harmonious action 
between the Parliaments and to administer services mu- 
tually agreed upon or mentioned in the Act itself. In 
lieu of the Council the two Parliaments, by identical acts, 
could establish a Parliament of either one or two houses 
for the whole of Ireland, the membership of this Parlia- 
ment to be determined by the provincial Parliaments. 
In case such a Parliament were created the Act stipulated 
that it should enjoy the powers of the Council. The Bill 
further provided that each provincial Parliament within 
its area was to enjoy full power except in respect to peace 
and war, navy, army, and pensions, treaties with foreign 
nations and with the dominions, extradition, dignities or 
titles of honor, treason, naturalization of aliens, external 
trade, export bounties, cables, wireless, aerial navigation, 


lighthouses, coinage, trademarks, and certain other mat- 
ters reserved by the act. Neither Parliament could by 
law establish a religion or restrict the free exercise thereof. 

The executive power and prerogative of the Crown 
were, by the measure, vested in the Lord-Lieutenant and 
were to be exercised through such departments as each 
provincial Parliament might establish. The Lord- 
Lieutenant was given power to appoint officers to admin- 
ister the departments during his pleasure, and the pro- 
vincial ministers were to form an executive committee of 
the Irish Privy Council and to advise the Lord-Lieuten- 
ant in the exercise of his powers. Parliaments were to 
have annual sessions and the House of Commons of 
Southern Ireland was to have 128 members, while that of 
Northern Ireland was to have 52. 

Among numerous other provisions were those stipulat- 
ing that the provincial Parliaments could not pass money 
bills except in pursuance of a recommendation from the 
Lord-Lieutenant; that the duration of each Parliament 
be rive years, unless sooner dissolved, and that Ireland, 
for the time being, should have 42 members in the Im- 
perial Parliament. 

In debate, Mr. Asquith among others caustically 
criticized the measure, maintaining that the proposal to 
partition the island was costly, inexpedient, and wholly 
undesirable. He argued that it would be wiser to place 
Ireland on a Dominion status, but Mr. Bonar Law, 
speaking for the Government, warmly declared that Do- 
minion Home Rule was equivalent to granting self-de- 
termination to the Irish and that, therefore, Mr. Asquith 
was evidently ready for an Irish Republic. Sir Edward 
Carson remained adamant, refusing outwardly at least 
either to favor or to oppose the bill, which was being 
much discussed and frequently amended. Finally, after 


having dragged on throughout the greater part of the 
year, the bill was enacted into law, receiving Royal assent 
t>n December 23d. 

363. Revolutionary outbreaks, fighting, and assassi- 
nations. In the meantime conditions in Ireland were 
becoming steadily worse. The Sinn Feiners continued 
their activities, being greatly encouraged by large gains 
in the January municipal elections. Without a dissenting 
vote, for instance, Tom Kelly, who had spent two months 
in prison, was elected Lord Mayor of Dublin. Sinn Fein 
chairmen were chosen in a number of cities. Conscious 
of their strength, they unfurled the flag of the Irish Repub- 
lic from the tower of the Municipal Building, next door to 
Dublin Castle, on January 30th. The effect on the British 
authorities was almost instantaneous, for on the next morn- 
ing British troops arrested all Sinn Fein officials in Dublin, 
Limerick, Thurles, and elsewhere who, in the opinion of 
the authorities, had committed acts or expressed words of 
sedition or rebellion. The prisoners were hurried to Eng- 
land aboard British warships, and so tense was the situation 
that troops were massed to prevent a general uprising. 

Matters were not improved when, on March 20th, 
Thomas MacCurtain, Mayor of Cork, was assassinated 
in his own house. At once a storm of accusations and 
denials and counter-accusations poured forth. The Sinn 
Feiners stoutly maintained that the dead Mayor had been 
murdered by agents of the British Government, while 
correspondents of London papers declared that the mur- 
der was an act of reprisal because the Mayor had publicly 
denounced some of the more heinous Sinn Fein offenses. 
After an inquest the coroner on April 17th reported that 
' 'the Lord Mayor had been murdered by the Irish Royal 
Constabulary under circumstances of the most callous 
brutality, officially directed by the British Government." 


The coroner's jury returned a " verdict of willful murder 
against Lloyd George, Lord French, the Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland, and other high officials." 

The Cork episode was followed in April by a guerrilla 
warfare against the police barracks and Government 
officers, despite the fact that Sir Hamar Greenwood, a 
Canadian by birth, was named to succeed Ian Macpherson 
as Chief Secretary for Ireland in the apparent hope that the 
change in officials might lead to a lull in the storm. But 
instead it increased. On April 3d, the very next day 
after the appointment, fires of incendiary origin were dis- 
covered in the offices of Government inspectors and tax- 
collectors, and many records and papers were burned. 
On the same day over two hundred police barracks were 
destroyed, and, as a result, some one hundred prisoners 
were landed in Mountjoy Prison, where they promptly 
went on a hunger strike. The Irish Trades Union Con- 
gress at once brought pressure to bear on the Government 
by calling a general strike, which, on April 13th, brought 
all business in Southern Ireland to a complete standstill. 
Such tactics had the desired effect, for on the following 
day the Government capitulated; the prisoners were re- 
leased, and the strike called off. 

Conditions became so bad that early in May the British 
authorities decided to send an army of occupation, es- 
timated to exceed more than 80,000, and from May 15th 
onward these troops poured into the troubled isle. Natu- 
rally this move was bitterly resented, but resentment be- 
came doubly bitter when hundreds of discharged English 
and Scottish soldiers were added to the Royal Irish 
Constabulary. This move was met, however, by the radical 
element of Irish labor, who refused to unload munition 
supplies arriving at Dublin. On May 24th traffic was par- 
alyzed when railwaymen went on strike and workers quit 


the power-stations. Nor was this all. The results of the 
elections held on June 4th indicated that the Sinn Feiners 
had swept the County Councils of Munster, Leinster, and 
Connaught, and had even carried strongholds in Ulster. 

Emboldened by these successes, the revolutionaries 
redoubled their efforts against the police and the military, 
and warfare became even more barbarous and widespread. 
Especially was this true after the conviction by court 
martial on August 16th of Alderman Terence McSwiney, 
Lord Mayor of Cork and an ardent republican, for having 
seditious documents in his possession. McSwiney was 
removed to Brixton Prison, London, where he died after 
a hunger strike lasting seventy-four days. That his im- 
prisonment and death, together with the sacking and 
burning of Balbriggan on September 21st by the " Black 
and Tans," the British recruits of the Royal Irish Con- 
stabulary, aroused to a greater degree the ire and deter- 
mination of the extremists was soon evident, for on 
November 2 2d fourteen officers and ex-officers were 
killed in Dublin. 

It is unnecessary for us to recount here the numerous 
murders, assassinations, and pitched battles that fol- 
lowed. Suffice it to say that late in December the 
British Government published an official statement charg- 
ing the revolutionaries with having destroyed 69 court- 
houses in addition to the City Hall at Cork and property 
in the heart of that city to the value of $15,000,000, be- 
sides 532 Royal Irish Constabulary barracks. The report 
further stated that 73 barracks had been damaged, that 
3 1 raids had been made on the mails, and that the Crown 
forces had suffered casualties of 54 killed and 1 16 wounded, 
while 176 policemen had been killed and 351 wounded. 

364. De Valera, the Republican leader, demands 
self-determination for Ireland. Following the Prime 


Minister's announcement, on December 10th, that martial 
law would be proclaimed in four Irish counties and that 
the death penalty would be imposed upon those who, 
after a certain date, were found in possession of arms or 
wearing unauthorized uniforms, came indications of a 
truce. On December 29th th: Parliamentary Labor 
Party passed a resolution d manding that the Govern- 
ment withdraw all a med forces from Irish soil and allow 
elections to be held for an assembly to establish an Irish 
constitution. This was followed, on January 6th, 192 1, 
by a conference between the Reverend Michael O'Flan- 
agan, Vice-President of Sinn Fein, and Mr. Lloyd George. 
On every side, both in and out of Ireland, the hope was 
earnestly expressed that terrorism and warfare might 
cease. Peace without victory for the majority of the Sinn 
Feiners, however, was unthinkable, and on March 7th 
Eamonn de Valera, the Republican leader, issued a mani- 
festo addressed to the representatives of foreign nations 
in which he demanded self-determination for Ireland. 

365. Efforts to put the Home Rule Act in operation. 
For the time being these peace efforts were without result, 
and the only noticeable development was the effort to put 
the Home Rule Act in operation. To this end elections 
were held for members to the Parliaments. For the South - 
ern Parliament four imperialists were returned from Dub- 
lin, but in all the other 124 constituencies Sinn Feiners 
(who had previously declared that they would not take 
the oath of allegiance to the Crown, and would thus pre- 
vent the new Parliament from functioning) were elected. 
Returns for the Northern Parliament indicated that 40 
Unionists had been elected as against 1 1 Nationalists and 
Sinn Feiners, the latter including, however, De Valera, 
John MacNeil, Michael Collins, Chief of the Irish Re- 
publican Army, and Arthur Griffith. 


The elections over, the Northern Parliament proceeded 
to organize under the guidance of Viscount Fitzalen 
(formerly Lord Edmund Talbot), the new Irish Viceroy. 
Sir James Craig became Premier, thus succeeding Sir 
Edward Carson as leader of the Ulster Unionists. 

366. King George's plea and the London conference. 
Renewed efforts for peace were made when, in opening the 
Northern Parliament on June 2 2d, King George made an 
urgent plea for the settlement of "the age-long Irish 
problem." After referring to the fact that self-govern- 
ment had been granted to other parts of the Empire, also 
divided in race and religion, he said: "I am emboldened 
by that to look beyond the sorrow and anxiety which have 
clouded of late my vision of Irish affairs. I speak from a 
full heart when I pray that my coming to Ireland to-day 
may prove to be the first step towards an end of strife 
amongst her people, whatever their race or creed. In that 
hope I appeal to all Irishmen to pause, to stretch out the 
hand of forbearance and conciliation, to forgive and to for- 
get, and to join in making for the land which they love a 
new era of peace, contentment, and good- will. It is my earn- 
est desire that in Southern Ireland, too, there may ere long 
take place a parallel to what is now passing in this hall." 

The favorable impression made by this speech was im- 
mediately capitalized by Lloyd George, who, on June 
24th, sent a personal letter to De Valera inviting him to 
come to London, with such colleagues as he might choose, 
to attend a conference with the British Government and 
the Ulster Premier, Sir James Craig. The invitation was 
accepted, and on July 9th an order was issued for a truce, 
effective on July nth, between the Crown forces in Ire- 
land and the Irish Republican Army. On July 12th 
the Irish representatives — -De Valera, Arthur Griffith, 
Austin Stack, R, C. Barton, Lord Mayor O'Neill of 


Dublin, Count Plunkett, and Erskine Childers — arrived 
in London, and during the days following they held a 
number of conferences with the British Prime Minister. 
Negotiations thus begun continued, Premier Smuts of 
South Africa acting as intermediary during the first 
stages. In a letter to De Valera he expressed belief that 
Ulster ought to agree to unite with the rest of the island, 
but that he thought it would be unwise to attempt to 
force her to do so. He advised a free constitution for the 
rest of Ireland and was of opinion that, "if this were once 
established, economic forces would eventually bring about 
a united country." Meanwhile, however, Ulster Cabinet 
meetings disclosed an unyielding attitude toward any 
proposal which would diminish the power of the Northern 
Parliament or that would tend to unify the two belliger- 
ent sections. 

On August 14th the public for the first time was in- 
formed in regard to the progress of the negotiations. The 
British Government, it was divulged, had made the fol- 
lowing offer: full Dominion status for Ireland, with 
complete autonomy over taxation and finance; Ireland to 
maintain her own law courts and judges, her own military 
forces for home defense, and her own police; she was also 
to take over the Irish postal, health, education, and other 
services; Irishmen to determine for themselves whether 
the proposed new powers should be taken over by Ireland 
as a whole or separately by Southern and Northern 
Ireland, with or without a joint authority to harmonize 
their common interests. Several conditions, however, 
were declared vital: the Royal Navy alone must control 
the seas around Ireland and must have in Irish harbors 
and on Irish coasts the rights and liberties essential for 
naval purposes; the Irish Territorial Force, within cer- 
tain reasonable limits, must conform in number to the 



military ( establishments of the other parts of the Kingdom; 
Great Britain to have all necessary facilities for the de- 
velopment of Ireland, of defense and communication by 
air, voluntary recruiting for the regular naval, military, 
and air forces of the Empire to be permitted throughout 
Ireland, no protective duties or other restrictions to be 
placed by either the British or the Irish Government on 
the flow of transport, trade, and commerce between any 
parts of the British Isles, and, finally, that Ireland should 
assume responsibility for a share of the national debt and 
of the liability for war pensions (failing agreement, to be 
determined by arbitration). 

Replying to these proposals, De Valera stated that the 
conditions attached to the British offer involved a control 
which Ireland could not accept. Dominion status, he 
declared, was very illusory. The freedom of the Domin- 
ions from British interference, he held, was due chiefly to 
the distances that separated them from England. As 
for the issue between the political minority and the great 
majority of the Irish people, that, in his opinion, was a 
question for the Irish people to settle. In conclusion, he 
declared that his reply did not, however, close the door to 
peace and to an understanding. 

The next move was made by Lloyd George, who declared 
that no British Government could ever grant Ireland the 
right to secede. "The geographical propinquity of Ire- 
land to the British Isles," he said, " is a fundamental fact." 
In answer to this proposition De Valera on August 25 th 
sent the Dail Eireann's reply repudiating the argument of 
' ' geographical propinquity. ' ' The note further suggested 
that the Dail Eireann was ready to appoint plenipoten- 
tiaries to secure a peace based on the principle of "the 
consent of the governed." Lloyd George's reply showed 
disappointment, whether feigned or otherwise, with the 


DaiPs communication, and reiterated his absolute rejec- 
tion of Irish independence, but expressed willingness to 
continue negotiations. 

The Republicans, however, were not in a yielding 
attitude and stated their position as before, whereupon 
the British Premier insisted that they give a definite 
reply as to whether they were/ 'prepared to enter a con- 
ference to ascertain how the association of Ireland with 
the community of nations known as the British Empire 
can best be reconciled with Irish national aspirations." 
After a further exchange of letters, a decision was reached 
to hold a conference in London on October nth. 

The English delegates, in addition to the Premier, 
included Lord Birkenhead, Sir Hamar Greenwood, Aus- 
tin Chamberlain, Sir Laming Worthington-Evans, and 
Winston Spencer Churchill, all Government officials. 
Arthur Griffith, Michael Collins, R. C. Barton, Gavan 
Duffy, and E. J. Duggan were the Irish representatives. 
De Valera was not named, but in spite of this fact the 
Unionists in the House of Commons brought forward a 
resolution that the Government be censured for nego- 
tiating with Sinn Fein! Fortunately they were defeated 
by a vote of ten to on~^ and negotiations went steadily 
forward until December 6th, when a treaty of agreement 
was signed by the delegates. 

367. The agreement for an Irish Free State. The 
chief provisions of this epoch-making document were as 
follows: Ireland is to be styled as the Irish Free State and 
shall have the same constitutional status in the Empire 
that the self-governing Dominions enjoy, with a Parlia- 
ment having power to make laws for peace and order, and 
a responsible executive. A representative of the Crown 
in Ireland shall be appointed in like manner as the 
Governor- General of Canada. Members of the Irish 


Parliament are to take an oath of allegiance to the Con- 
stitution of the Irish Free State and to the Crown. The 
Irish Free State shall assume its share of the public debt 
of the United Kingdom and make provision for war 
pensions. Until an agreement is made by the two Govern- 
ments whereby the Irish Free State undertakes her own 
coastal defense, such defense shall be undertaken by the 
British Navy. Irish armaments shall not exceed in size such 
proportion of the British military establishments as that 
which the population of Ireland bears to the population 
of Great Britain. The ports of Great Britain and the Irish 
Free State shall be freely open to the ships of the other coun- 
try on payment of the customary port and other dues. 
=^ In respect to Northern Ireland, it stated that, until the 
expiration of one month after the ratification of the treaty, 
the powers of Parliament and the Government of the 
Irish Free State would not be exercised over that territory. 
It was also stipulated that the provisions of the Govern- 
ment of Ireland Act of 1920, to which we have already 
alluded, should, in so far as they relate to Northern Ire- 
land, remain in full force and effect, and no election 
would be held for the return of members to serve in the 
Parliament of the Irish Free State for the constituencies 
of Northern Ireland unless a resolution is passed by both 
houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland in favor of 
holding such elections before the end of said month. If 
before the expiration of one month the houses of the 
Northern Parliament should petition the British Govern- 
ment that Northern Ireland be excluded from the Free 
State, then a commission of three persons — one ap- 
pointed by the Government of the Free State, one by the 
Government of Northern Ireland, and a third by the 
British Government — would determine in accordance 
with the wishes of the inhabitants, so far as might be com- 


patible with economic and geographical conditions, the 
boundaries between Northern Ireland and the Irish Free 
State. If after one month Northern Ireland had not 
excluded herself, then her Parliament would continue to 
exercise the powers conferred by the Act of 1920, subject 
to certain restrictions. In this event it was arranged 
that the Government of Northern Ireland and the Pro- 
visional Government of Southern Ireland should adjust 
questions relating to defense, revenue, and import and 
export duties. Neither Government, it was explicitly 
stated, should either directly or indirectly endow any 
religion or prohibit or restrict the free exercise thereof, or 
give any preference or impose any disability on account of 
religious belief or religious status, or affect prejudicially 
the right of any child to attend a school receiving public 
money without attending the religious instruction of the 
school. Nor was either Government to make any dis- 
crimination in respect to state aid between schools under 
the management of different religious denominations, or 
divert from any religious denomination or any educational 
institution any of its property except for public-utility 
purposes and on payment of compensation. Arrange- 
ments were also made for the provisional administration 
of Southern Ireland pending the establishment of a per- 
manent government. 

This treaty, which we have outlined in considerable 
detail, received the stamp of approval of both houses of 
the British Parliament on December 16th, the vote in the 
Commons being 401 to 58, and in the Lords 166 to 47. 
The opposition in the Lords was headed by Carson, who 
by this time had been elevated to a lordship. 

368. The Free State Treaty is ratified after a bitter 
contest. The question of ratification aroused a bitter 
storm in the Dail Eireann between Arthur Griffith and 


Michael Collins, who advocated adoption, and Eamonn 
de Valera, who was just as strongly opposed. Many 
local public bodies adopted resolutions favoring accept- 
ance, and the press was almost unanimous in favoring its 
acceptance. Finally, on January 7th, the treaty was ac- 
cepted by the close vote of 64 to 57. But the ranks of the 
Republicans were split wide. De Valera immediately 
resigned the presidency of the " Republic" and offered 
himself for reelection in the Dail, but was defeated 60 to 
58. It was a bitter defeat for those who stood for com- 
plete independence. 

After the withdrawal of De Valera's followers, Griffith 
was on January 10th unanimously elected president by 
64 deputies, and he selected a cabinet composed of 
Michael Collins, Minister of Finance; George Gavan 
Duffy, Foreign Affairs; Eamon J. Duggan, Home Affairs; 
William T. Cosgrave, Local Government; Kevin 
O'Higgins, Economic Affairs; and Richard Mulcahy, De- 
fense. A few days later (January 12 th) King George 
issued a proclamation of amnesty "in respect to political 
offenses committed in Ireland prior to the truce of the 
previous July." Mr. Griffith and his Cabinet then 
summoned the Southern Parliament, which proceeded 
formally to ratify the treaty. A few days later evacua- 
tion of the British army of 60,000 began. 

But the end was not yet. Disgruntled and determined 
not to yield to what more and more appeared to be a 
logical solution of the long-standing problem, De Valera 
and his followers did all in their power to hamper the work 
of the Provisional Government. Notwithstanding this 
fact, however, the Government continued to function, and 
on June 16th the supporters of the treaty won a sweep- 
ing victory at the polls when members were elected to the 
new Parliament. General Mellowes, Erskine Childers, 


Sean Nolan, and John MacSwiney were among the De- 
Valera leaders who suffered defeat, the final returns 
giving the Treatyites 58, Antis 36, Labor 17, Farmers 7, 
Trade and Commercial Independents 6, Trinity College 4. 

369. Civil war between supporters of the Free State 
and Republicans. This election touched off the spark of 
the civil war, • the storm clouds of which for months had 
hung ominously on the horizon. Raids, reprisals, courts 
martial, and assassinations again became the order of the 
day. On June 2 2d, for instance, the civilized world was 
shocked by the assassination in London of Field-Marshal 
Sir Henry Wilson, an Ulster extremist, by Nationalist 
sympathizers. De Valera, in a statement, disavowed any 
knowledge of the assassins and attributed the tragedy to 
the Irish settlement, which he scathingly denounced. 
Just a month later one of his trusted lieutenants, Harry 
Boland, formerly Dail "Eireann representative to the 
United States, died from wounds which he received in re- 
sisting arrest at the hands of Free State officials. Almost 
immediately threats of reprisal were rumored, and fears 
were expressed for the safety of Arthur Griffith, Pres- 
ident of the Provisional Government, But a natural death 
rather than an assassin's bullet carried that great leader to 
his grave on August 1 2 th. His untimely death was a griev- 
ous loss to the struggling Free State. But it was scarcely 
more serious than the death, less than two weeks later, 
of Michael Collins, Commander-in-Chief of the Free State 
Army, who was struck down by rebel fire in County Cork. 

370. The Irish Free State adopts a constitution and 
begins its career. Grave as these losses were, they did 
not wreck the Free State. At the first session of the new 
Parliament, which opened peacefully on September 9th, 
William T. Cosgrave was chosen President to succeed 
Griffith, and Richard Mulcahy was named Commander- 


in-Chief. Having filled these important positions and 
passed successfully through what was regarded as the 
critical first week, the Parliament then turned its attention 
to the new Constitution of the Irish Free State. 

This document, the draft of which had been completed 
just prior to the general elections, first of all gives force to 
the Anglo-Irish Treaty and expressly declares that any 
part of the Constitution or any law enacted under it 
which may be repugnant to the treaty is void. It places 
the relations between Ireland and the Empire on the same 
basis as those with Canada and the other Dominions. 
Every member of the Free State Parliament is required 
to subscribe faith and allegiance to the Constitution and 
the King. The document provides for universal suffrage, 
proportional representation, and the initiative and refer- 
endum, and places great power over finance in the Lower 
House. Freedom of religion and conscience are guaran- 
teed, and citizens are protected against arbitrary power 
of court martial. It exempts the Free State from partici- 
pation in war without the consent of Parliament except in 
case of actual invasion. The Irish Supreme Court is 
given the fullest powers, subject only to the right of 
citizens to appeal to the King in Council against the 
Supreme Court's decision. 

The Parliament is to consist of two elected Houses, and 
executive authority consists of the King, assisted by a 
Council of twelve ministers who must be responsible to 
the Chamber. Judges are appointed by the executive. 

The instrument as finally adopted was submitted to 
the British Parliament at its autumn session for approval. 
By December 5th it had passed both Houses unanimously 
and unamended, and on the same day King George gave 
Royal sanction to the legislation setting up the Irish Free 
State as a Dominion in the British Empire. On the same date 



also Timothy Healy, a veteran advocate of freedom for Ire- 
land, was appointed the first Governor- General of the Free 
State. His appointment, significantly enough, was hailed 
with satisfaction by all classes of Irishmen except the 
extreme Republicans. His appointment, it was felt, would 
kill the extremists' argument that the Governor- General 
would be the real ruler and the puppet of Downing Street. 

On December 6th the Irish tricolor of orange, white, 
and green floated over the Government buildings. The 
great ideal for which Irishmen had for generations aspired 
was at last realized. But there was no wild rejoicing, for 
the leaders fully appreciate that stupendous tasks are yet 
to be solved. In inaugurating the new era President 
Cosgrave appealed for union. To Ulster he extended a 
friendly hand, denying any intention to employ coercive 
measures against her : quite to the contrary, he expressed 
the hope that they would unite with the rest of the Irish 
nation "and share in the government as well as in the 
prosperity that will flow into the nation." 

What the future of Ireland will be remains to be seen. 
The extremists, who want a completely independent 
Ireland, are still trouble-makers. The court-martialing 
and execution of one of their leaders, Erskine Childers, 
just before the Irish Free State came into existence, 
undoubtedly embittered th m still further. The civil 
war is not yet (December, 1922) at an end, and the Ulster 
Parliament on December 7th unanimously voted not to 
unite with the Free State. The situation, perhaps, is 
best summed up by the Irish Times, which, on the oc- 
casion of the inception of the Free State, declared that 
the Irish people were now in control of their own destinies. 
"Their future," remarks this journal, "will be what they 
choose to make it, and the honor of success or the shame of 
failure will fall upon themselves." 



As explained in the note on Brehon Law (see section 
12), all Irish surnames were originally patronymics ; that 
is, names formed from the name of the father or grand- 
father. These names have the prefixes Mac, " son," and 
Hua, Ua, or O, as the word successively became, " grand- 
irish patro- son," identical with the Greek word vios, Huios, 
nymics. "son." During the purely Irish period, which 
ended about the time of Roderick O' Conor, nearly all 
Irish families traced their descent from the three sons 
of Milid, — Heber, Eremon, and Ir ; a few claimed descent 
from Ithe, the uncle of Milid. One may find an exact 
parallel in the English pedigrees, traced to-day from 
ancestors who " came over with William the Conqueror," 
or in Russian pedigrees of families " descended from 
Rurik," the Norse conqueror of Russia. We shall illus- 
trate the subject by giving a number of names traced 
by tradition from these founders of the Irish race, show- 
ing their early Gaelic form and spelling, and adding the 
derivations which are given for a number of them, in 
" O' Hart's Irish Pedigrees." Some of these derivations 
are conjectural, while others are undoubtedly correct. 
Where practicable, we shall add the first occurrence of 
each name in the " Annals of the Four Masters " ; but it 
must be remembered that the custom of using surnames 
does not seem to have become general before the time 
of the Danish raids, though all the pedigrees to which 


these surnames belong go back to the dawn of Irish 
tradition. Their preservation is undoubtedly due to the 
institution of heraldry, it being the duty of the herald to 
enumerate the ancestors of his chief, with a list of their 
exploits. We can only give a few out of many Irish 
surnames, selecting those which are most famous, and 
those whose origin is most completely obscured by the 
modern spelling. It should be understood that these 
names were written down by Englishmen who could 
neither pronounce nor spell Gaelic ; if an Englishman 
ignorant of French were to try to write down French 
surnames by ear, we should have a similar and equally 
unrecognizable result. 

Surnames of families descended from Heber. 

Casey (O'Cathasaigh, descendant of Cathasach); lords of 
Saithne, a subdivision of Magh Breagh, in Meath. "An- 
nals of the Four Masters " : "a. d. 1018 : Oissene O'Catha- 
saigh, lord of Mughdhorna, lord of Saithne, slain." 

Clancy (MacFlannchadha, son of Flannchadh, from flann, 
blood, indicating red); "a. d. 1241 : Domnall MacFlann- 
chadha, chief of Dartry, died." 

Coghlan (MacCoghlain, son of Coghlan, from cochal, a 
cowl or hood); "a. d. 1134: Aedh MacCoghlain, lord of 
Dealbhna-Eathra (Delvin, now part of the King's County), 

Cullen (O'Cuillen, descendant of Coilean, from coilean, a 
young warrior); "a. d. 1109: Maelisa O'Cuillen, noble 
bishop of the North of Ireland, died." 

Hogan (O'h-Ogain, descendant of Ogan, from ogan, youth) ; 
"a. d. 1091: Ceannfaeladh O'h-Ogain, successor of Bre- 
nainn, died." 

Kearney (O'Cearnaigh, descendant of Cearnach, from cear- 
nach, victorious); "a. d. 1096 : Eoghan 5 Cearnaigh, air- 
chineach of Doire, died." 


Kennedy (O'Ceinneidigh, descendant of Ceinneidigh); "a. d. 
1180 : Domnall O'Ceinneidigh, lord of Ormond, died." 

MacCarthy (MacCarthaigh, son of Cartach, commander 
against the Danes in a. d. 1045). Lords of Desmond. 

MacEniry (Maclneirghe, son of Ingeirci, from eirghe, a 
rising); "a. d. 1029: Cinnaed Maclneirghe, lord of Conallo 
(in Limerick), slain in battle." 

MacMahon (MacMathghamhna, son of Mathghamhain, who 
was son of Turlogh Mor, king of Ireland, who died a. d. 
1086); lords of Corco-Baiscinn, in Clare. 

MacNamara (MacConmara, son of Cumara, from cu, warrior, 
and ma?-a, of the sea); "a. d. 1099: Domnall MacConmara, 
lord of Ui-Caisin, died." 

Moriarty (O'Muircheartaigh, son of Muirceartach, from 
muir^ sea, and cearl, just) ; " a. d. 1107 : O'Muircheartaigh, 
lord of Eoghanacht of Loch Leine (Killarney), was expelled 
from his lordship by MacCarthy, king of Desmond." 

O'Brien (O'Briain, descendant of Brian (Boru), who was 
descended from Cormac Cas, second son of Olioll Olum, 
king of Munster, by his wife Sabh, daughter of Conn of 
the Hundred Battles ; from brian, great strength). In 
modern times the O'Briens were marquises of Thomond, 
earls of Inchiquin, and barons of Burren ; many of them 
were distinguished commanders of the Irish Brigade in 
France, as earls of Clare and counts of Thomond. 

O'Carroll (O'Cearbhaill, descendant of Cearbhall, from 
cearbhall, slaughter); "a. d. 1043: O'Cearbhaill, lord of 
Fearnmhagh, slain." 

O'Corcoran (O'Corcrain, descendant of Corcran,from corcra, 
red); " a. d. iooi : Cahalan O'Corcrain, abbot of Devenish, 

O'Daly (O'Dalaigh, descendant of Dalach) ; " a. d., 1139: 
Cuchonnacht O'Dalaigh, chief ollav in poetry, died." 

O'Donoghue (O'Donchadha, descendant of Donchadh) ; 
"a, d. ioio: Flann, son of O'Donchadha, successor of St. 
Enda, of Ara (in Tipperary) died." Dunghal O'Don- 
chadha, king of Cashel, fought at Clontarf, 1014. 


O'Donovan (O'Donnobhain, descendant of Donnobhan, who 

was defeated and slain by Brian Boru in 976). Lords of 

O'Gara (O'Gadhra, descendant of Gadhra); "a. d. 964: 

Tiachleach O'Gadhra was slain ; he was lord of South 

Luighne," or Leyney, in Sligo. 
O'Grady (O'Gradhaighe, descendant of Gradach) ; "a. d. 

1 15 1 : Aneslis O'Gradhaighe slain " Lords of Cinel Dung- 

haile in Claire. 
O'Hara (O'h-Eadhradh or O'h-Eaghra, descendant of 

Eaghra) ; Eaghra was son of Poprigh, lord of Luighne, 

or Leyney, who died in a. d. 926. 
O'Keefe (O'Caoimhe, descendant of Caimh) ; "a. d. 1063: 

Ceallach O'Caoimhe, anchorite, died." Lords of Glean- 

O'Leary (O'Laoghaire, descendant of Laoghaire ; from 

laer, sea, and rig/i, king, king of the sea). 
O'Lonergan (O'Longargain, descendant of Longargain, 

from longair, a ship's crew); "a. d. 1099: Annudh 

O'Longargain, successor of Colum, died." 
O'Mahony (O'Mathghamhna, descendant of Mathgham- 

hain ; perhaps from niaghghabhuin, a bear, literally a calf 

of the plain); "a. d. 11 13: Eochaidh O'Mathghamhna, 

king of Ulidia." 
O'Sullivan (O'Suilleabhain, descendant of Suillebhan, 

from suilebhan, one-eyed); descended from Aodh Dubh, 

king of Munster. "a. d. 1253: Ailinn O'Suilleabhain, 

bishop of Lismore, died." Lords of Beara, now Bere- 

haven, Cork- 
Plunkett (O'Pluingceid, descendant of Pluingcead, from 

plane, strike, and cead, first). Descended from Doncadh, 

son of Brian Boru. Lords of Fingal. 
Plunket (same origin), at present, lords of Louth, Fingal, 

and Dunsany. 
Quinn (O'Cuinn, descendant of Conn, that is, Conn Mor, 

whose son Niall was slain at Clontarf, a. d. 1014; "a. d. 


1095 : Augustin O'Cuinn, chief brehon (judge) of Leinster, 

Some families descended from Ithe. 

Barry (O'Baire, descendant of Barrach) ; "a. d. 1240: In 
this monastery Barrach Mor was also interred." 

Coffey (O'Cobhthaigh, descendant of Cobthach Fionn, 
from cobthach, victorious): "a. d. 1203: Ainmire 
O'Cobhthaigh, abbot of the church of Derry-Columkille." 

Some families descended from Ir. 

Cahill (O'Cathail, descendant of Cathal, from cathal, 

valor); "a. d. 1033: Aenghus O'Cathail, lord of Eogh- 

anacht-Locha-Lein (in Kerry), killed." 
Guinness or MacGuinness (MacAenghusa, son of Aen- 
ghus); "a. d. 956: Domnall MacAenghusa, lord of Ui- 

Eathach (Iveagh, Down), died." Descended from Aengus, 

grandson of Tiobrad Tireach, king of Ulster, contemporary 

with Conn of the Hundred Battles. 
Healy (O'h-Ealighe, descendant of Eilighe); "a. d. 1342: 

Conor O'h-Eilighe, died." Lords of Baile-Ui-Eilighe, now 

Hollybrook, in Sligo. 
Lynch (O'Loingsigh, descendant of Longseach, father of 

one of the kings of Ulster, from longseach, mariner) ; 

"a. d. 1030: Conchobhar O'Loingsigh." Lords of Dal- 

Moore (O'Mordha, descendant of Mordha, from mordha, 

proud); "a. d. 1017 : Cearnach O'Mordha, lord of 

Laeighis (Leix), killed." 
O'Farrell CO'Fearghail, descendant of Feargal, king of 

Conmacne, who was killed at Clontarf, 1014). 
Reynolds (MacRaghnall, son of Ragnal); "a. d. 1237: 

Cathal MacRaghnall, chief of Muintir-Eolais." 
Shanly (O'Seanlaoich, descendant of Seanlaoch, from sean, 

old, and laoch, hero). 
Ward (Mac an-Bhaird, son of the bard, that is, of Shane, 

son of Conor, bard of Ulster. 1356). 


Some families descended from Bremon. 

Agnew (MacGniomhaighe, son of Gniomhach, from gniomh, 

active) ; descended from Eoin MacDonnell-Gniomhach. 
Boyle (O'Baoighill, descendant of Baoghal, from baoghal, 

peril); "a. d. 1099: Caenchomhrac O'Baoighail, bishop of 

Brady (O'Bruide, descendant of Bruid) ; "a. d. 1256: Tier- 
nan MacBrady, slain." Chiefs of Cuil-Brighdin, in East 

Coleman (O'Columain, descendant of Colman Mor, son of 

Diarmaid, king of Ireland), "a. d. 1081 : Cucatha O'Col- 

main, died." 
Conway (MacConmidhe, son of Cumidhe) ; "a. d. 1095: 

Amhlaeibh MacConmidhe, chief of Silronain, slain." 
CoRRiGAN(0'Coraidhegain, descendant of Coraidhegan, from 

coraidhe, hero). 
Cowell (MacCathmhaoil, son of Cathmal) ; "a. d. 1185: 

Gillchreest MacCathmhaoil, chief of Kinel-Farry." 
Croly (O'Cruaidh-locha, from cruaidh, hard, and laoch, hero, 

meaning hardy champion). 
Darcy (O'Dorchaidhe, descendant of Dorchadh, from dor- 

chadh, dark) \ " a. d. 1484 : Edmund, son of Darcy." 
Dempsey (O'Dimasaigh, " descendant of Dimasach ") ; " a. d. 

1 162: Ceallach O'Dimasaigh, slain." 
Dillon (Dilmhain, from dile, flood) ; descended from Lochan 

Dilmhain, brother of Colman Mor, king of Meath. "a. d. 

1352 : Dabuck Dilmhain, chief of the Dilmhains of Con- 

nacht, died." 
Doherty (O'Dochartaigh, descendant of Dochartach, from 

dochar, harm); "a. D. 1188 : Eachmarcach O'Dochartaigh," 

who afterwards became chief of Kinel-Connell. Also 

chiefs of Ardmire and Inishowen. 
Dowling (O'Dunlaing, descendant of Dunlaing); "a. d. 

1041 : Cuicche O'Dunlaing, lord of Laeighis (Leix), slain." 
Dunne (O'Duinn, descendant of Dunn, from dun, fortress) ; 


"a. d. 1023: Donnchadh O'Duinn, lord of Breagh, seized 

Dwyer (O'Duibhidhir, descendant of Duibhuidhir) ; a. d. 

Egan (O'h-Aedhagain, descendant of Aedhaghan, from aed/i, 

" eye," and aghain, " kindle ") ; " a. d. 945 : Scolaighe 

O'h-Aedhagain, lord of Dartraighe (Dartry), slain." 
Ferguson (MacFearghusa, son of Feargus, from fear, man, 

and gus, " strength"). 
Finnerty (O'Finnachta, descendant of Fionnachtach, that is, 

" snow-white," one of the twelve lords of Cruachan) ; "a. d. 

878 : Suibhne O'Finnachta, bishop of Cilldara (Kildare), 

Flynn (O'Flainn, descendant of Flann) ; "a. d. 1036: 

Aenghus O'Flainn, successor of Brennain of Cluainfearta, 

Gaffney (MacGamhnaigh, son of Gamhnach ; descended 

from Gothfrith Gamhnach). 
Gallagher (O'Gallchobhair, descendant of Gallchobhar) ; 

"a. d. 1022: Maelcobha O'Gallchobhair, successor of 

Scrin-Adhamhnain, died." 
Griffin (O'Criomhthain, "descendant of Criomhthan," from 

criomthan, "fox"); A. D. 1225. 
Hart (O'h-Airt, descendant of Art); "a. d. 1087: Maelru- 

anaidh O'h-Airt, lord of Teathba, died." 
Hennesy (MacAenghusa, son of Aengus, from aon, excellent, 

and gus, strength) ; " a. d. 956 : Domnall MacAenghusa, 

lord of the Ui-Eathach, died." 
Higgins (O'h-Uigin, descendant of Uigin, from uige, 

strength) ; " a. d. 1349 : Gilla-na-naev O'h-Uigin, poet, 

Kavanagh (O'Caomhanaigh, descendant of (Domnall) 

Caomhanach); "a. d. 1175 : Domnall Caomhanach, son 

of Dermot, king of Leinster, slain." From this comes the 

French Cavaignac. 
Kelly (O'Ceallaigh, descendant of Ceallach); "a. d. 


1014: Aedh O'Ceallaigh, son of Tadhg, son of Murchadh, 

lord of Ui-Maine, slain." 
Keogh (MacEochaidh, son of Eochaidh, great-grandson of 

Eanna Ceannsalach, king of Leinster in the time of Saint 

Patrick. From eachach, horseman, Latin eques). 
Killbride (MacGiolla-Brighid, son of the devotee of 

Lawlor (O'Leathlobhair, descendant of Leathlobhar) • 

" a. d. 912 : Loingseach O'Leathlobhair, king of Ulidia." 
Macaulay (MacAmhalghadha, son of Amhalghadha) ; "a. d. 

1082 : Finnchadh MacAmhalghadha, chief of Clann Brea- 

sail, died." 
Macdermot (MacDairmuid, son of Diarmaid, from Diar- 

maid, god of arms); "a. d. 1176: Conor MacDiarmuid, 

lord of Moylurg." 
MacDowell (MacDubhghaill, son of the Dark Foreigner, 

Dubh Ghall, who was king of the Western Isles in 1144). 
MacSheehy (MacSithaigh, son of Sithach) ; "a. d. 1397: 

John MacSheehy, slain." 
MacSweeny (MacSuibhne, son of Suibhne); "a. d. 1356: 

Dowell MacSweeny, slain." 
Madden (O'Madadhain, descendant of Madadhan) ; "a. d. 

1047 : Muircheartach, lord of Ui-Breasail, slain." 
Maguire (MacUidhir, son of Odhar, from odhar, pale- 
faced); "a. d. 1344: Brian Maguire, son of Rory, died." 
Molloy (O'Maoilmhuaidh, descendant of Maelmhuadh) ; 

"a. d. 1156: Aedh O'Maoilmhuaidh, lord of Feara-Ceall, 

Morgan (O'Muiregain, descendant of Muiregan, from 

muiregan, mariner). 
Murray (O'Muireadhaigh, descendant of Muireadach); 

"a. d. 1086: O'Muireadhaigh, chief of Muintir-Tlamain, 

O'Byrne, Byrne (O'Brain, descendant of Bran) ; a. d. 

1 1 19: "Aedh O'Brain, lord of Leinster, died." Lords of 

Ranelagh (Wickiow). 


O'Connor (O'Conchobhair, descendant of Conchobhar, 
the helping warrior); " a. d. 1036: Aedh-an-gha-bhear- 
naigh O'Conchobhair (Hugh of the Broken Spear), king 
of Connacht." 

O'Flaherty (O'Flaithbhearthaigh, descendant of Flaith- 
bheartach) ; " a. d. 968 : Murchadh O'Flaithbheartaigh, 
lord of Aileach." 

O'Gorman (O'Gormain, MacGormain, descendant of Gor- 
man, from gortnan, illustrious); "a. d. 1123: Aenghus 
O'Gormain, successor of Comhgall, died." 

O'Hagan (O'h-Ocain, descendant of Ocan); " a. d. 1103 : 
Raghnall O'h-Ocain, lawgiver of Telach-Og, slain." 

O'Hanlon (O'h-Anluain, descendant of Anluan) ; "a. d. 
iiii : Donnchadh O'h-Anluain, lord of Ui-Niallain, slain." 

O'Murphy, Murphy (O'Murchadha, descendant of Mur- 
chadh); "a. d. 103 1 : Flaithbheartach O'Murchadha, 
chief of Cinel-Boghaine, slain." 

O'Neill (descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages, who 
were taken from Ulster, Leinster, Munster, Connacht, 
Britain, Pictland, Dalriada, Saxonland, Morini (France); 
in Irish, Niall Naoi Ghiallach). Monarchs of Ireland, and 
kings of Ulster. 

O'Reilly (O'Ragheallaigh, descendant of Raghallach who 
was slain at Clontarf, 1014). 

O'Rourke (O'Ruairc, descendant of Ruarc); "a. d. 990: 
Aedh O'Ruairc, heir of Connacht, slain." 

O'Shaughnessy (O'Seachnasaigh, descendant of Seachna- 
sach) ; " a. d. 1040 : Diarmaid O'Seachnasaigh, successor 
of Seachnall, died." 

O'Shea (O'Seaghdha, descendant of Seaghdha); "a. d. 1095 : 
Mathghamhain O'Seaghdha, lord of Corca-Duibhne, died." 

O'Toole (O'Tuathail, descendant of Tuathal); Tuathal, 
the left-handed, died in a. d. 956. 

It should be remembered that these are only a few- 
names, selected from a very large number which existed 


in Ireland before the coming of the Normans ; many of 
those omitted for lack of space are descended from 
equally distinguished warriors, judges, or poets. There 
are two more chief divisions of Irish family names be- 
sides the original Gaelic : Norman names like De 
Courcy and Fitzgerald, and English or Scotch names 
belonging to families brought over during the various 


The locations of places mentioned on the maps are also given. 

Adriatic Sea, map, 247, H3. 
Aed,son of Ainmire, colony in Scot- 
land refuses to pay tribute to, 64. 
Agriculture, department of, 336, 


Ailill, King of Connaught, 22. 

Ainmire, son of Sedna, 64. 

Alba, map, 29, Di. 

Algeria, map, 247, E4. 

Almanza, map, 247, D4. 

Anglican Church, 192 ; rule of, re- 
stored by Charles II, 210. 

Anglo-Irish Catholics, one of the 
four parties in Ireland at the be- 
ginning of the 17th century, 192. 

Angouleme, map, 247, E2. 

Annaly, county of Longford formed 
out of, 159. 

Anne, Queen, succeeds William on 
the English throne in 1702, 243. 

Annesley Case, 254, 255. 

Antrim, surrendered to Cromwell 
by George Munro, 203 ; location, 
map, 113, E2; map, 180, B5. 

Antrim County, organized, 165. 

Ardagh, chalice of, picture, 68. 

Ardee, 88; map, 113, E3. 

Arklovv, attacked by insurgents in 
Irish Rebellion, 280; location, 
map, 169, E4. 

Armagh, book of, 86. 

Armagh, church founded by St. 
Patrick at, 50; plundered by 
Norsemen, 69 ; seat of one of the 
four archbishops, 92; location, 
map, 53, A3. 

Armagh County, one of the seven 
counties into which Perrott di- 
vided Ulster, 165; location, map, 
180, B5. 

Armorial bearings of the Butlers, 
Earls of Ormond, picture, 144. 

Armorial bearings of the Fitz- 
geralds, Earls of Kildare, picture, 

Assisi, map, 247, G3. 

At Boy (Yellow Ford), map,ii$, E2. 

At-Cliat. See Dublin. 

Athenry, battle of, 119; location, 
map, 113, C3. 

Athlone, castle of, picture, 231. 

Athlone, bridge of, 93 ; taken by 
Sir Charles Coote, 205; captured 
by Ginkel, 230-232 ; location, map, 
53, B2 ; map, 169, D3. 

Aughrim, battle of, 232, 233; map, 
169, C3. 

Austerlitz, map, 247, H2. 

Austria, Irish in, 334, 335; loca- 
tion, map, 247, H2. 

" Back Lane Parliament," draws up 
petition for removal of some of 
the penal laws, 274. 

Badge of the Down Volunteers, 
picture, 267. 

Bagenal, Sir Henry, military com- 
mander of Ireland, 166; sent to 
relieve Portmore, 168 ; position 
of his army at Yellow Ford, 169 ; 
killed at battle of the Yellow Ford, 

Balfour, Arthur James, becomes 
chief secretary for Ireland, 330; 
policy of, 330 ; picture, 331 ; turns 
his attention to the " congested 
districts," 330, 331 ; forms " Con- 
gested Districts Board," 332 ; be- 
comes prime minister, 334. 

Ballaghboy, battle of " The Yellow 
Pass " fought at, 171 ; location, 
map, 169, C2. 

Ballymore, map, T69, C2. 

Ballyshannon, 168; map, 169, C2. 



Balor of the Evil Eye, 3. 

Baltic Sea, map, 1. 

Baltimore, 175; map, 169, B5. 

Baltinglass Mountains, map, 180, 
D S . 

Bangor, college of, 56 ; location, 
map, 53, A4; map, 169, F2. 

Bannockburn, map, 247, D. 

Bann River, map, 180, B5. 

Bantry Bay, 176; map, 169, B5; 
map, 180, El. 

Barrow River, map, 53, B3. 

Barry, Sir Jacob, 369. 

Barry, John, 352. 

Barry, Sir Redmond, 368. 

Bavaria, map, 247, G2. 

Bear, 176; map, 180, E2. 

Belfast Lough, map, 53, A4; map, 
180, B6. 

Belfast, surrenders to Cromwell, 
202 ; celebrates anniversary of 
the fall of the Bastile, 273 ; loca- 
tion, map, 53, A4 ; map, 180, B6. 

Belgrade, map, 247, I3. 

Bellingham, Sidney Robert, 367. 

Bell of St. Patrick, picture, 51. 

Benburb, battle of, 196, 197 ; loca- 
tion, map, 169, E2 ; map, 180, B5. 

Bigar, Joseph, 327. 

Biscay, bay of, map, I. 

"Black Rent," 126. 

Black Sea, map, 247, K3. 

Blackwater River (northern), map, 
180, B5 . 

Blackwater River (southern), 10; 
map, 180, D3. 

Blackwater, capture of the Fort of 
the, from O'Neill by Lord Bor- 
ough, 1 597, picture, 167. 

Blackwood, Frederick Temple Ham- 
ilton, career of, 363. 

Blenheim, 341 ; map, 247, G2. 

Bobbio, 81 ; map, 247, F3. 

Bond, Oliver, United Irishmen hold 
meetings at house of, 277. 

Book of Kells, 85 ; facsimile of a 
page from, picture^ 85. 

Borough, Lord, appointed Lord 
Lieutenant by Queen Elizabeth 
and arrives in Ireland, 167 ; killed 
at battle of Drumflugh, 168. 

Boru, Brian, defeated by Norsemen, 
72; defeats Norsemen at Sulcoit, 
72; defeats king of Leinster, 74; 

made High King, 74; his rule, 
75; killed at battle of Clontarf. 

Boruma Tribute, origin, 28 ; relin- 
quished, 64. 

Boulter, Anglican archbishop of 
Dublin, his influence in Ireland, 


Bourke, Richard Southwell, career 
of, 362. 

Boyne River, 25; battle of the, 220- 
222 ; map, 180, C5. 

Bragganstown, 125; map, 180, C5. 

Breas, messenger of the De Da- 
nanns, 2. 

Brehon Laws, in regard to family 
and tribe, 16, 17; criminal law, 
18; revised by St. Patrick, 50; 
condition of, in the 14th century, 
127 ; effect of the Statute of Kil- 
kenny on, 129; policy of Perrott 
in regard to, 164. 

Brest, map, 247, D2. 

Bright, John, realizes that England 
must redress Irish grievances, 

Brittany, map, 247, D2. 

Brock, Colonel, 366. 

Brown, George, appointed arch- 
bishop of Dublin by Henry VIII 
and opposed by Archbishop 
Cromer, 151. 

Bruce, Edward, lands at Larne with 
army, 118; defeats De Burgo at 
Connor, 118; crowned king, 119; 
defeated at Athenry by William 
de Burgo, 119; joined by Robert 
Bruce, king of Scotland, 119; at- 
tempts to reduce Dublin and Lim- 
erick, 119; killed in battle of 
Faughart, 120. 

Bruce, Robert, king of Scotland, 
joins his brother in Ireland, 119; 
returns to Scotland, 119. 

Brugh, 25; map, 29, C2. 

Bulgaria, map, 247, J3. 

Bull, War of the, 22-25= 

Burgh, 265. 

Burgundy, map, 247, E2. 

Burke, Edmund, picture, 261 ; cham- 
pion of the American colonies, 
261 ; career of, 372, 373. 

Burke of Clanrickard, defeated by 
Kildare, 142. 



Burke, Thomas, murdered in Phoe- 
nix Park, 328. 
Butler, Sir Edmund, 118. 
Butler, Colonel Richard, 351. 
Butler. See also Ormond, Dukes of. 

Cadiz, map, 247, C4. 

Cahersiveen, map, 169, A5. 

Cairbre, son of Cormac, 36, killed in 
battle of Gavra, 38. 

Cairpre, the " Catheaded," 27. 

Callan, battle of, 117 ; map, 113, B5. 

" Camisards," 251. 

Cape Clear Island, 68 ; ?nap, 53, C2. 

Carew, Sir George, president of 
Ulster, devastates Munster, 172; 
intercepts O'Donnell in his march 
to meet the Spaniards, 173 ; takes 
Dunboy Castle, 176; cruelty of, 

Carleton, Colonel Guy, career of, 

3 6 5> 3 6 6- 

Carlingford, derivation of name, 
71 ; surrenders to Cromwell, 202 ; 
location, map, 53, A3. 

Carlingford Lough, 69 ; map, 53, 
A3 ; map, 169, E2. 

Carlow, one of the twelve counties 
which King John established, 
112 ; outbreak in, during the Irish 
Rebellion, 278 ; location, map, 
180, D5. 

Carrick, Book of, 135. 

Carrickbyrne Hill, rebel encamp- 
ment on, during the Irish Rebel- 
lion, 278 ; location, map, 169, E4. 

Carrickfergus, 195, 203; taken by 
Schomborg, 219 ; map, 180, B6. 

Carrickfergus Castle, picture, 195. 

Carrigroe Hill, rebel encampment 
on, during the Irish Rebellion, 
278; location, map, 169, E4. 

Carrowmore, circle and cromlech 
at, picture, 6; map, 29, B54. 

Cashel, Rock of, 89; picture, 90; 
cross of, 90 ; seat of one of the 
four archbishops, 92 ; psalter of, 
135; location, map, 113, D4. 

Castlehaven, 175; map, 169, B5. 

Castledermott, 133; map, 180, D5. 

Castlereagh, Lord, chief secretary 
of Ireland, 284. 

Catholic Association, formation of, 
298 ; influence of, 299. 

"Catholic Committee," formation 
of, 258, 259. 

Catholic Emancipation, need of, re- 
cognized by Patriots, 269; at- 
tempts at, 275; plan to obtain, by 
giving England right to veto ap- 
pointment of Catholic bishops, 
294 ; O'Connell's work for, 297- 
300; Act of, passed, 300. 

Catholics, effect of the Reformation 
upon, 150; assailed by Henry 
VIII, 151; priests forced out of 
their churches by Edward VI, 
1 53 ; oppressed by Elizabeth, 1 54; 
efforts of Hugh O'Neill to secure 
religious liberty for, 165-177; 
worship of, restored in some 
places by James I, 181 ; effect of 
revival of acts of Supremacy and 
Uniformity in reign of James I, 
on, 182; drilled and armed by 
Wentworth, 187 ; cruelty of, in 
army of Phelim O'Neill, 192 ; ef- 
fect of Confederation of Kil- 
kenny on, 193; lack of union 
among, 194, 195; persecution of, 
in Cromwell's time, 206-208; 
under disfavor of Charles II, 208- 
211; restored to favor by James 
II, 211; Treaty of Limerick re- 
stores religious liberty to, 235, 
236; absolute subjection of, 240; 
effect of Penal Laws of 1 695-1 697 
on, 240, 241 ; effect of Penal Codes 
of 1 703-1 704 on, 243, 244; effect 
of Test and Schism Acts on, 244; 
effect of third set of Penal Laws 
on, 244, 245 ; petition submitted 
to George III by, 274; Irish Par- 
liament grants franchise to, 274 ; 
attempts to emancipate, 275, 276 ; 
their attitude toward Union 
scheme, 286, 287 ; admitted to 
House of Commons, 301 ; admit- 
ted to all military and civil offices, 
301 ; England's attitude toward, 
317; oppose Fenians, 318; in 
America, 358, 359. 

Cauldron, ancient Irish bronze, 
picture, 16. 

Cavan, Hugh O'Neill attacks the 
English at, 166. 

Cavan County, one of the sevea 
counties into which Perrott di- 



vided Ulster, 165; location, map, 
180, B4. 

Cavendish, Lord Frederick, mur- 
dered in Phcenix Park, 328. 

Chalons, map, 247, E2. 

Charlemont YoxX,picture, 191; taken 
by Phelim O'Neill, 191 ; location, 
map, 169, E2. 

Charlemont, James Caulfield, Earl 
of, 263, 270; helps form the 
"Whig Club," 273. 

Charles I, accession of, 184; du- 
plicity of, 185 ; methods of obtain- 
ing money from Ireland, 185 ; 
attitude and false overtures of, 
194; tried and beheaded, 200. 

Charles II, proclaimed king, 201 ; 
restoration of, 208; passes Acts of 
Settlement and Explanation, 208, 
209; divides land, favoring Pro- 
testants, 209, 210; reestablishes 
Anglican Church, 210 ; enforces 
act of Uniformity against the 
Presbyterians, 210. 

Chesterfield, Earl of, appointed lord 
lieutenant, 257 ; administration of, 


Christianity, introduced into Ireland 
by St. Patrick, 41-52 ; progress 
under St. Columba, 55-61 ; effect 
of the Norse invasion on, 78; 
under Malachias, 91, 92. 

Church Disestablishment, question 
of, first agitated, 317; parliament 
passes act disestablishing Protes- 
tant Episcopal church, 322 ; pro- 
visions of the act, 322. 

Cistercians, religious order, 121. 

Citaux, 121 ; map, 247, F2. 

Claims, court of, 209. 

Clairvaux, 121 ; map, 247, E2. 

Clanrickard, map, 113, C3. 

Clare, one of the counties into which 
Connaught was divided in 1565, 
159; map, 180, D3. 

Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, intro- 
duces statute of Kilkenny, 128. 

Clifford, Sir Conyers, defeated and 
killed by O'Donnell in the battle 
of "The Yellow Pass," 171. 

Clonard, 57 ; map, 53, B3. 

Clondalkin, raided by Norsemen, 
69 ; round tower of, 70 ; location, 

ma P, S3» B 3- 

Clonmacnoise, Saint Kieran founds 
religious school at, 56; location, 
map, 53, B3. 

Clonmel, defence of, 204; map, 169, 
D 4 . 

Clontarf, battle of, map, 53, B3. 

Clyde River, map, 247, D. 

Coercion Act, 293. 

Coleraine, one of the seven counties 
into which Perrott divided Ulster, 

Cologne, map, 247, Fi. 

Columbanus, missionary on the con- 
tinent, 80 ; founds Bobbio, 81. 

Concobar, becomes chief of Emain, 
20; captures Deirdre, 21 ; defeats 
hosts of Medb at battle of Gairec, 

Confession of St. Patrick, 42-46. 

Cong, Cross of, picture, 93 ; loca- 
tion, map, 113, B3. 

Conn, son of Fedlimid, 29. 

Connaught, one of the four early 
kingdoms, 28 ; condition of, in the 
13th century, 116; divided into 
six counties in 1 565, 1 59; O'Neill's 
insurrection in, 170; confiscation 
by Wentworth in, 186; location, 
map, 29, B2; map, 180, C2, C3. 

Connemara, Norsemen slaughter 
people of, 67. 

Connor, De Burgo defeated by 
Bruce at, 118; location, map, 113, 

Conor, king of Connaught, 106; 
defeats Normans, 106. 

Constance, lake of, map, 247, F2. 

Cooldrevin, battle of, 58; map, 53, 

Coote, Sir Charles, betrays Cole- 
raine, 203; parliamentarian leader, 
204; sent by Ireton to besiege 
Athlone, 204; takes Athlone, 205; 
takes Galway, 206. 

Cork, surrenders to Cromwell, 203; 
surrenders to William, 228 ; loca- 
tion, map, 180, E 3. 

Cork County, one of the twelve 
counties which King John estab- 
lished, 112; location, map, 180, 

E 3 . 
Cormac, king, personal appearance, 
31 ; his reign and abdication, 32; 
his views on the duties of a king, 




and of a royal host ; needs of the 
country, 36-38. 

Cormac's Chapel, 89. 

Cormac's Crosier, picture, 91. 

Cornwallis, Marquis of, made lord 
lieutenant, 281; suppresses rebel- 
lion in Mayo in 1798, 281 ; his sys- 
tem of bribery, 284; presents Union 
scheme to Irish parliament, 285; 
efforts of, to secure adherents to 
the Union, 286; quotation from 
letter of, 287 ; further efforts to 
bribe patriots, 289. 

Corrib, Lake, 2; map, 180, C2. 

Costume of the native Irish of the 
fifteenth century, picture, 136. 

Court Party, 253. 

Credran, battle of, 116; map, 113, 

Cremona, map, 247, G2. 

Crimes Act, 272. 

Croft, Sir James, lord lieutenant, 
attacks Shane's allies, the Mac- 
Donnells, 155. 

Cromer, Archbishop, opposes 
George Brown, Archbishop of 
Dublin, 151. 

Cromlechs, 6 ; history of, 7, 8. 

Cromwell, Oliver, England under 
the power of, 200; lands at Dub- 
lin, 202; issues two proclama- 
tions, 202 ; captures Drogheda, 
202; takes Wexford, 203; marches 
southwest to Youghal, 203 ; takes 
Clonmel, 204; devastates Mun- 
ster, 203 ; leaves Ireland in care 
of Ireton and returns to England, 
204; death of, 208. 

Cromwell, Richard, 208. 

Crook, Cape, map, 113, E4. 

Cruacan, capital of Connaught, 24; 
map, 53, B2. 

Cuculaind, warrior of Emain, 22 ; 
defeats Ferdiad, 24 ; defeats hosts 
of Medb at battle of Gairec, 24; 
death of, 25. 

Cullen, Dr., leader of Catholic 
party, opposes Fenians, 318. 

Culmore, Fort, 172; map, 169, Di. 

Curran, 270; joins others to form 
"Whig Club," 273. 

Curry, Dr., 258. 

Dagda's Harp, legend of, 3, 4. 

Dalriada, foundation of, 30; loca- 
tion, map, 29, Di, Ci ; map, 113, 

Danes, conflict over Dublin, 73; 
form an alliance with Brian Boru, 
74; defeated at Clontarf, 76; 
plundered and slaughtered by 
Strongbow, 98. See also Norse- 

Danish boat, picture, 67. 

Danish weapons of tenth century, 
picture, 73. 

Darcy, John, 345. 

Dati, nephew of Niall, king for 
twenty-three years, 40. 

Davitt, Michael, organizes the Land 
League, 325. 

De Bermingham, defeats Bruce at 
battle of Faughart, 120; mur- 
dered at Bragganstown, 125. 

De Burgo, appointed lord lieuten- 
ant, 103; his government, 103, 

De Burgo, Dun Earl of Ulster, 
murder of, 125 ; quarrels over es- 
tate of, 126. 

De Burgo, Richard, the " red earl," 
118; defeated by Bruce at Con- 
nor, 118. 

De Burgo, William, defeats Bruce 
at Athenry, 119. 

De Clare, Richard, " Strongbow," 
96 ; lands at Waterford, 98 ; takes 
Wexford, 98 ; slaughters the 
Danes at Dublin, 98 ; besieged at 
Dublin, 99 ; made lord lieuten- 
ant of Ireland by Henry II, 100- 
102 ; defeated at Thurles, 103 ; 
death of, 103. 

De Cogan, Miles, Norman noble 
appointed to assist De Burgo, 

De Courcy, John, 100; Norman 
noble appointed to assist De 
Burgo, 104; expedition of, 104; 
captures and plunders Downpat- 
rick, 104 ; made lord lieutenant, 
105; defeated twice in Con- 
naught, 106; proclaimed a traitor, 

De Dananns, their coming to Ire- 
land, 1 ; conquer the Firbolgs at 
Southern Mag Tured, 3 ; defeat 
the Fomorians at Northern Mag 



Tured, 3 ; introduce music into 
Ireland, 4 ; civilization of, 5 ; pur- 
sued north by the Milesians and 
defeated at Tailten, 10. 

Dee River, 23. 

" Defenders," Catholic secret so- 
ciety, 276. 

Deirdre, escapes to Scotland, 21 ; 
captured by Concobar, 21. 

De Lacy, Hugh, receives a grant of 
Meath, 100; his character, assas- 
sinated, 106. 

De Lacy, Hugh (the younger), his 
jealousy of De Courcy, 106, 107 ; 
in the war of Kildare, 1 1 5. 

Del Aguila, General Don Juan, 
lands at Kinsale with Spanish 
army to help O'Neill, 173; be- 
sieged in Kinsale by Mountjoy, 
174; surrenders Kinsale, returns 
to Spain, and is put to death, 174. 

De Mandeville, Richard, murders 
De Burgo, Dun Earl of Ulster, 

Denmark, map, 247, F. 

Derg, Lough, map, 180, D3. 

Derry, fort built at, 172; proclaims 
allegiance to William and Mary, 
214; reception of James II at, 
215; siege of, 215-218 ; location, 
map, 169, Di. 

Desmond, 67 ; map, 113, B2, C2. 

Desmond, Earl of, in the time of 
Henry VIII, enters into corre- 
spondence with Francis I of 
France, 145. 

Desmond, great Earl of, in time of 
Queen Elizabeth, 160; taken to 
London and kept in the Tower 
for six years, 160 ; liberated, 160 ; 
joins Geraldine rebellion, 161 ; 
killed, 162. 

Desmond, Maurice Fitzgerald, first 
Earl of, called by the lord lieu- 
tenant to aid the English against 
the Irish chiefs, 126. 

Desmond, Thomas Fitzgerald, 
eighth Earl of, appointed lord 
lieutenant, 135; founds college of 
Youghal, 135; execution of, 136. 

Devenish Island, religious settle- 
ment under Molaise at, 56 ; ruins 
of, picture, 57 ; location, map, 53, 

Diarmaid, high king, 63. 

Dillon, Arthur, 340. 

Dillon, John Blake, founds " The 
Nation," 308. 

Dingle Bay, map, 180, Di. 

"Discoverers," 184. 

Disestablishment. See Church Dis- 

Dominicans, religious order founded 
by St. Dominick, 121. 

Domnall, high king, 63. 

Domnall, son of Aed, defeats Con- 
gall at battle of Moira, 64. 

Donaghpatrick, ancient church at, 
55 ; location, map, 53, B3. 

Donegal, map, 53, A2; map, 180, 


Donegal Bay, map, 180, B3. 

Donegal County, one of the seven 
counties into which Perrott di- 
vided Ulster, 165 ; location, map^ 
113, C2 ; map, 180, B4. 

Donough, son of Brian Boru, 88. 

Down, one of the counties in Ul- 
ster, 165 ; surrendered by George 
Munro to Cromwell, 203 ; loca- 
tion, map, 180, B6. 

Downpatrick, first church estab- 
lished at, 48 ; description of fort 
at, 68 ; attacked by Norsemen, 
68 ; battle of, 117 ; location, map, 
53, A4; map, 113, F2. 

" Drapier Letters," 256. 

Drogheda, parliament of, 140; cap- 
tured by Cromwell, 202 ; battle 
of the Boyne near, 220 ; location, 
map, 169, E3; map, 180, C5. 

Druim-Ceatt, synod of, 59; 64. 

Druim-Ceatt, map, 53, A3. 

Drumcliff, St. Columba founds re- 
ligious school at, 60 ; map, 53, 

Drumflugh, battle of, 168; map, 
169, E2. 

Dublin Bay, map, 180, C5. 

Dublin, captured by Norsemen, 70; 
Norsemen defeated at, 70 ; Norse- 
men defeated by Malachi, the 
Great, at, 73; seat of one of the 
four archbishops, 92; captured 
by Strongbow, 98; Henry IPs 
army lands at, 99; becomes seat 
of the English government, 126; 
besieged by " Silken Thomas," 



146; surrendered into the hands 
of the English parliamentarians, 
198 ; location, map, 53, B3 ; map, 
113, E3; map, 169, E3. 

Dublin County, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John 
divided Ireland, 112 ; outbreak of, 
in the Irish Rebellion, 278 ; loca- 
tion, map i 180, C5. 

Dublin Council, nominates Garrett 
Fitzgerald as lord lieutenant, 143 ; 
sends Bagenal to relieve Port- 
more, 168; blame of O'Neill 
Rebellion laid on, by Elizabeth, 

Dublin Government, favors English 
people in Ireland, 125; Ulster 
and Connaught rebel against, 
126; condition of, in first part of 
the 14th centurv, 126; provisions 
of Statute of Kilkenny, 128, 129; 
condition of, under Henry II, 136 ; 
arbitrary character of, under 
Queen Elizabeth, 155. 

Dufferin and Ava, Marquis of, 368. 

Duffy, Charles Gavan, founds " The 
Nation," 308 ; 368. 

Dunanore, Fort, map, 180, Di. 

Dunboy, siege of, picture, 175; lo- 
cation, map, 169, B5. 

Dunboy Castle, 175; taken by 
Carew, 176. 

Dundalk, 120; surrenders to Crom- 
well, 203 ; location, map, 113, E2. 

Dundrum Bay, map, F2. 

Dundrum Castle, picture, 104; 
building of, 105. 

Dungannon, fort, taken by Phelim 
O'Neill, 191 ; Volunteer Con- 
vention at, 265, 266 ; location, 
map, 169, E2; map, 180, B5. 

Dunnalong, fort, 172 ; map, 169, D2. 

Durrow, book of, 86. 

Durrow, St. Columba founds mon- 
astery at, 58 ; location, map, 53, 

Edward VI, inaugurates system of 
planting English Protestant col- 
onies in Ireland, 153. 

Elizabeth, queen, enforces acts of 
Uniformity and Supremacy, 154; 
calls Shane O'Neill to England, 
and receives him at court, 157 ; 

recognizes Shane as head of the 
O'Neills, 158; enforcement of 
Protestant creed results in second 
Geraldine League and Geraldine 
Rebellion, 159-162; appoints Sir 
John Perrott lord lieutenant, 164 ; 
sends Essex with a large army to 
Ireland to march against O'Neill, 
171 ; sends reinforcements to 
Essex, 171 ; death of, 177. 
Emain, building of, 20; map, 29, 

Embargo Act, 261. 
Emmet, Robert, 291. 
Emly, map, 169, C4. 
Encumbered Estates Court Act, 

English Parliament, decides Ire- 
land must be conquered, and 
appoints Cromwell lord lieu- 
tenant, 202 ; appoints Fleetwood 
lord lieutenant, 206; passes act 
dislodging Irish land owners in 
Ulster, Leinster, and Munster, 
206 ; passes laws for Ireland, 
242; passes Penal Codes of 1703 
-1704, and Test and Schism Acts, 
244; passes severe trade laws, 
246; prohibits exportation, 247 ; 
passes laws ruining manufactures, 
249 ; attacked in Molyneux book, 
254; passes Octennial Act, 259, 
260 ; passes Embargo Act, 261 ; 
repeals some of the Penal Laws 
and Test and Embargo Acts, 262 ; 
removes trade restrictions, 263, 
264; passes the Sixth of George 
I, 255 ; passes Act of Repeal, 
which repealed Poynings' Law 
and the Sixth of George I, 267 ; 
passes Act of Renunciation, 267 ; 
rejects Orde's bill, 271 ; passes 
Pitt's trade bill, 271 ; Pitt's Union 
scheme brought before, and op- 
posed by Sheridan and Foster, 
286; English soldiers sent to Ire- 
land by, 289 ; passes Act of Union, 
uniting English and Irish parlia- 
ments, the Irish Insurrection Act, 
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act, 
Martial Continuation Act, and 
Coercion Acts, 293 ; raises fran- 
chise in Ireland, 301 ; passes 
Poor Law Act, 305 ; repeals 



Corn Laws and opens Ireland to 
free trade, 313; passes new Co- 
ercion Act, 316; realizes Irish 
grievances must be redressed, 
321, 322 ; passes act for the Dis- 
establishment of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Ireland, 
322 ; passes Land Bill and estab- 
lishes Land Court in Ireland, 
327 ; passes first Land Purchase 
Act, 329 ; passes Second Land 
Purchase Bill, 330 ; passes Third 
Land Purchase Bill, 332 ; passes 
Local Government Act, 333 ; 
passes Wyndham's Land Pur- 
chase Act, 334, 335. 

Enniscorthy, 279; map, 169, E4. 

Enniskillen, battle of, 219; map, 53, 
A3 ; map, 169, D2. 

Eocaid, son of Muireadac, 39. 

Eocaid, last king of the Fiibolgs, 2. 

Erne, Lough, 219; map, 53, A3; 
map, 180, B4. 

Essex, Robert Devereux, Earl of, 
sent to Ireland with a large army 
to march against O'Neill, 171 ; 
attacks Munster Geraldines, but 
is unsuccessful, 171 ; obliged to 
ask Queen for new army, 171 ; re- 
turns to England, and is exe- 
cuted, 171. 

Europe with places mentioned in 
connection with Irish History, 
map, 247. 

Eustace, James, Viscount Baltin- 
glass, 161 ; defeats Lord Grey, 

Explanation, Act of, 209. 

Famine, the great, 1845-47, 310. 

Faughart, battle of, 120; map, 113, 

Fenians, organizations of, 318; op- 
posed by Catholic Church, 318 ; 
effect of death of McManus on, 

318, 319; tendency toward re- 
bellion of, 319; arrest of leaders, 

319, 320; end of the rebellion, 

Ferdiad, killed by Cuculaind, 24. 

Fergus, displaced by Concobar, 20 ; 
sent to capture Deirdre, 21 ; re- 
volt of, 22. 

Ferguson, Sir Samuel, 375. 

Fermanagh, one of the seven coun- 
ties into which Perrott divided 
Ulster, 165; map, 180, B4. 

Ferns, 278 ; map, 169, E4. 

Fiaca, king for thirty years, 39. 

"Fifty-one Graces," 185; rendered 
ineffective by Wentworth, 186. 

Find, leader of Cormac's Army, 32 ; 
as a poet, 34. 

Finnacta, tries to levy Boruma tri- 
bute, 64. 

Firbolgs, defeated by the De Da- 
nanns at Southern Mag Tured, 3. 

Fitzgerald, Duke of Leinster, 263. 

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, prime 
mover in Irish Rebellion, 278. 

Fitzgerald, Garrett. See Kildare, 
eighth and ninth Earls of. 

Fitzgerald, James, brother of the 
Earl of Desmond, joins FitzMau- 
rice against the English, 161 ; exe- 
cuted, 161. 

Fitzgerald, James FitzMaurice, the 
leader of the Geraldine rebellion 
against English authorities, [60; 
forced to give up struggle, 160; 
flees to France and Spain, 160 ; re- 
turns six years later with Spanish 
soldiers, 161 ; killed, 161. 

Fizgerald, John, brother of the Earl 
of Desmond, imprisoned in the 
Tower six years, 160; liberated, 
160; joins FitzMaurice and de- 
feats English, 161 ; killed, 161. 

Fitzgerald, Maurice. See Desmond, 
first Earl of. 

Fitzgerald, Maurice, of Wales, 97. 

Fitzgerald, Maurice, in the " War 
of Kildare," 115 ; invades Ulster, 

Fitzgerald, Prime Sergeant, 286. 

Fitzgerald, Raymond, commander 
of Strongbovv's army, 102 ; raids 
Ireland, plundering Leinster, 102 ; 
returns to Wales, 103 ; comes 
again and takes Limerick, 103. 

Fitzgerald, Thomas. See Desmond, 
eighth Eatl of. 

Fitzgerald, Thomas. See Kildare, 
tenth Earl of. 

Fitzgerald, Vesey, accepts office of 
President of the Board of Trade, 
300; his reelection to Parliament 
opposed by O'Connell, 300. 



Fitzgibbon, 265 ; opposes admission 
of Catholics to parliament, 275. 

Fitzgibbon, Lieutenant, 366. 

Fitzstephen, Robert, 97 ; attacks 
Wexford, 97 ; appointed to assist 
De Burgo, 104. 

Fitzwilliam, Earl, comes to Ireland 
as lord lieutenant, 275; resigns, 

Fleetwood, Charles, made lord lieu- 
tenant, 206; organizes high court 
of justice, 206. 

Flood, Henry, picture, 259; helps 
in the struggle for free trade, 263 ; 
quarrel with Grattan, 270 ; pre- 
sents reform bill to parliament 
and is defeated, 270; opposes 
Pitt's bill to regulate trade, 272. 

Fomorians, defeated by the De 
Dananns at Northern Mag Tu- 
red, 3. 

Fontaines, 80 ; map, 247, F2. 

Fontenoy, 341 ; map, 247, El. 

" Forty-Seven, The Black," 310. 

Foster, John, speaker of the Irish 
House, 286 ; opposes Pitt in Eng- 
lish House of Commons, 286. 

Fox, his feeling about the Union, 

Foyle, Lough, landing of the De 
Dananns at, 1 ; English fort at, 
171 ; location, map, 1 ; map, 180, 
A 4 . 

Foyle River, 218; map, 180, B4. 

France, Irish in, 340-344. 

Franciscans, religious order founded 
by St. Francis of Assisi, 121. 

Franconia, map, 247, Fi. 

" Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 
The," society in America, 352, 


Gaelic, revival of, 378, 379. 

Gaelic Invasion, 10. 

Gairec, battle of, 24. 

Galicia, 9; map, 247, I2. 

Gallowglasses, 157, ?iote. 

Gallus, lays foundation of the mon- 
astery of St. Gall, 80. 

Galtee Mts., 72 ; map, 53, B2. 

Galvvay, besieged and captured by 
Sir Charles Coote, 206 ; surrend- 
ers to Ginkel, 233 ; location, map, 
113, C3 ; map, 169, B3. 

Gal way Bay, map, 180, C2. 

Galway County, one of the coun- 
ties into which Connaught was 
divided in 1565, 159; map, 180, 

Gardiner, Luke (afterwards Lord 
Mountjoy), presents bill to Irish 
parliament for repeal of penal 
laws against Catholics, 262; sup- 
ports Grattan in his efforts to 
secure free trade, 263 ; introduces 
measures in parliament for further 
repeal of the penal laws, 266. 

Gartan, 57 ; map, 53 A3. 

Gavra, battle of, 38; map, 29, C2. 

Genealogical Tables, 23> 40. 

Genoa, 81 ; map, 247, F3. 

George I, Act of the Sixth of,. 255; 
grants patent for coining money 
to Duchess of Kendal, 255, 256. 

George II, 244. 

George III, 262 ; " Back Lane Par- 
liament " submits petition for re- 
peal of the penal laws to, 274. 

George IV, signs Catholic Emanci- 
pation bill, 300. 

Geraldine League, first, 148 ; at- 
tacked by Lord Grey, 152. 

Geraldine League, second, cause, 
159, 160; rebellion resulting from, 

Gibraltar, 8 ; map, 247, C4. 

Ginkel, General, left in command 
of army by William, 228 ; Kinsale 
and Cork surrender to, 228 ; tries 
to check plundering of the " Rap- 
parees," 229; takes Athlone, 230- 
232 ; efforts of, to end the war, 
232; prepares to advance on Gal- 
way, 232 ; defeats the Irish at 
Aughrim, 232, 233 ; Galway and 
Sligo surrender to, 233; besieges 
Limerick, 234 ; made Earl of 
Athlone by William, 236. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, his history, 

Gladstone, William Ewart, his feel- 
ing about the Union, 291 ; realizes 
that England must redress Irish 
grievances, 321, 322 ; his efforts 
cause parliament to pass Act for 
the Disestablishment of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in Ire- 
land, 322 ; picture, 327 ; his Land 



Bill, 327, 328 ; his agreement with 
Parnell, 328 ; tries to get Home 
Rule Bill passed, 330 ; efforts 
to get second Home Rule Bill 
passed 332 ; retires from public 
life, 332. 

Glendalough, St. Kevin establishes 
church and school at, 56 ; loca- 
tion, map, 53, B3. 

Glen Druid, 7 ; map, 29, C2. 

Gloucester, Earl of, conference of, 
with Art MacMurrogh, 132; pic- 
ture, 133. 

Goldsmith, Oliver, life and works 
of, 370-372 ; picture, 371. 

Gorey, battle fought at, 279; map, 
169, E4. 

Gough, General Sir Hugh, career 

of, 3 6 3-. 

Grace, Richard, 345. 

Grattan, Henry, picture, 258; cham- 
pion of the Irish cause, 259; 
his amendment to the Address 
to the king, 263; his resolu- 
tions favoring legislative inde- 
pendence, 264 ; his quarrel with 
Flood, 270; opposes Pitt's bill 
to regulate trade, 272 ; presents 
bill for admission of Catholics 
to parliament, 275 ; resigns 
from parliament, 277 ; death of, 

Grave, 345 ; map, 247, Fi. 

Great Civil Assembly of 1167, 94. 

Greece, 345; map, 247, I4. 

Grey, Lord, marches against " Silk- 
en Thomas," 148 ; lord lieuten- 
ant, 152. 

Grey, Lord, of Wilton, defeated by 
James Eustace, 162; bombards 
Fort Dunanore and massacres 
garrison, 162; recalled to Eng- 
land, 162. 

Gullian, Slieve, map, 113, E2. 

Habeas Corpus Act, 293. 

Hamilton, tries to capture fort on 
Windmill Hill, 216, 217 ; besieges 
Derry, 217-218. 

Hand, General Edward, 351. 

Hasting, Sir Francis Rawdon, ca- 
reer of, 362. 

"Hearts of Oak," 251. 

" Hearts of Steel," 251. 

Henry II, lands at Dublin with large 
army of Normans, 99; divides 
Ireland up among the Normans, 
100 ; appoints Strongbow lord 
lieutenant, 102 ; sends Prince 
John to Ireland, 105. 

Henry III, 115. 

Henry V, condition of Ireland 
under, 134. 

Henry VI, condition of Ireland 
under, 134. 

Henry VIII, accession of, 142 ; 
writes book attacking Martin Lu- 
ther's views, 150 ; excommunica- 
tion of, 151 ; declares himself 
supreme head of the church in 
Ireland, 151 ; becomes " King of 
Ireland " instead of " Lord of 
Ireland," 152 ; divides Meath into 
two counties, 152. 

Hogan, John Sheridan, 367. 

Holycross Abbey, picture, 121. 

Home Rule, Lord Spencer and 
Gladstone convinced of necessity 
of, 328 ; discussed by Lord Salis- 
bury, 329; Gladstone attempts to 
secure, 330 ; failure of second bill 
for, 332 ; effect of Local Govern- 
ment Act on, 333. 

Howth, plundered by Norsemen, 
67 ; location, map, 53, B3 ; map, 

113, E 3- 
Humbert, General, lands at Killala 

with French army, 281. 

Hutchinson, 263, 265. 

Hyde, Douglas, 379. 

Inishowen, map, 113, Di. 

Innismurray island, religious settle- 
ment on, 56; map, 53, A2. 

Insurrection, Act of, 293. 

" Invincibles," secret society, 328. 

Iona, raided by Norsemen, 67. 

Iona Island, 58 ; map, 247 C. 

Ireland, in prehistoric times, n- 
13 ; life of early races in, 13 ; 
political growth of, 27-33 ; social 
life in third century, 34-39 ; Chris- 
tianity introduced by St. Patrick 
into, 41-46 ; early schools and 
churches in, 55-63; political 
growth during period of saints 
and scholars, 63-65 ; raids of the 
Norsemen in, 66-77 5 condition 



of, at end of Norse Invasion, 78- 
80 ; students in, 83 ; political di- 
visions in the nth century, 87; 
struggle for the High Kingship, 
88, 92 ; the first synod in, 91 ; arch- 
bishoprics of, in the 12th century, 
92 ; first great national assembly 
in, 94; coming of the Normans, 
96-107 ; introduction of Norman 
law, 112-115; condition of, in 
the 13th century, 1 1 5-1 1 7; Bruce's 
invasion of, 118-120; beginning 
of English rule in, 124-138; rise 
and fall of the Geraldines in, 139- 
147; reformation, 150-162; re- 
bellion of, under Elizabeth, 164- 
177 ; plantation system in, 178— 
188 ; Irish rebellion, 189-200 ; ef- 
fect of Cromwell's government 
and the restoration on, 201-212; 
Jacobite wars in, 213-237 ; effect 
of Penal Laws on, 237-250 ; the 
struggle for legislative independ- 
ence, 253-268; rebellion in, ended, 
269-281 ; effect of Act of Union 
on, 290, 291 ; financial condition 
of, early in the 19th century, 296, 
297 ; beginning of a free press 
in, 309 ; decrease in population 
due to emigration, 310, 311 ; dis- 
establishment of Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in, 322 ; effect of 
Land Purchase Acts on, 324-336; 
efforts to secure Home Rule for, 

3 2 8-333- . . , 

Ireland, Archbishop, his admirable 

plan of settlements, 357, 358. 

Ireland, maps of, pagan, 29 ; with 
places mentioned from the intro- 
duction of Christianity to 1100, 
53 ; with some of the ancient 
earldoms and dukedoms, 113; 
places mentioned during the wars 
after 1582, 169; political divisions 
of, 1 600-1 900; map, 180. 

Ireton, Cromwell's son-in-law, left 
in charge of Ireland, 204 ; takes 
Limerick, 204, 205 ; death of, 

Irish Books, 85. 

Irish Elk, skeleton ol, picture, 12. 

Irish Harp, picture, 75. 

Irish in America, before the Revo- 
lution, 348 ; in the Revolutionary 

War, 350-352; "The Society of 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick," 
352, 353 ; emigration before and 
after the famine, 353, 354 ; in the 
Civil War, 354, 355 ; Fenian 
movement, 355, 357 ; Archbishop 
Ireland's settlements, 357, 358 ; 
Catholic church, 358. 

Irish in the British Empire, in India, 
360-365 ; in Canada, 365-368 ; 
in Australia, 368, 369. 

Irish knights and their attendants 

• in 1 521, picture, 147. 

Irish Literary Revival, 370-379. 

Irish on the Continent, troops in 
European armies, 339 ; in France, 
340-344 ; in Spain and Austria, 
334,. 335. 5 in Portugal, 345 ; other 
distinguished Irishmen, 346, 347. 

Irish Parliament, foundation of, 
laid by Henry II, 136; effect of 
Poynings' Law on, 139-141 ; 
passes Act of Supremacy in Ire- 
land, 151 ; changes Henry VIII's 
title to "King of Ireland," 152; 
native chiefs first invited to, 152; 
renews Act of Supremacy in 1558, 
154; revives Acts of Supremacy 
and Uniformity in reign of James 
I, 183; extends uniform protection 
to English and Irish alike, 183, 
184 ; passes Acts of Settlement 
and Explanation, and restricts 
cattle trade, 208, 209; assembled 
at Dublin by James II, 215; de- 
clares Catholic doctrine false and 
itself independent of the English 
parliament, 237 ; passes Penal 
Laws, 240, 241 ; petitions Ormond 
to extend Penal Code, 243; passes 
third set of Penal Laws, 244, 245; 
destroys wool trade, 248 ; its 
condition in the 18th century, 253, 
254; effect of Annesley Case on, 
254-255 ; passes Mutiny Bill, 264 ; 
repeals some of the Penal Laws, 
266, 267 ; effect of Act of Re- 
peal on, 267 ; rejects Flood's re- 
form bill, 270 ; practically defeats 
Pitt's bill, 272 ; grants franchise 
to Catholic land-owners, 274; 
passes Convention and Gunpow- 
der Acts, 275 ; passes Insurrection 
Act and suspends Habeas Corpus 



Act, 276, 277 ; Pitt's scheme to 
abolish, 283 ; Cornwallis presents 
Union scheme to, 285; defeats 
Union scheme,286 ; meets for the 
last time and passes the Union 
Bill, 289, 290. 

Irish Parliament House, Dublin, 
picture, 289. 

" Irish People," newspaper pub- 
lished in Dublin, 319. 

Irish Sea, map, 1 ; map, 180, C6. 

Irish Soldier of 1582, picture, 156. 

Irish teachers, 81, 82. 

Irvine, General William, commands 
regiment in Pennsylvania and 
later enters Congress, 351. 

Italy, map, 247, G3. 

Jacobites, who they were, 213 ; at- 
tack Derry, 216. 

James I, ascends English throne, 
178; picture of, 178 ; Acts of Su- 
premacy and Uniformity revived 
in reign of, 181, 182; confiscates 
and divides greater part of Ulster 
up among " undertakers " " servi- 
tors " and " old natives," 182 ; 
extends English law to Ireland, 
183; confiscates land through the 
law courts, 184; death of, 184. 

James II, restores Catholicism, 211; 
appoints Talbot lord lieutenant, 

211 ; attempts to repeal Act of 
Settlement, 211; flees to France, 

212 ; lands at Kinsale with French 
force, 215; hostile reception of, 
at Derry, 215 ; withdraws to Dub- 
lin and assembles a parliament, 

. 215; confiscates lands of Wil- 
liam's adherents, 215; sends a 
force against Enniskillen, 219; 
defeated by William in the battle 
of the Boyne, 220-222 ; embarks 
for France, 223. 

Johannes Scotus Erigena, 82. 

John, Prince, later King, Lord of 
Ireland, lands with army at 
Waterford, 105; defeated, 105; 
becomes King of England, 111; 
lands with army at Cape Crook, 
112; divides Ireland into twelve 
counties, 112; establishes Nor- 
man law, 112, 

Jones, Colonel, governor of Dublin, 

defeats Preston, 199 ; defeats 
Ormond at Dublin, 201. 
Joyce, Dr., 379. 

Kavanagh, Art MacMurrogh, rebels 
against Statute of Kilkenny, 129; 
submits to Richard II, 130 ; de- 
feats the English at Kells, 131 ; 
pursues Richard IPs army 
through Wicklow Mts., 132; close 
of career, 132-134; his meeting 
with Gloucester, picture, 133. 

Kavanagh, Edward, minister of 
Portugal, 346. 

Kells, Book of, 85 ; facsimile of a 
page of, picture, 85. 

Kells, St. Columba founds monas- 
tery at, 57 ; map, 53, B3. 

Kelvin, Lord, 369. 

Kenmare, 117; map, 113, B5. 

Kenmare Bay, landing of sons of 
Milid on strand of, 10; location, 
map, i, map, 29, A3. 

Keogh, John, his plan for the elec- 
tion of Catholics to parliament, 
299, 300. 

Keogh, Matthew, executed, 280. 

Kerns, 157, note. 

Kerry, one of the twelve counties 
into which King John divided 
Ireland, 112; map, 180, D2. 

Kildare, Garrett Fitzgerald, eighth 
(Great) Earl of, lord lieutenant, 
136, 139; trial of, 141 ; again made 
lord lieutenant, 142 ; defeats 
Burke at battle of Knockdoe, 142 ; 
invades Munster, and is badly de- 
feated, 142; death of, 143. 

Kildare, Garrett Fitzgerald, ninth 
Earl of, nominated lord lieuten- 
ant, 143 ; called to England and 
tried, 144; returns to Ireland, and 
is reappointed lord lieutenant, 
144; again called to England and 
tried, 145 ; reappointed lord lieu- 
tenant, 145 ; imprisonment and 
death, 146. 

Kildare, Thomas Fitzgerald, tenth 
Earl of, son of Garrett Fitzgerald, 
called "Silken Thomas," 146; 
lays siege to Dublin, 146; sur- 
renders to Lord Grey, 148. 

Kildare, church founded by St. 
Bridget at, 53 ; map, 53, B3. 



Kildare County, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John 
divided Ireland, 112; outbreak in, 
during the Irish Rebellion, 278 ; 
location, map, 113, E3 ; map, 180, 
C 5 . 

Kilkenny, confederation of, 193 ; 
parliament of, 194. 

Kilkenny County, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John di- 
vided Ireland, 112 ; map, 180, D4. 

Killala, Humbert, with French 
army, lands at, 281 ; map, 180, B2. 

Killarney, lake of, map, 29, B3. 

Kincora, 75 ; map, 53, B2. 

King John's Castle, picture, 119. 

King's County organized, 154; map, 
180, C4. 

Kinsale, Spaniards under Aguila 
land at, 173; battle of, 174; 
James II lands at, with French 
force, 215; surrenders to Wil- 
liam, 228. 

Knockdoe, battle of, 142 ; map, 180, 

Knocknacloy, hill of, 196. 
Knox, Major-General, 351. 

Laegaire, son of Niall, king for 
thirty years, 40 ; visited by St. 
Patrick, 49. 

Lagan River, 171 ; map, 180, B5. 

Lake, General, government com- 
mander, takes Wexford, 280. 

Lally, governor at Pondicherry, 346. 

Lambay Island, plundered and 
burned by the Norsemen, 67 ; lo- 
cation, map, 1 ; map, 29, C2. 

Land Bill, Gladstone's, its provi- 
sions and benefits, 327, 328. 

Land Court, 327. 

Land League, formation and ob- 
jects, 325, 326. 

Landen, Sarsfield killed at, 340 ; 
map, 247, Fi. 

Landlords, condition of, 314 ; effect 
of Encumbered Estates Court 
Act on, 314, 315 ; " Ribbonmen " 
and " Tenants' League " formed 
against, 315, 316; effect of Land 
Purchase Acts on, 324, 336. 

Land Purchase, principle of, 324, 
325 ; first Land Purchase Act, 
329; second Land Purchase Act, 

330; third Land Purchase Act, 
332 ; Wyndham's Land Purchase 
Act > 334, 335 ;. success of, 335. 

Land system, evils of, 294, 296. 

Languedoc, map, 247, E3. 

Larne, Edward Bruce with army 
lands at, 118; map, 113, F2. 

Lauzun, French general, 225 ; re- 
tires to Galway with troops, 225. 

Lee River, map, 180, E3. 

Leinster, one of the four early 
kingdoms, 28 ; plundered by Nor- 
mans, 102 ; condition of, between 
1216-1315, 115; Geraldine rebel- 
lion in, 161 ; O'Neill's rebellion 
in, 170 ; devastated by Mountjoy, 
172, 173; confiscation in, 184; 
churches destroyed in, 281 ; lo- 
cation, map, 29, C2 ; map, 180, 
C 4 , D 5 . 

Leitrim, one of the counties into 
which Connaught was divided in 

!5 6 5. T 59 5 *»«/» ^o, B3. 

Leix, 189; map, 113, D4. 

Liffey River, 70 ; map, 53, B3 ; map, 
180, C5. 

Limerick, captured by Ireton, 204, 
205 ; retreat of the Irish troops 
to, from the Boyne, 222 ; first 
siege of, 225-228 ; condition of, 
226; second siege of, 223-235; 
treaty of, 235, 236; its violation, 
239, 240; location, map, 113, C4 ; 
map, 180, D3. 

Limerick, in Charles II's time, pic- 
ture, 205 ; to-day, picttire, 234. 

Limerick County, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John 
divided Ireland, 112; location, 
map, 53, B2 ; map, 180, D3. 

Lindisfarne, monastery of, founded, 
62 ; map, 247, D. 

Lisburn surrenders to Cromwell, 
2C2 ; map, 169, E2. 

Lismore, 81; map, 113, D4 ; map, 
247, Cl. 

Livonia, map, 247, I. 

Local Government Act, 333. 

Londonderry, cathedral of, picture, 
216; town-house at, picture, 218. 

Londonderry, map, 180, B5. 

Longford County, formed out of 
Annaly in 156s, 159; map, 180, 



Louth County, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John di- 
vided Ireland, 112; map, 180, C5. 

Lucas, Charles, attempts to recover 
lost rights of Parliament, 258 ; 
efforts to get Octennial Bill passed, 

Ludlow, General Edmund, succeeds 
Ireton, 205. 

Lundy, Colonel, made governor of 
Derry, 214; forced to take oath 
of allegiance to William and 
Mary, 215; suspected of treachery 
and leaves Ireland, 216. 

Lusk, plundered, 69 ; map, 53, B3. 

Lugaid, son of Laegaire, 40. 

Luther, Martin, 150. 

Luxeuil, 80 ; map, 247, F2. 

Maca, Queen, 20; hill of, 20. 

McCarthy, Justin, Lord Mount- 
cashel, 340, 345. 

McCormac, Sir William, 369. 

MacDonald, John A., 367. 

MacUonnells, of Rathlin Island, 
attacked bv Croft, 155; attacked 
by Shane O'Neill, 158. 

MacDurnan, Book of, 86. 

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy, 367, 368. 

MacMahon, Marshal, on horseback, 
picture, 342 ; earlv history of, 342 ; 
his services to the French, 343 ; 
Irishmen in the French Republic 
during the presidency of, 343, 344. 

McManus, death of, 318. 

MacMurrogh,Dermot, king of Lein- 
ster, banished, 96; brings the 
Normans to Ireland, 96, 97; at- 
tacks Wexford, 97 ; takes Water- 
ford, 98 ; death of, 98. 

Magenta, 343 ; map, 247, F2. 

Maguire, ally of Hugh O'Neil, 166, 

Mahon, brother of Brian Boru, de- 
feated by Norsemen, 72. 

Mahony, wins victories for the 
French in Sicily, 341. 

Malachi, the Great, 72; captures 
Norsemen at Dublin, 73; defeats 
king of Leinster, 74; overpowered 
by Brian Boru, 74 ; aids Brian 
Boru in battle with the king of 
Leinster, 76; again High King, 

Malachias, Archbishop, his good 
qualities, 91, 92. 

Malplaquet, 341 ; map, 247, Ei . 

Maps, Path of Ireland's Early In- 
vaders, 1 ; Pagan Ireland, 29; 
Plan of Tara, 31 ; Places men- 
tioned in Irish History from In- 
troduction of Christianity to 1100, 
53 ; Ireland with some of the 
ancient Earldoms and Dukedoms, 
113; Places mentioned in Irish 
History during the wars after 
1582, 169; Political Divisions of 
Ireland, T600-1900, 180; Europe 
with places mentioned in connec- 
tion with Irish History, 247. 

Marianus Scotus, 82. 

Marisco, Geoffrev, his part in the 
" War of Kildare," 115. 

Marshall, Richard, murdered, 115. 

Martial Continuation Act, 293. 

Mary, Queen, effect of her reign on 
Ireland, 153, 154. 

Mask, Lake, 2 ; map, 29 B 2 ; map y 
180, C 2. 

Matthew, Father, crusade of, 306. 

Maynooth, college of, founded by 
English government, 276; in 182 1, 
picture, 303. 

Maynooth, siege of, 147; map, 180, 

c 5- 
Mayo, one of the counties into which 

Connaught was divided in 1565, 

159; map, 180, C2. 

Meagher, General, what the Hon. 
Francis Lawley says of, 354, 355. 

Meath County, one of the twelve 
counties established by King John, 
112; condition of between 1216 
and 1315, 115 ; divided into Meath 
and West Meath by Henrv VIII, 
152 ; outbreak in, during the Irish 
Rebellion, 278; location, map, 180, 
C 5 . 

Meath, kingdom of, formation of, 
28 ; map, 29, C2. 

Medb, Queen, 22 ; defeated by Cu- 
culaind, 23 ; defeated by Conco- 
bar at Battle of Gairec, 24. 

Meeting of Art MacMurrogh Ka- 
vanagh and Gloucester, picture, 

x 33- 
Milan, 81 ; map, 247, F2. 
Milesians, invade Ireland, 10; de- 



feat De Dananns at Tailten, to; 
early life of, 14-16; laws of, 16; 
growth into a tribe, 17. 

Minorca Island, map, 247, E3. 

Missions, of Columba, 59; of Col- 
umbanus, 80, 81 ; of Gallus, 80 ; 
of Marianus Scotus, 82. 

Mitchel, John, advocates total sep- 
aration from England, 309. 

Mog Nuadat, 29. 

Moira, battle of, 64; map, 53, A3. 

Molaise, founds religious settlement 
on Devenish Island, 56. 

Moloney, Sir Cornelius, 369. 

Molyneux, William, book of, de- 
stroyed, 254. 

Monaghan, one of the seven coun- 
ties into which Perrott divided 
Ulster, 165; besieged by Hugh 
O'Neill, 167; map, 180, B5. 

Monasterboice, High Cross of, pic- 
ture, 55; school founded at, 55; 
map, 53, B3. 

Monastic orders and abbeys, 120- 
122; dispersed and destroyed, 

Monck, Lord, 368. 

Montgomery, General Richard, 351. 

11 Moon Lighters," secret society, 

Moore, Thomas, first nineteenth 
century Irish writer, 374-375 ; 
picture, 374. 

Mornington, Garrett Wellesley, 
Earl of, his career, 360. 

Mortimer, Roger, Earl of March, 
left in authority over Ireland, 
131 ; killed at Kells, 132. 

Mountcashel, Justin McCarthy, 
Lord, 340, 345. 

Mountjoy, Lord, lord lieutenant of 
Ireland, 172; devastates Leinster, 
172, 173 ; marches north and de- 
vastates Ulster, 173; besieges 
Spaniards at Kinsale and is 
hemmed in by O'Neill and O'Don- 
nell, 174 ; defeats O'Neill and 
O'Donnell, 174. 

Mountjoy, Lord. See Gardiner, 

Moville, St. Finnian establishes 
school at, 56; map, 53, A4. 

Moylan, Stephen, brigadier-general, 
35 r - 

Muireadac, King, 39. 

Mulholland, Rosa, 378. 

Munro, Robert, 192; prepares to be- 
gin campaign against Irish under 
O'Neill, 195; intercepted, 196; 
attacks O'Neill at Benburb, 196 ; 
defeated and forced back into the 
river, 197 ; flees to Carrickfergus, 

Munster, one of the four early king- 
doms, 28; troubles in, during the 
13th century, 117; Geraldine re- 
bellion in, 161 ; O'Neill's rebel- 
lion in, 170; devastated by Carew, 
172 ; failure of the plantation in, 
181 ; confiscation of, by Went- 
worth, 186; devastated by Crom- 
well, 204; location, map, 29, B2 ; 
map, 180, D2. 

Murphy, Father John, one of the 
leaders in the Irish Rebellion in 
Wexford, 279; executed, 280. 

Murphy, Father Michael, 280. 

Names, Irish, derivation of, 380-389. 

Namur, siege of, 340 ; map, 247, 

Neagh, Lough, map, 53, A3 ; map, 
180, B5. 

Netherlands, map, 247, Fr. 

Newgrange, pyramid at, picture, 
4; plan of chambers in pyramid, 
picture, 5. 

New Ross, battle fought at, 279; 
map, 169, E4. 

Newry, fort, taken by Phelim 
O'Neill, 191 ; surrenders to Crom- 
well, 202 ; location, map, 169, E2. 

Newtonbarry, attacked by insur- 
gents in the Irish Rebellion, 279. 

Niall, of the Nine Hostages, son of 
Eocaid, 39. 

Niall, son of Aed, 72. 

Norman Castles, 108-110. 

Norman knight and foot-soldier, 
picture, 99. 

Norman Law, 112; condition in 
14th century, 127-129. 

Normandy, in; map, 247,1^2. 

Normans, invade Ireland under 
Strongbow, 96-98 ; under Henry 
II, 99, 100; who they were, 101 ; 
their conquest of Britain 101 ; 
their government in Ireland, 102- 



105; under Strongbow, 102, 103; 
under De Burgo, 104, 105; under 
De Courcy, 106; their genius for 
fortification, 108 ; defend their 
position in Ireland with castles, 
108-110; their armor and disci- 
pline, no, in ; their system of 
law introduced, 1 1 2- 1 1 5 ; defeated 
by Bruce, 118-120; condition of, 
after Bruce's invasion, 120; their 
feuds with the English, 125. 

Norris, Sir John, lands in Ireland 
with army, 166; plans campaign 
against O'Neill and his followers, 
and takes Portmore, 168; killed 
at battle of Drumflugh, 168. 

Norsemen, character of invasions of, 
66, 67 ; Lambay plundered and 
burned by, 67 ; attacks on Iona, 
Innismurray, Connemara, and 
Howth, 67 ; Downpatrick at- 
tacked by, 68 ; defeated by Cair- 
bre, 69; raid on Armagh, 69; 
raid on Clondalkin, 70 ; defeated 
at Dublin, 70; fortify Cork, 71 ; 
defeated by King Aed in 853, 71 ; 
defeat Brian Boru and Mahon, 
72 ; defeated by Brian Boru at 
Sulcoit, 72 ; driven from Dublin 
by Malachi the Great, 73. See 
also Danes. 

North, Lord, recommends the resto- 
ration of free trade, 263. 

North Channel, map, t8o, A5. 

North Sea, map, 247, El. 

Northern Mag Tured, battle of, 3. 

11 Northern Whig Club," 273. 

Nuadat, leader of the De Da- 
nanns, 1. 

Oates, Titus, 211. 

O'Brien, Daniel, 340. 

O'Brien, Donall, king of Thomond, 
defeats Strongbow at Thurles, 
103; defeats Prince John's army, 

O'Brien, Judge Morgan J., 357. 

O'Brien, Murketagh, son of Tur- 
logh, 88 ; leaves throne and en- 
ters a monastery, 92. 

O'Brien, Turlogh, grandson of Brian 
Boru, 88. 

O'Connell, Daniel, speech of, about 
Union scheme, 287 ; picture, 288; 

early history of, 288, 289 ; ef- 
forts of, toward emancipation, 
297; forms "Catholic Associa- 
tion," 298 ; opposes Vesey Fitzger- 
ald's election to parliament, 300; 
becomes lawful member of the 
English parliament, 301 ; efforts of, 
to have parliament abolish tithe 
system, 306; efforts toward repeal 
of Union Act, 307 ; arrest of, 308 ; 
attitude toward the " Young Ire- 
land Party," 309; death of, 309, 
310 ; his monument at Glasnevin, 
picture', 309. 

O'Connor, Charles, distinguished 
antiquarian, 258. 

O'Conor, Phelim, seizes throne of 
Connaught, 116. 

O'Conor, Phelim, the younger, 118; 
joins Bruce ; defeated and killed 
at Athenry, 119. 

O'Conor, Roderick, son of Turlogh 
O'Conor, 93 ; attacks Norsemen 
in Dublin, 93 ; first great civil 
assembly called by, 94 ; calls as- 
semblyto settle boundarydispute, 
95 ; besieges Dublin, 99. 

O'Conor, Turlogh, becomes High 
King, 92. 

Octennial Bill, 259. 

O'Donnell, Duke of Tetuan, 345. 

O'Donnell, Godfrey, defeats Fitz- 
gerald at Credran and O'Neill at 
the Swilly, 116. 

O'Donnell, Hugh. See Tyrconnell, 
Earl of. 

O'Donnell, Hugh Roe. See Tyrcon- 
nell, Earl of. 

O'Donnell, Rory. See Tyrconnell, 
Earl of. 

O'Dwyer, commander of Belgrade, 

Offaly, map, 113, D3. 
Oilioll, son of Dati, 40. 
Oirgialla (Oriel), map, 113, E2. 
Oldbridge, 220; map, 169, E3. 
" Old Ireland Party," 308. 
Old Irish, one of the four parties in 

Ireland in the early part of 17th 

century, 192 ; Owen Roe O'Neill 

becomes leader of, 193. 
" Old natives," receive a portion of 

Ulster from James I, 182. 
O'Leary, John, 378. 



O'Loughlin, chief of the family of 
Niall, 89 ; leaves throne and en- 
ters a monastery, 92. 

O'Loughlin, Murketagh, king of 
Ulster, marches against Dublin 
and is successful, 93; death of, 94. 

O'Mahony, Fenian leader, 318 ; holds 
convention in Chicago, 319. 

O'Moore, of Leix, one of the leaders 
in the Irish Rebellion, 189. 

O'Neill, Conn. See Tyrone, Earl of. 

O'Neill, Count de Tyrone, his ac- 
count of the Irish in Portugal, 

O'Neill, Count Santa Monica, tutor 

of King Don Carlos, 346. 

O'Neill, Donall, 118. 

O'Neill, Hugh. See Tyrone, Earl of. 

O'Neill, Hugh, nephew of Owen 
Roe O'Neill, defeat by Cromwell 
at Clonmel, 204. 

O'Neill, Matthew, son of Conn 
O'Neill, made baron of Dungan- 
non, with right to succeed to fa- 
ther's titles, 152; struggles with 
his brother Shane for father's ti- 
tles, 155, 156; murdered bv allies 
of Shane O'Neill, 156. 

O'Neill, Owen Roe, chosen leader 
of the Irish Rebellion, 190; abil- 
ity of, 190; picture, 190; takes 
command of the Old Irish, 193 ; 
intercepts Munro, 196; position 
of his army at the battle of Ben- 
burb, 196; defeats Munro at bat- 
tle of Benburb, 197 ; extent of his 
victory, 198 ; success of, 198, 199 ; 
death of, 203. 

O'Neill, Sir Phelim, one of the 
leaders in the Irish Rebellion, 
189; execution of, 206. 

O'Neill, Shane. See Tyrone, Earl of. 

Oona Water, 196. 

" Orangemen," Protestant society, 

Orde, Chief Secretary, prepares 
commerce bill, 271. 

O'Reilly, Count Alexander, his ser- 
vices to Austria and Spain, 345. 

O'Reilly, John Boyle, life of, 356; 
quotation from his writings, 356 ; 
picture, 357. 

Ormond, map, 113, D4. 

Ormond, Earl of, in the time of 

Queen Elizabeth, 160; takes sides 
with the English against the Ger- 
aldine rebellion, 161. 

Ormond, James Butler, Duke of, 
appointed lord lieutenant in 1644, 
194 ; hands Dublin over to par- 
liamentarian army and flees to 
France, 198 ; returns to Ireland, 
199; proclaims Charles liking, 
201 ; defeated by Colonel Jones 
at Dublin, 201. 

Ormond, James Butler, second 
Duke of, appointed lord lieuten- 
ant in 1704, 242 ; picture, 242. 

Ormond, Pierre Roe Butler, Earl 
of, 143; made lord lieutenant, 
144 ; territory of, invaded by Gar- 
rett Fitzgerald, 145 ; directed to 
enforce the Act of Supremacy in 
Ireland, 151. 

O'Rorke, Sir George, 369. 

Orsay, map, 247, E2. 

Ossin, the poet, son of Find, 35, 

Ossory, map, 113, D4. 
Ostend, 345 ; map, 247, El. 
O'Sullivan, Donall, chief of Bear 

and Bantry, defeated by Carew 

at Dunboy Castle, 176 ; his march 

north, 176. 
O'Toole, Archbishop, 98, 99. 
Oudenarde, 341 ; map, 247, El. 
Oulart, 279. 
Oxford, map, 247, Di. 

Pagan Ireland, map, 29. 

"Pale, The," 126; colonists leave, 
127; condition within, 136; loca- 
tion, map, 180, C5. 

Paris, map, 247, E2. 

Parliament of 1 541, 152. 

Parliamentarians, Dublin in the 
hands of, 198 ; England com- 
pletely in power of, 200; defeat 
Ormond, 201 ; Ireland virtually 
in power of, 204. 

Parnell, Charles Stewart, picture, 
325; his interest in Land League, 
325,326; parliamentary party of, 
326 ; arrest of, 327 ; Gladstone's 
agreement with, 328 ; death of, 

33 2 - 
Parnell, Sir John, chancellor of the 
exchequer, 286. 



Path of Ireland's early invaders, 
map, r. 

Patriotic Party, 254 ; secures the 
withdrawal of the patent for coin- 
ing money, 256, 257 ; Octennial 
Bill passed through efforts of, 
259, 260; greatly strengthen their 
power under Townshend, 260 ; 
their determination to free their 
parliament from Poynings' Law, 
etc., 264. 

Pavia, map, 247, F2. 

Peel, Sir Robert, introduces Catho- 
lic Emancipation bill, 300; picture 
of, 313 ; repeals Corn Laws and 
opens Ireland to free trade, 313. 

" Peep-o'-day Boys," secret society, 

Penal Laws, 240, 241, 242-245 ; en- 
forcement of, 245. 

Perrott, Sir John, appointed lord 
lieutenant by Queen Elizabeth, 
164; policy of, 164; arouses ha- 
tred of the O'Donnells by im- 
prisoning Hugh Roe, 165 ; di- 
vides Ulster into seven counties, 

Pilltown, map, 180, D4. 

Pitt, William, the younger, his 
efforts to get Orde's Bill passed ; 
his attempts to remedy trade 
evils, 271; picture. 283; his 
scheme to unite the English and 
Irish parliaments, 283 ; entrusts 
his scheme to the secretary and 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, 284; 
brings forward Union scheme in 
English parliament, and is op- 
posed by Sherman and Foster, 

Places mentioned in Irish history 
from the introduction of Chris- 
tianity to 1 1 00, map, 53. 

Places mentioned in Irish history 
during the wars after 1582, map, 

Plantations, system of, begun under 
Edward VI, 179; evils of, 180; 
first attempt at plantation in 1 547, 
180 ; second attempt at planta- 
tion in reign of Queen Mary, 180; 
failure to plant Munster, 181 ; 
plantation of Ulster by James I, 
182, 183. 

Plunket, Sir Horace, head of De- 
partment of Agriculture, 336, 


Plunket, W. C, denounces "system 
of black corruption," 285. 

Poland, map, 247, Hi. 

Ponsonby, 263 ; speaks to the Irish 
parliament against the Union, 285. 

Poor Law Act, 305. 

Portmore, Hugh Roe O'Donnell 
seizes, 166 ; retaken by Lord 
Borough, 168; location, map, 169, 

Poynings, Sir Edward, lord lieuten- 
ant, 139, 140. 

Poynings' Law, 139 ; its provisions, 
140; results of, 140, 141. 

Prague, map, 247, Gi. 

Presbyterian meeting-house at Dun- 
gannon, picture, 265. 

Presbyterians, one of the four par- 
ties in Ireland in 1642, 192 ; de- 
feated at Benburb, 196 ; side with 
Charles II, in 1649, 201 '■> Act of 
Uniformity enforced against, 210. 

Preston, one of the leaders in the 
Irish rebellion, 194; jealousy of, 
198; defeated by parliamenta- 
rian army, 199. 

Protestants, their beginning under 
Luther, 150; established in Ire- 
land by Edward VI, 153; fa- 
vored by Charles II, 208-211; 
take sides against James II, 214. 

Protestantism, its origin, 150; im- 
posed on England and Ireland by 
Henry VIII, 151 ; enforced in 
Ireland by Elizabeth, 154. 

Puritans, one of the four parties in 
Ireland in the early part of the 
17th century, 192. 

Pyramids, Irish, 5. 

Queen's County, organized, 154; 
outbreak in, during the Irish Re- 
bellion, 278 ; map, 180, C4. 

Quoyle River, 68 ; map, 53, A3. 

Rachlin Island, 156; map, 180, A 5. 
" Rackrents," 250. 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 181. 
" Rapparees," 207 ; plunder Eng- 
lish settlers, 229. 
Rathmines, 201. 



Rebellion, Hugh O'Neill's, Port- 
more taken, 166, 167; battle of 
Drumflugh, 168 ; battle of Yellow 
Ford, 168; height of, 170; at- 
tempts of Mountjoy to defeat 
O'Neill, 172. 

Rebellion, Irish, 1641-1649 ; causes, 
179; plans for, 189; Owen Roe 
O'Neill chosen leader of, 190; 
outbreak of, 190 ; battle of Ben- 
burb, 196-198; end of, 198, 199. 

Rebellion, Irish, 1798; causes of, 
269-278 ; outbreak of, 278 ; pro- 
gress of, in Wexford, 278-280 ; 
end of, 281. 

Ree, Lough, 107; map, 113, D3 ; 
map, 180, C3. 

Reformation, inaugurated by Mar- 
tin Luther, 150; Henry VIII's 
interest in, 150, 151 ; forced upon 
Ireland, 151 ; Edward VI's 
method of promoting, 153 ; en- 
forced by Queen Elizabeth, 154. 

Regensburg, map, 247, G2. 

Renunciation, Act of, 267. 

Repeal, Act of, 267. 

Repeal Association, founded by 
O'Connell, 307. 

Revolution of 1688, 212. 

Rhine River, map, 247, Fi. 

Riada, his conquest in Britain, 29. 

" Ribbonmen," 315. 

Richard II, lands at Waterford, 
130 ; his second expedition to 
Ireland, 132; marches through 
Wicklow Mountains pursued by 
Art MacMurrogh, 132 ; returns 
to England, 132. 

Riga, map, 247, I. 

Roberts, I ord Frederick, picture, 
363 ; career of, 363, 364. 

Roche, James Jeffrev, his life of 
O'Reilly, 356. 

Rolleston, T. \V., 378. 

Rome, map, 247, G3. 

Roscommon, one of the counties 
into which Connaught was di- 
vided in 1565, 159 ; map, 180, C3. 

Rosen, Marshal, at Derry, 217. 

Ross, Major General, quotation 
from Cornwallis' letter to, 287. 

Round towers, their purpose and 
use, 70. 

Royalists, one of the four parties in 

Ireland in the early part of the 
17th century, 192 ; one of the two 
great parties in the time of Crom- 
well, 201. 

Russell, Lord, chief justice of Eng- 
land, 364. 

Russell, George, Irish poet, 377, 

Russell, T. W., M. P., quotation 
from writing of, in regard to Irish 
emigration, 311, 312. 

St. Bernard, 121. 

St. Bernard Pass, map, 247, F2. 

St. Bridget, early life, 52, 53 ; founds 
church at Kildare, 53. 

St. Buite, founds school at Monas- 
terboice, 56. 

St. Columba, his birth and early 
education, 57 ; founds monasteries 
of Durrow and Kells, 57 ; dis- 
pute of, with St. Finnian end- 
ing in battle of Cooklrevin, 58 ; 
seeks exile in Iona, 58 ; his work 
among the Picts, 59 ; returns to 
Ireland, 59 ; founds school at 
Drumcliff, 60; character of, 60, 

St. Comgall, founded College of 
Bangor, 56. 

St. Dominick, 121. 

St. Finnian, founds school at Mo- 
ville, 56 ; his dispute with St. 
Columba, 58; his school at Clo- 
nard, 57, 83. 

St. Francis of Assisi, 121. 

St. Gall Monasterv, 81 ; map, 247, 

St. Kevin, founds church and school 
at Glendalough, 56; house of, 
picture, 59. 

St. Kieran founds religious school 
at Clonmacnoise, 56. 

St. Patrick, his birth and training, 

41 ; taken captive to Ireland and 
life there, 42 ; his " Confession,", 

42 ; returns home, 43 ; his con- 
verts, 44; generosity of, 45; first 
church, 48,- his journey to Tara, 
48-50; establishes church at Ar- 
magh, revises the Brehon Laws, 
50; death of, 52. 

St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1807, 
picture, yii. 



St. Patrick Island, burned by Norse- 
men, 67. 

St. Ruth, General, arrives at Limer- 
ick with French fleet, 230 ; placed 
in command over Sarsfield, 230 ; 
efforts of, to continue the war, 
232 ; retires to Aughrim and pre- 
pares to resist Ginkel at Galway, 
232 ; killed in battle of Aughrim, 

Saldanha, Duchess of, a Fitzgerald, 


Salisbury, Lord, policy of, 329. 

Salzburg, map, 247, G2. 

Sardinia, island of, map, 247, F3. 

Sarsfield, Patrick, 215, 223; captures 
William's siege-guns, 225, 226; 
picture, 226; commands cavalry at 
battle of Aughrim, 233 ; Limerick 
under command of, 233 ; returns 
to France, 235; made a field- 
marshal, 340 ; killed at battle of 
Landen, 340. 

Saxony, map, 247, Gi. 

Schism Act, 244. 

Schomberg, Duke of, lands at Ban- 
gor with army, 219; takes Car- 
rickfergus, 219; follows Jacobites 
to Dundalk and encamps, 219; 
suffering in his camp, 219; takes 
Fort Charlemont, 220; killed at 
the battle of the Boyne, 222. 

Schomberg, the younger, 221, 222. 

Schools, in Ireland, 55-63; in Scot- 
land, 62 ; many destroyed by 
Norsemen, 68; condition of, 81- 
86; system of national schools 
inaugurated, 303, 304. 

Scotland, foundation of, 63; map, 
247, D. 

Scroope, Sir Stephen, 133. 

Secret Societies, " Whitebovs," 
" Camisards," " Hearts of Oak," 
" Hearts of Steel," 251 ; " Dis- 
coverers," 184 ; " Wreckers," 
"Peep-o'-Day Boys," 272; "De- 
fenders," "Orangemen," 276; 
" Ribbonmen," 315; "Moon 
Lighters," " Invincibles," 328. 

Sedan, 343 ; map, 247, E2. 

" Servitors," receive a portion of 
Ulster from James I, 182. 

Settlement, Act of, 208 ; James II 
attempts to repeal, 211. 

Settlers' houses in the Ulster Plan- 
tation, picture, 182. 

Shannon River, 235 ; map, 53, B2 ; 
map, 180, C3. 

Sheil, Richard Lalor, picture, 298 ; 
aids O'Connell in forming Cath- 
olic Association, 298 ; efforts of, 
to have parliament abolish tithe 
system, 306. 

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 373, 

Sherman, opposes Pitt in English 

House of Commons, 286. 
Ships relieving Richard II's army 

on the Wicklow coast, picture, 


Shrine of St. Patrick's Be\\, pictzire, 

Sicily, map, 247, G4. 

Sigerson, Dora, 378. 

Sigerson, George, 378. 

" Silken Thomas." See Kildare, 
tenth Earl of. 

Sixth of George I, 255. 

Skiffington, Sir William, 145 ; re- 
appointed lord lieutenant, 147; 
takes Maynooth, 147 ; appointed 
to represent Henry VIII as su- 
preme head of the church in Ire- 
land, 151. 

Skreen, hill of, 23 '■> map, 53, B3. 

Slane, hill of, 49; map, 53, B3 ; map t 
169, E3. 

Slaney River, map, 180, D5. 

Slemish Mts., 118; map, 113 E2. 

Slieve Felim Mts., map, 169, C4. 

Slieve Mish, St. Patrick a captive 
in the woods of, 42 ; map, 53, A3. 

Sligo, surrenders to Ginkel, 233 ; lo- 
cation, map, 53, A2; map, 169, 


Sligo Bay, map, 180, B3. 

Sligo County, one of the counties 
into which Connaught was di- 
vided in 1565, 159; location, map, 
H3,C2; map, 180, B3. 

Smerwick Harbor, 71 ; map, 53, Bi. 

Solmes, Count, left in command of 
army by William, 228 ; Kinsale 
and Cork surrendered to, 228. 

Southern Mag Tured, battle of, 3 ; 
map, 29, B54. 

Spain, Irish in, 334, 335. 

Spear Head, picture, 39. 



Spencer, Earl, goes to Ireland as 
lord lieutenant, 328. 

Spenser, Edmund, 181. 

Stark, General John, 351. 

Statute of Kilkenny, 128, 129. 

Stephens, Fenian leader, 318 ; starts 
newspaper, 319 ; captured but 
escapes to France, 320. 

Sterne, Laurence, 370. 

Stirling, map, 247, D. 

Stokes, Whitley, 379. 

Strafford, Earl of, going to execu- 
tion, picture, 187. See Wentworth, 

Strangford Lough, map, 53, A4. 

" Strongbow." See De Clare, Rich- 

Suir River, map, 180, D4. 

Sulcoit, Norsemen defeated by Brian 
Boru at, 72 ; map, 53, B2. 

Sullivan, Sir Arthur, 364. 

Sullivan, Major John, storms Fort 
William and Mary, 350. 

Sully, map, 247, E2. 

Summerhill, map, 169, E3. 

Supremacy, act of, in England and 
Ireland, 151 ; renewed under 
Queen Elizabeth, 154; revival of, 
in reign of James I, 181. 

Surnames, Irish, 380-389. 

Surrey, Earl of, made lord lieuten- 
ant, 144; resigns, 144. 

Sustentation Fund, provided for 
the Protestant Episcopal Church 
when disestablished, 322. 

Sweden, map, 247, G. 

Swift, Jonathan, leader of the Patri- 
otic party, 255; picture, 256; 
works of, 370. 

Swilly, Lough, map, 180, A4. 

Swilly River, 116; map, 113, D2 ; 
map, 180, B4. 

Switzerland, map, 247, F2. 

Sword and spear head, pictu re, 23. 

Sydney, Lord, calls parliament of 
1692, 237 ; summoned to Eng- 
land, 240. 

Sydney, Sir Henry, lord lieutenant, 
his expedition through Munster, 

Taafe, Count, 346. 
Tailten, De Dananns defeated by 
Milesians at, 10; map, 29, C2. 

Talbot, Sir John, 134. 

Talbot, Richard. See Tyrconnell, 
Earl of. 

Talbot, Honorable Thomas, career 
of, 366. 

Tara, 28 ; plan of, map, 31 ; court 
of, 32 ; hill of, picture, 35 ; St. 
Patrick preaches at, 48, 49 ; loca- 
tion, map, 29, C2. 

Tarentum, map, 247, H3. 

Teeling, Bartholomew, 281. 

"Tenants' League," formation and 
demands of, 316. 

Test Act, 244. 

" The Nation," newspaper founded 
in 1842, 308. 

Thomond, Count, commander at 
Languedoc, 346. 

Thomond, 87 ; map, 1 1 3, C4. 

Thompson, General William, 351. 

Three Rocks, 279; map, 169, E4. 

Thurles, Strongbow defeated at, 
103; map, 113, D4. 

Tigearnac, his Latin history of Ire- 
land, 89. 

Tippefary, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John 
divided Ireland, 112; location, 
map, 113, C4 ; map, 180, D4. 

Tireogain (Tyrone or Tirowen), 
map, 1 13, D2. 

Tithes, system of, 153 ; enforced in 
1750, 250; collectors of, 272; 
struggle over, 305, 306; trans- 
ferred from tenant to landlord, 
in 1838, 306. 

Tone, Theobald Wolfe, condemns 
revolutionary societies, 270 ; pic- 
ture, 273 ; founds society of 
" United Irishmen," 273 ; com- 
mits suicide, 281. 

Tone, Matthew, 281. 

" Tories," 207. 

Torque of gold, picture, 1 5. 

Tower of London, 10S; picture, 109. 

Townshend, lord lieutenant, 260, 
forced to resign, 260. 

Tralee, 36 ; map, 29, B2. 

Trim, surrenders to Cromwell, 203 ; 
map, 169, E3. 

Trinity College, receives grant of 
land, 183. 

Tuam, seat of one of the four arch- 
bishops, 92; map, 113, C3. 



Tuatal, grandson of Cairbre, high 
king for eleven years, 63. 

Tuatal the Legitimate, 27 ; imposes 
Boruma tribute on kings of Lein- 
ster, 28. 

Turin, map, 247, F2. 

Tynan, Katherine, 378. 

Tyndall, John, 369. 

Tyrconnell, Hugh O'Donnell, Chief 
of, defeats Shane O'Neill, 159. 

Tyrconnell, Hugh Roe O'Donnell, 
Earl of, imprisoned by Perrott, 
but escapes, 165; seizes Port- 
more, 166; defeats Sir Conyers 
Clifford in the battle of " The 
Yellow Pass," 171 ; sets out to 
meet the Spaniards and is inter- 
cepted by Carew, 173; besieges 
Mountjoy at Kinsale but is put to 
flight, 174; goes to Spain for 
aid and dies there, 175. 

Tyrconnell, Richard Talbot, Earl 
of, made earl by James II, 211 ; 
appointed lord lieutenant, 211; 
tries to strengthen James II's 
position in Ireland, 213, 214; 
welcomes James II to Ireland, 
215; duplicity of, 223; retires to 
Galway with troops, 225 ; follows 
James II to France, 228; picture, 
229 ; returns to Ireland, 230, evi- 
dence of his duplicity, 230 ; death 
of, 233. 

Tyrconnell, Rory O'Donnell, Earl 
of, son of Hugh Roe, comes to 
terms with Elizabeth, 177 ; re- 
ceives title of earl, 178; flees to 
continent, 179 ; death of, 179. 

Tyrell's Pass, 168 ; map, 169, D3. 

Tyrone, one of the seven counties 
into which Perrott divided Ulster, 
165 ; map, 180, B4. 

Tyrone, Conn O'Neill, Earl of, 
head of first Geraldine League, 
148; made earl by Henry VIII, 
152 ; enticed to Dublin and im- 
prisoned, 155 ; dies in captivity, 

Tyrone, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of, son 
of Matthew, early career and du- 
plicity of, 165, 166; pictiwe, 166; 
attacks English at Cavan, 166; 
besieges Monaghan, 167 ; defeats 
Borough at battle of Drumflugh, 

168 ; attempts to take Portmore, 
168; position of his army at Yel- 
low Ford, 168, 169 ; English army 
routed by, 170; Earl of Essex sent 
against, 171; plan formed to de- 
feat, 172 ; sets out to meet Span- 
ish army, 173 ; besieges Mountjoy 
at Kinsale, but is obliged to 
retreat, 174 ; decides to close the 
struggle, 176, 177 ; receives Eng- 
lish title of earl, 178 ; flees to 
continent, 179* death, 179. 
Tyrone, Shane O'Neill, Earl of, 
son of Conn O'Neill, struggles 
with his brother Matthew for fa- 
ther's titles, 155, 156; his auto- 
graph, 155; elected on the death 
of his father and Matthew, 156, 
struggles for title with allies of 
Matthew's son, and gains control 
of all Ulster, 156, 157 ; called to 
England and cordially received 
by Queen Elizabeth, 157; forced 
to sign severe conditions, returns 
to Ireland and again takes up 
arms, 158; his right to bear his 
title admitted by Queen Eliza- 
beth, 1 58 ; makes war on the Mac- 
Donnells, and is at first success- 
ful, 158 ; defeat and death of, 159 ; 
reputation of, 159. 

Ulster, one of the four early king- 
doms, 28 ; condition of, in the 
12th century, 116; divided into 
seven counties by Perrott, 165 ; 
devastated by Mountjoy and 
Carew, 176; plantation of, by 
James I, 182, 183 ; devastated by 
Cromwell, 203, 204 ; a Protestant 
centre in 1688, 213 ; location, map, 
29, Ci ; map, 180, B4, B5. 

" Undertakers," 179 ; lands of 
O'Moore and O'Conor confis- 
cated and given to, 180 ; procla- 
mation made by Elizabeth con- 
cerning, 181 ; portion of Ulster 
given to, by James I, 182. 

Uniformity, Act of, its requirements, 
1 54 ; revival of, in reign of James 
I, 181. 

Union, Act of, conceived by William 
Pitt, 283 ; presented to Irish Par- 
liament by Cornwallis, 285 ; de- 



teated by Irish parliament, 285, 
286 ; presented to English parlia- 
ment by Pitt, 286; passed by the 
Irish parliament, 289 ; provisions 
of, 290; results of, 291; efforts 
to repeal, 307. 
u United Irishmen," objects of, 273 ; 
insurrections of, 276 ; two com- 
mittees of, arrested in Belfast, 
277 ; leaders of, betrayed and 
arrested, 277, 278. 

Venables, Colonel, Parliamentarian 
leader, 204. 

Venice, map, 247, G2. 

Vinegar Hill, one of the camps of 
the Irish rebels in 1798, 278; bat- 
tle of, 280 ; location, map, 169, 

Volunteers, armed to protect Ire- 
land against invasion, 262, 263 ; 
attempt to secure free trade, 263 ; 
growth of, 265; pass thirteen re- 
solutions at the convention at 
Dungannon, 266 ; convention of, 
in Rotunda at Dublin, 270 ; effect 
of the rejection of Flood's reform 
bill on, 270, 271. 

Wales, map, 247, Di. 

Wars of Meath and Kildare, 115. 

Wars of the Roses, effect of, on 

Ireland, 135. 
Waterford, landing of Richard II 

at, 130; location, map, 53, B3; 

map, 169, D4 ; map, 180, D4. 
Waterford County, one of the twelve 

counties into which King John 

divided Ireland, 112; map, 180, 

D 4 . 
Wayne, Anthony, picture, 350; life 

of, 35°> 35 T - 

"W ellesley. See Mornington, Earl 
of, and Wellington, Duke of. 

Wellesley, Richard, Marquis of, life 
of, 360. 

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke 
of, favors Catholic emancipation, 
300; career of, 361 ; picture, 361. 

Wentworth, Thomas, lord lieuten- 
ant, 185 ; calls a parliament to 
ratify the "Graces," 186; confis- 
cates Connaught and Munster, 
186 ; drills and arms Irish Cath- 

olics, 187 ; destroys wool trade 
and introduces linen manufacture, 
187 ; recalled to London and be- 
headed, 188. 

West Meath, one of the counties 
into which Henry VIII divided 
Meath, 152; location, map, 180, 
C 4 - 

Wexford, attacked by Dermot Mac- 
Murrogh, 97 ; taken by Crom- 
well, 203; desertion of, 279; lo- 
cation, map, 53, B3 ; map, 180, 

Wexford County, one of the twelve 
counties into which King John 
divided Ireland, 112; outbreak 
in, during the Irish Rebellion, 
278; location, map, 180, D5. 

Whately, Archbishop, his report on 
the poverty of the Irish people, 


"Whig club," 273. 

" Whiteboys," 251, 272. 

White, General Sir George, 364. 

Wicklow County, outbreak during 
the Irish rebellion, 278; map, 180, 
C 5 . 

Wicklow Mountains, map, 180, C5. 

Wicklow gold mines, 15 ; map, 29, 

William, Prince of Orange, lands in 
Devonshire to take possession of 
the English throne, 212; claim 
to the throne, 213; attitude of 
Irish toward, 213; Derry pro- 
claims allegiance to, 214 ; sends 
supplies and soldiers to Derry, 
215; sends the Duke of Schom- 
berg to Ireland with an army, 219 ; 
goes to Ireland, 220; pensions 
Nonconformist ministers, 220 ; 
defeats James II in the battle of 
the Boyne, 220-222 ; proclama- 
tion of, 223 ; attacks Athlone, 
223 ; besieges Limerick, and is 
obliged to retreat, 225-228 ; re- 
turns to England, 228; leaves 
Ginkel and Count Solmes in com- 
mand, 228 ; ratifies treaty of Lim- 
erick, 235 ; makes Ginkel earl of 
Athlone, 236; rewards followers 
with grants of land, 236, 237. 

William at the battle of the Boyne, 
picture, 221. 



Williams, Captain, commander of 
English soldiers at Portmore, 
1 68; capitulates and withdraws 
to Dundalk, 170. 

Windsor, map, 247, Dr. 

Wolseley, Sir Garnet, afterwards 
Viscount, career of, 364. 

Wolsey, Cardinal, enemy of the ninth 
Earl of Kildare, 143; suggests 
Surrey for lord lieutenant, 145 ; 
secures the overthrow of Kildare, 


" Wreckers," Protestant secret so- 
ciety, 272 ; insurrections of, 276. 

Wyndham, George, chief secretary 
for Ireland, 334 ; parliament 

passes Land Purchase Act of, 

334; 335- 
Wyse, Mr., helps in the formation 
of the Catholic committee in 1757, 

Yeats, William Butler, 376, 377. 
Yellow Ford, The (At Boy), battle 

of, 168; map, 169, E2. 
"Yellow Pass, The," battle of, 171. 
Yelverton, 265. 
York, Richard Plantagenet, Duke 

of, lord lieutenant of Ireland, 134. 
Youghal, College of, 135; map, 169, 

D5 ; map, 180, E4. 
" Young Ireland Party," 308, 309. 




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